Objective: This study aimed to determine the numbers, directions, localizations, diameters, morphometric values of the nutrient foramina (NF) in humerus of domestic mammals and to reveal the differences between the right and left humerus in animal species.
Materials and methods: In the study, a total of 223 humerus, large ruminants (56), small ruminants (60), equidae (29), sus (24), carnivora-dog (42), and carnivora-cat (12), were examined in Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Van YYU. The numbers, shapes, directions, localization sites and localized surfaces of the NF’s were observed with the naked eye, and recorded. The locations of the NF’s were confirmed by calculating the Foraminal Index (FI). The diameters of the NF’s were measured using 1,2 mm (18 Gauge:G), 0,9 mm (20 G), 0,7 mm (22 G), 0,55 mm (24 G), and 0,1 mm (34 G) needles. In animal species, morphometric measurements were taken such as total length of the humerus (TLH), distance between the NF with the proximal end of the humerus (NFP), distance between the NF with the distal end of the humerus (NFD), FI and performed statistical analysis of the measured values.
Results: There was found a single NF in 99% of the examined humerus in the study. In general, it was seen that the NF’s were directed downwards, and located in the middle 1/3 with lower 1/3 segments. NF’s were determined to be localized to the facies caudalis in 100% of sus, in 93% of large ruminants and carnivora-dogs, and in 85% of small ruminants; however, in equidae and carnivora-cats were all localized to the margo medialis. According to the statistics, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between the right and left humerus NF measurement values in terms of morphometric properties. But only, the diameter of the NF in the small ruminants was statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It was found that the morphological and morphometric differences of NF’s in right and left humerus of domestic mammals. Moreover, in these animals, it is thought that the study may help veterinary clinicians and surgeons in evaluating of the pathological conditions related to humeral NF and planning of the operative applications to be performed in this region.
Anatomy, Foraminal indeks, Humerus, Nutrient foramen