Year 2020, Volume 2 , Issue 2, Pages 48 - 61 2020-10-29

A Critical Analysis of Turkey's Tourism Strategy Plan (2023) Based on the Key Factors in Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change

Aysun AYGÜN [1] , Tüzin BAYCAN [2]

This study aims to analyze Turkey’s current tourism development plan (Turkey Tourism Strategy Plan 2023) from the perspective of climate change management, and to identify the gaps in the plan and provide an alternative framework for the climate change responsive tourism development plan. In order to achieve these targets, the study is constructed on 3 steps; i) defining key factors in climate change management in the tourism industry by in-depth literature review, ii) examining the Turkey Tourism Strategy Plan 2023 to reveal the gaps iii) providing a roadmap for climate change responsive tourism development. Firstly, the study looks  deeply at  the literature on tourism development and climate change impact management with a  focus  on mitigation of and adaptation to, climate change in the tourism industry. Regarding climate change management literature, the key factors are defined as; i) Sustainability, ii) Mitigation options, iii) Climate change assessment, iv) Adaptation options, v) Key actors. Secondly, based on these key factors compiled from the literature, the Turkey Tourism Strategy Plan 2023 is analyzed and it is considered whether it includes strategies in correlation  with these key factors or not. Finally, a conceptual framework of climate change management in the tourism  industry is provided. The results of this analysis sheds light  on  the gaps in the plan and considering these gaps a new climate change responsive strategic development plan framework has been suggested for further planning practices. The results of the plan analysis show that there are some important strategies in the plan that will contribute to eliminating  climate change impacts, however, these efforts  may not be sufficient in the long term when climate change impacts are more destructive. There is an urgent need for revision, which can be enhanced by the suggested strategic plan framework. This study is significant in defining the gaps in Turkey’s tourism development strategies. It is also important for providing suggestions for the future climate-proof tourism development in Turkey.

Climate change, Tourism development, Adaptation and mitigation, Strategic planning, Climate-proof tourism industry
  • AIACC (2007) Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in developing countries. Final Report of the AIACC Project. les/essential_ background/background_publications_htmlpdf/application/txt/pub_07_impacts.Pdf
  • Amelung, B., Nicholls, S., & Viner, D. (2007). Implications of global climate change for tourism flows and seasonality. Journal of Travel research, 45(3), 285-296.
  • Aydemir, B., Şenerol, H., (2014). İklim Değişikliği ve Türkiye Turizmine Etkileri: Delfi Anket Yöntemiyle Yapılan Bir Uygulama Çalışması. Balıkesir University The journal of Social Sciences Institute. 17 (31): 381-416
  • Becken, S. (2005). Harmonising climate change adaptation and mitigation: The case of tourist resorts in Fiji. Global environmental change, 15(4), 381-393.
  • Bode, S., Hapke, J. and Zisler, S. (2003), Need and Options for a Regenerative Energy Supply in Holiday Facilities, Tourism Management 24, 257-266.
  • Chapman, L. (2007), Transport and Climate Change: A Review, Journal of Transport Geography 15, 354-367
  • Dodds, R., & Graci, S. (2009). Canada's tourism Industry—Mitigating the effects of climate change: A lot of concern but little action. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 6(1), 39-51.
  • Gössling, S. and Hall, M. (2006), Tourism and Global Environmental Change: Ecological, Social, Economic and Political Interrelationships, Routledge, New York.
  • Gülbahar, O., (2008). Küresel ısınma, Turizme Olası Etkileri ve Türkiye. KMU İİBF Dergisi 10(15): 160-198
  • Hamilton, J. M., & Lau, M. A. (2005). The role of climate information in tourist destination choice decision making. Tourism and global environmental change: Ecological, economic, social and political interrelationships, 229.
  • Hamilton, J. M., & Tol, R. S. (2007). The impact of climate change on tourism in Germany, the UK and Ireland: a simulation study. Regional Environmental Change, 7(3), 161-172.
  • Hernandez, A. B., & Ryan, G. (2011). Coping with climate change in the tourism industry: a review and agenda for future research. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 17(1), 79-90.
  • IPCC (2007a): Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  • IPCC (2007b): Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J., Hanson, C.E., (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press.
  • Jopp, R., DeLacy, T., & Mair, J. (2010). Developing a framework for regional destination adaptation to climate change. Current Issues in Tourism, 13(6), 591-605.
  • Kajan, E., & Saarinen, J. (2013). Tourism, climate change and adaptation: A review. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(2), 167-195.
  • Lee, H. (2000), Climate Change Policy and the Sustainable Future, International Review for Environmental Strategies 1, 17-23.
  • Lise, W., & Tol, R. S. (2002). Impact of climate on tourist demand. Climatic change, 55(4), 429-449.
  • Michailidou, A. V., Vlachokostas, C., & Moussiopoulos, Ν. (2016). Interactions between climate change and the tourism sector: Multiple-criteria decision analysis to assess mitigation and adaptation options in tourism areas. Tourism Management, 55, 1-12.
  • Njoroge, J. M. (2014). An enhanced framework for regional tourism sustainable adaptation to climate change. Tourism Management Perspectives, 12, 23-30.
  • Richard, D., George-Marcelpoil, E., & Boudieres, V. (2010). Climate change and the development of mountain areas: What do we need to know and for what types of action? Journal of Alpine Research, 98. doi: 10.4000/rga.1334
  • Scheelhaase, J.D. and Grimme, W.G. (2007), Emissions Trading for International Aviation – An Estimation of the Economic Impact on Selected European Airlines, Journal of Air Transport Management 13(5), 253,263.
  • Scott, D. (2003). Climate change and tourism in the mountain regions of North America. In 1st International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism (pp. 9-11).
  • Scott, D. (2011). Why sustainable tourism must address climate change. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19, 17–34.
  • Scott, D., & Gössling, S. (2018). Tourism and Climate Change Mitigation. Embracing the Paris Agreement: Pathways to Decarbonisation.
  • Scott, D., & Lemieux, C. (2010). Weather and climate information for tourism. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 1, 146-183.
  • Scott, D., de Freitas, C.R., & Matzarakis, A. (2006). Adaptation in the tourism and recreation sector. In K.L. Ebi, I. Burton, & P. Hoeppe (Eds.), Biometeorology for adaptation to climate variability and change. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
  • Scott, D., Gössling, S., & Hall, C. M. (2012). International tourism and climate change. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 3(3), 213-232.
  • Sevim, B., Ünlüönen, K., (2010). İklim Değişikliğinin Turizme Etkileri: Konaklama İşletmelerinde Bir Uygulama. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi. 28(1): 43-66
  • Simpson, M., Gössling, S., Scott, D., Hall, C.M., & Gladin, E. (2008). Climate change. Adaptation and mitigation in the tourism sector: Frameworks, tools and practices. Paris: UNEP.
  • TGDM (Turkish General Directorate of Meteorology), (2015). Yeni Senaryolar ile Türkiye İklim Projeksiyonları ve İklim Değişikliği, TR2015-CC, Ankara.
  • Tompkins, E. et al. (2005) Surviving Climate Change in Small Islands: A Guidebook. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, university of East Anglia, UK.
  • Turkey Ministry of Environment and Urbanism, (2016). 6th Declaration of Turkey National Climate Change, Ankara
  • TMCT (Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism) (2007). Turkey Tourism Strategy 2023 and Action Plan (2007–2013).
  • TMCT (Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism ) (2019). Tourism Statistics.,turizm-istatistikleri-2019-iceyrekpdf.pdf?0 Access Date: 20.02.2020.
  • UNDP (2004). Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change. Developing Strategies, Policies and Measures. Lim, B., Spanger-Siegfried, E. (eds.) Coauthors Burton, I., Malone, E., Huq, S. _foreword.pdf
  • UNDP (2005) Human Development Report 2005: International Cooperation at a Crossroads: Aid, Trade and Security in an Unequal World, New York: UNDP
  • UNEP (1998) Handbook on Methods for Climate change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies (version 2.0) Feenstra, J., Burton, I., Smith, J. and Tol, R. (eds) UNEP, Nairobi and Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije University, Amsterdam.
  • United Nations Environment Programme/Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP/DTIE) – Priority Actions Programme/Regional Activity Center (PAP/RAC) - UNWTO, (2009). Report on the Seminar "Coastal Tourism in the Mediterranean: Adapting to Climate Change" Cagliari (Sardinia), Italy, 8‐10 June 2009
  • UNWTO (2008), Climate Change and Tourism – Responding to Global Challenges, World Tourism Organization, Madrid.
  • USAID (2007). Adapting to Climate Variability and Change: A Guidance Manual for Development Planning. US Agency for International Development, Washington.
  • Viner, D., & Agnew, M. (1999). Climate change and its impacts on tourism. Norwich: Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia.
  • Yıldız, Z., (2009). Küresel Isınma ve Alternatif Turizme Yönelim Üzerine Etkileri. Vizyoner E-dergi, 1(1):77-91
Primary Language en
Subjects Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism
Journal Section Peer-reviewed Research Articles

Orcid: 0000-0002-9403-7124
Author: Aysun AYGÜN (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey

Orcid: 0000-0001-6073-1188
Author: Tüzin BAYCAN
Country: Turkey


Application Date : June 2, 2020
Acceptance Date : July 14, 2020
Publication Date : October 29, 2020

APA Aygün, A , Baycan, T . (2020). A Critical Analysis of Turkey's Tourism Strategy Plan (2023) Based on the Key Factors in Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change . Journal of Tourism Leisure and Hospitality , 2 (2) , 48-61 . Retrieved from