Year 2021, Volume 10 , Issue 2, Pages 76 - 96 2021-04-30

Öz-Belirleme Kuramı perspektifinden sınıf öğretmenlerinin motivasyonu ve motivasyon etkenleri
Motivation and motivational factors of primary school teachers from the Self-Determination Theory perspective

Vahit Ağa YILDIZ [1] , Durmuş KILIÇ [2]


Bu çalışmada sınıf öğretmenlerinin motivasyonunu öz-belirleme kuramı perspektifinden incelemek, motivasyona etki eden değişkenleri ve etkenleri belirlemek amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma karma yöntem desenlerinden açıklayıcı desenle yürütülmüştür. Araştırma Erzurum ilinin tüm ilçelerini kapsayan 39 okuldan 414 öğretmenle yürütülmüştür. Aynı grubun içinden 30 öğretmenle ise araştırmanın nitel boyutu yürütülmüştür. Veriler “Çok Boyutlu İş Motivasyonu Ölçeği” ve “Öğretmen Görüşme Formu” ile toplanmıştır. Nicel veriler betimleyici istatistiki teknikler, t testi, tek yönlü ANOVA testiyle; nitel veriler ise içerik analiziyle çözümlenmiştir. Sonuçlar, öğretmenlerin içsel motivasyon ortalamalarının dışsal motivasyonundan yüksek olduğunu göstermiştir. Öğretmenlerin motivasyonunun cinsiyet, yaş, kıdem yılı, sınıf mevcudu, yerleşim yeri değişkenleri açısından farklılık gösterdiği belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca sonuçlar dışsal motivasyon etkenlerinin içsel motivasyon etkenlerinden fazla olduğunu; dışsal etkenlerin çoğunlukla olumsuz, içsel etkenlerin ise çoğunlukla olumlu etkenlerden oluştuğunu göstermiştir. Öğretmenlerin olumlu anlamda en büyük motivasyon etkeninin öğrenciler olduğu, motivasyonu düşüren en büyük etkenin ise sınıf kalabalıklığı olduğu ortaya konulmuştur. Gelecekte, farklı okul türlerinden öğretmenlerinden de dahil edildiği, daha büyük bir örneklemle daha kapsamlı sonuçlar elde edilebilir.
This study examines the motivation of primary school teachers from the perspective of self-determination theory, to identify the variables and factors that affect motivation. The research was conducted using an explanatory mixed design. The qualitative data were collected from 414 teachers from 39 schools covering all districts of Erzurum province through the Multidimensional Job Motivation Scale. Qualitative data were collected from 30 participants through the Teacher Interview Form. Quantitative data were analyzed by t test, and ANOVA test; qualitative data were analyzed by content analysis. The results indicate that teachers’ intrinsic motivation is higher than their extrinsic motivation. Moreover, teacher motivation varies in terms of gender, age, seniority year, class size, and settlement. More extrinsic motivation factors were found than intrinsic; the external factors are mostly negative, while internal factors are mostly positive. The most significant positive motivational factor is students, and the key factor decreasing motivation is class crowding. Future studies could collect more comprehensive results from a larger sample group that includes all types of schools.
  • Ada, Ş., Akan, D., Ayık, A., Yıldırım, İ., & Yalçın, S. (2013). Motivation factors of teachers. Atatürk University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 17(3), 151-166.
  • Alam, M. T., & Farid, S. (2011). Factors affecting teachers motivation. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(1), 298-304. https://doi.org/10.30845/ijbss
  • Anderson, G., & Arsenault, N. (2004). Fundamentals of educational research (2nd ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203978221
  • Atkinson, E. S. (2000). An investigation into the relationship between teacher motivation and pupil motivation. Educational Psychology, 20(1), 45-57. https://doi.org/10.1080/014434100110371
  • Bacanlı, H. (2009). Eğitim psikolojisi [Education psychology] (14th ed.). Asal. DOI: 10.14527/9786053184850
  • Başkale, H. (2016). Determination of validity, reliability and sample size in qualitative studies. E-Journal of Dokuz Eylül University Nursing Faculty, 9(1), 23-28.
  • Bernaus, M., Wilson, A., & Gardner, R. C. (2009). Teachers’ motivation, classroom strategy use, students’ motivation and second language achievement. Porta Linguarum, 12, 25-36. https://doi.org/10.30827/Digibug.31869
  • Börü, N. (2018). The factors affecting teacher motivation. International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 761-776. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.11448a
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö, E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2016). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri (22nd Ed.) [Scientific research methods]. Pegem Akademi. https://doi.org/10.14527/9789944919289
  • Chen, K. C., & Jang, S. J. (2010). Motivation in online learning: Testing a model of self-determination theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(4), 741-752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.01.011
  • Cihangir Çankaya, Z. (2005). Self-determination model: Autonomy support, need satisfaction and well-being. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Gazi University.
  • Cohen, L., Manion. L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203720967
  • Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.2007.00096.x
  • Çivilidağ, A., & Şekercioğlu, G. (2017). Studying of adaptation to Turkish culture the multidimensional work motivation scale. Mediterranean Journal of Humanities, 7(1), 143-156. https://doi.org/10.13114/MJH.2017.326
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and effective teaching. In Applications of flow in human development and education (pp. 173-187). Springer.
  • Daniels, E. (2016). Logistical factors in teachers' motivation. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 89(2), 61-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/00098655.2016.1165166
  • De Jesus, S. N., & Conboy, J. (2001). A stress management course to prevent teacher distress. International Journal of Educational Management, 15(3), 131-137. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513540110384484
  • Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18(1), 105-115. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0030644
  • Demir, K. (2011). Teachers' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of student engagement: An application of self-determination theory. Education Sciences, 6(2), 1397-1409.
  • Denscombe, M. (2010). The good research guide: for small-scale social research projects (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2017.1281284
  • Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2013). Teaching and researching: Motivation. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315833750
  • Durmaz, M., & Akkuş, R. (2016). Mathematics anxiety, motivation and the basic psychological needs from the perspective of self-determination theory. Eğitim ve Bilim, 41(183), 111-127. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2016.2942
  • Emiroğlu, O. (2017). School administrators and teachers’ opinions about the motivational sources of teachers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Near East University.
  • Ergin, A., & Karataş, H. (2018). Achievement-oriented motivation levels of university students. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 33(4), 868-887. https://doi.org/10.16986/huje.2018036646
  • Ertürk, R. (2016). Work motivation of teachers. Journal of Education Theory and Practical Research, 2(3), 1-15.
  • Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Sage.
  • Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
  • Gagné M., Forest J., Gilbert M. H., Aubé C., Morin E., & Malorni A. (2010). The motivation at work scale: Validation evidence in two languages. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70(4), 628-646. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164409355698.
  • Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction (6th ed.). Longman. https://doi.org/10.2307/3121583
  • Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1982). Epistemological and methodological bases of naturalistic inquiry. Educational Technology Research and Development, 30(4), 233-252. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02765185
  • Hodge, V., & Austin, J. (2004). A survey of outlier detection methodologies. Artificial intelligence review, 22(2), 85-126. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AIRE.0000045502.10941.a9
  • Karip, E. (2017). Türkiye’nin TIMSS 2015 performansı üzerine değerlendirme ve öneriler (TEDMEM Analiz Dizisi 5) [Turkey's performance on the TIMSS 2015 assessment and recommendations (TED Analysis Series 5)]. Türk Eğitim Derneği.
  • Kocayörük, E. (2012). Self-determination theory and relationship between perception of parents and emotional well-being of adolescents. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 4(37), 24-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.117
  • Lam, S.F., Cheng, R.W.Y, & Ma, W.Y. (2009). Teacher and student intrinsic motivation in project-based learning. Instructional Science, 37(6), 565-578. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-008-9070-9
  • LeCompte, M. D., & Goetz, J. P. (1982). Problems of reliability and validity in ethnographic research. Review of Educational Research, 52(1), 31-60. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543052001031
  • Lodico, M. S., & Spaulding, D. D., & Voegtle, K. (2006). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice. Jossey-Bass
  • Rasool, A., Jundong, H., & Sohail, M. T. (2017). Relationship of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on job motivation and job satisfaction of expatriates in China. Journal of Applied Sciences, 17(3), 116-125. https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2017.116.125
  • McKnight, P. E., McKnight, K. M., Sidani, S., & Figueredo, A. J. (2007). Missing data: A gentle introduction. Guilford. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.00111_8.x
  • Mekler, E. D., Brühlmann, F., Tuch, A. N., & Opwis, K. (2017). Towards understanding the effects of individual gamification elements on intrinsic motivation and performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 525-534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.08.048
  • Masvaure, P., & Maharaj, A. (2014). Work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction among employees of a diamond mining company in Zimbabwe. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 6(6), 488-499. https://doi.org/10.22610/jebs.v6i6.510
  • Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Sage. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-4944(05)80231-2
  • Milyavskaya, M., & Koestner, R. (2011). Psychological needs, motivation, and well-being: A test of self-determination theory across multiple domains. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(3), 387-391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.10.029
  • Newstrom, J. W., & Davis, K (2002). Organizational behaviour: Human behaviour at work (11th ed.). Mc-Graw-Hill.
  • Niemiec, C. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7(2), 133-144. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878509104318
  • Ntoumanis, N., & Standage, M. (2009). Motivation in physical education classes: A self-determination theory perspective. Theory and Research in Education, 7(2), 194-202. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878509104324
  • Okçu, V., & Anık, S. (2017). Examining the relationship between the authentic leadership behaviour of school administrators and the level of motivation and mobbing experienced by teachers. Anatolian Journal of Educational Leadership and Instruction, 5(2), 63-85. https://doi.org/10.17719/jisr.11096
  • Özdamar, K. (2017). Ölçek ve test geliştirme yapısal eşitlik modellemesi IBM SPSS IBM SPSS AMOS ve Minitab uygulamalı [Scale and test development with application of structural equation modeling IBM SPSS IBM SPSS AMOS and Minitab]. Nisan. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526402257.n4
  • Patrick, B. C., Hisley, J., & Kempler, T. (2000). “What's everybody so excited about?”: The effects of teacher enthusiasm on student intrinsic motivation and vitality. The Journal of Experimental Education, 68(3), 217-236. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220970009600093
  • Price, J. H., & Murnan, J. (2004). Research limitations and the necessity of reporting them. American Journal of Health Education, 35(2), 66 - 67. https://doi.org/10.1080/19325037.2004.10603611
  • Rasheed, M.I., Humayon, A.A., Awan, U, & Ahmed, A.U.D. (2016). Factors affecting teachers’ motivation: An HRM challenge for public sector higher educational institutions of Pakistan (HEIs), International Journal of Educational Management, 30(1), 101-114. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-04-2014-0057
  • Rheinberg, F., & Engeser, S. (2018). Intrinsic motivation and flow. In J. Heckhausen & H. Heckhausen (Eds.), Motivation and action (3rd Ed., pp. 579–622). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511499821.014
  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78. https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066x.55.1.68.
  • Schiefele, U., & Schaffner, E. (2015). Teacher interests, mastery goals, and self-efficacy as predictors of instructional practices and student motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 42, 159-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.06.005
  • Shen, B., Li, W., Sun, H., & Rukavina, P. B. (2010). The influence of inadequate teacher-to-student social support on amotivation of physical education students. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29(4), 417-432. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.29.4.417
  • Spittle, M., Jackson, K., & Casey, M. (2009). Applying self-determination theory to understand the motivation for becoming a physical education teacher. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 190-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2008.07.005
  • Standage, M., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2006). Students' motivational processes and their relationship to teacher ratings in school physical education: A self-determination theory approach. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77(1), 100-110. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2006.10599336
  • Syamananda, P. (2017). Factors affecting EFL teachers' motivation in Thai university: A case study of EFL teachers at tertiary level. Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 10(2), 120-131. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1229626
  • Thoonen, E. E., Sleegers, P. J., Oort, F. J., Peetsma, T. T., & Geijsel, F. P. (2011). How to improve teaching practices: The role of teacher motivation, organizational factors, and leadership practices. Educational Administration Quarterly, 47(3), 496-536. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X11400185
  • Uçar, R., & İpek, C. (2019). The relationship between high school teachers' perceptions of organizational culture and motivation. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 7(7), 102-117. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v7i7.4198
  • Van Teijlingen, E., & Hundley, V. (2010). The importance of pilot studies. Social Research Update, 35(4), 49-59. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns2002.06.16.40.33.c3214
  • Whatley, A. (1998). Gifted women and teaching: A compatible choice?. Roeper Review, 21(2), 117-124. https://doi.org/10.1080/02783199809553942
  • Williams, G. C., Saizow, R. B., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). The importance of self-determination theory for medical education. Academic Medicine, 74(9), 992-995. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199909000-00010
  • Yasmeen, Z., Mushtaq, I., & Murad, M. (2019). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of teachers in special education secondary school: A qualitative study. Journal of Educational Research, 22(2), 15-30. Retrieved from http://jer.iub.edu.pk
  • Yazıcı, H. (2009). Teaching profession sources of motivation and basic attitudes: A theoretical overview. Kastamonu Education Journal, 17(1), 33-46.
Primary Language en
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-0493-2361
Author: Vahit Ağa YILDIZ (Primary Author)
Institution: T.C. MİLLİ EĞİTİM BAKANLIĞI
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-1217-1945
Author: Durmuş KILIÇ
Institution: ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Supporting Institution Atatürk Üniversite BAP Koordinasyon Birimi
Project Number SDK-2020-8313
Thanks The thesis study in which this article was produced was supported by the Atatürk University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit with the project code SDK-2020-8313. I would like to thank Atatürk University BAP Coordination Unit for supporting my thesis.
Dates

Publication Date : April 30, 2021

APA Yıldız, V , Kılıç, D . (2021). Motivation and motivational factors of primary school teachers from the Self-Determination Theory perspective . Turkish Journal of Education , 10 (2) , 76-96 . DOI: 10.19128/turje.832203