Research Article
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

Preschool children's digital media usage and self-regulation skill

Year 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, 126 - 142, 30.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.19128/turje.889549

Abstract

This study aimed to examine self-regulation skill of 4-6-year-old children regarding digital media usage. The data were collected through the questionnaire, which includes self-regulation skills of 4-6-year-old Children (Mother Form), and the demographic information section was filled by 911 volunteer mothers who live in Turkey. Children’s digital media usage was examined in terms of the amount of time spent with digital media tools, the types of digital media tools used, and which content was preferred. Analysis of the results clearly showed that the more time children spent using digital media the more likely they were to have lower level of self-regulation. In addition, children who did not use smartphones exhibited higher levels of self-regulation than those who did. Moreover, preferring horror or violent content was associated with the low level of children’s self-regulation. On the other hand, children’s preference for educational and foreign language content on digital media appeared to be related to a high score in self-regulation. The study results show a relationship between digital media usage and self-regulation skill. The study suggests that children’s amount of spent time with digital media tools might be limited, the content might be controlled, and types of digital media tools might be carefully chosen. Parents have an important role here. They should be aware that improper digital media usage is harmful to children’s self-regulation skill.

References

  • Adelantado-Renau, M., Moliner-Urdiales, D., Cavero-Redondo, I., Beltran-Valls, M. R., Martínez-Vizcaíno, V., & Álvarez-Bueno, C. (2019). Association between screen media use and academic performance among children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(11), 1058-1067.
  • Anderson, C., Bushman, B., Donnerstein, E., Hummer, T., & Warburton, W. (2015). SPSSI research summary on media violence. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 15(1), 4-19. https://doi.org/10.1111/asap.12093
  • Antunes, F. (2017). Rethinking PG-13: Ratings and the boundaries of childhood and horror. Journal of Film and Video, 69(1), 27. https://doi.org/10.5406/jfilmvideo.69.1.0027
  • Austin, E. W., Hust, S. J. T., & Kistler, M. E. (2009). Powerful media tools: Armin parents with strategies to affect children’s interactions with commercial interests. In T. J. Socha & G. H. Stamp (Eds.), Parents and children communicating with society: Managing relationships outside of home (pp. 215-240). Routledge.
  • Barr, R., Lauricella, A., Zack, E., & Calvert, S. L. (2010). Infant and early childhood exposure to adult-directed and child-directed television programming: Relations with cognitive skills at age 4. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56, 21-48. https://doi.org/10.1353/mpq.0.0038
  • Blair, C. (2016). The development of executive functions and self‑regulation: A bidirectional psychobiological model. In K., Vohs & P., R., Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (3rd ed., pp. 417-439). The Guilford Press.
  • Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2015). School readiness and self-regulation: A developmental psychobiological approach. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 711-731.https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015221
  • Blankson, A. N. Marion, O., Leerkes, E. M.., Calkins, S. D., & Marcovitch., S. (2015). Do hours spent viewing television at ages 3 and 4 predict vocabulary and executive functioning at age 5?. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 61(2), 264-289. https://doi.org/ 10.13110/merrpalmquar1982.61.2.0264
  • Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2006). Self-Regulation as a key to school readiness: How early childhood teachers can promote this critical competency. In M. Zaslow & I. Martinez-Beck (Eds.), Critical issues in early childhood professional development (pp. 203-224). Paul H Brookes Publishing
  • Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2008). Developing self-regulation in kindergarten: Can we keep all the crickets in the basket? Beyond the Journal. Young Children on the Web. Retrieved from: http://bpsearlychildhood.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/1/3/10131776/self_regulation_deb_leong.pdf
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989). Ecological systems theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development: Vol 6. Six theories of child development: Revised formulations and current issues (pp. 187–249). JAI Press
  • Bronson, M. B., Goodson, B. D., Layzer, J. I., & Love, J. M. (1990). Child behavior rating scale. Abt Associates.
  • Canaslan-Akyar, B., & Sevimli-Celik, S. (2022). Playfulness of early childhood teachers and their views in supporting playfulness. Education 3-13, 50(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2021.1921824
  • Christakis, D., Garrison, M., Herrenkohl, T., Haggerty, K., Rivara, F., Zhou, C., & Liekweg, K.(2013). Modifying media content for preschool children: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics, 131(3), 431-438. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1493
  • Cliff, D. P., Howard, S. J., Radesky, J. S., McNeill, J., & Vella, S. A. (2018). Early childhood media exposure and self-regulation: bidirectional longitudinal associations. Academic Pediatrics, 18(7), 813-819.
  • Courage, M., & Howe, M. (2010). To watch or not to watch: Infants and toddlers in a brave new electronic world. Developmental Review, 30(2), 101-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2010.03.002
  • Coyne, S. M., Radesky, J., Collier, K. M., Gentile, D. A., Linder, J. R., Nathanson, A. I., ... & Rogers, J. (2017). Parenting and digital media. Pediatrics, 140(Supplement 2), 112-116. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1758N
  • Coyne, S., Warburton, W., Essig, L., & Stockdale, L. (2018). Violent video games, externalizing behavior, and prosocial behavior: A five-year longitudinal study during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 54(10), 1868-1880. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000574
  • Das, S., Mitra, K., & Mandal, M. (2016). Sample size calculation: Basic principles. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 60(9), 652.
  • Denissen, J. J. A., Thomaes, S., & Bushman, B. J. (2018). Self-regulation and aggression: Aggression-provoking cues, individual differences, and self-control strategies. In D. deRidder, M. Adriaanse, & K. Fujita (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of self-control in health and well-being (pp. 330-339). Routledge/Taylor&Francis Group.
  • Dias, P., & Cadime, I. (2017). Protective factors and resilience in adolescents: The mediating role of self-regulation. Psicología Educativa, 23(1), 37-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pse.2016.09.003.
  • Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135-168.
  • Eisenberg, N., Smith, C. L., Sadovsky, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2004). Effortful control: Relations with emotion regulation, adjustment, and socialization in childhood. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 259-282). Guilford.
  • Ellen, W. (2014). Parenting in the age of digital technology. Retrieved from: https://cmhd.northwestern.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2015/06/ParentingAgeDigitalTechnology.REVISED.FINAL_.2014.pdf
  • Erol, A., & Ivrendi, A. (2018) Developing an instrument for measuring self-regulation skills of 4-6-year-old children (Mother Form). Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 44, 178-195.
  • Ferguson, C. J. (2011). The influence of television and video game use on attention and school problems: A multivariate analysis with other risk factors controlled. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45,808-813. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.11.010
  • Fitzpatrick, C., Oghia, M. J., Melki, J. & Pagani, L. S., (2016). Early childhood exposure to media violence: What parents and policymakers ought to know. South African Journal of Childhood Education 6(1), a431. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajce.v6i1.431
  • Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
  • Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (2002). Early intervention and the development of self-regulation. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 22, 307-335.
  • Fuhs, M. W., Farran, D. C., & Nesbitt, K. T. (2013). Preschool classroom processes as predictors of children’s cognitive self-regulation skills development. School Psychology Quarterly, 28(4),347.
  • Gravetter, F., Wallnau, L., & Forzano, L. (2014). Essentials of statistics for the behavioral sciences (8th ed.). Wadsworth.
  • Green Crescent. (2017). Yeşilay’dan ekran karşısında geçirilen süreler için uyarı. https://www.yesilay.org.tr/tr/haberler/yesilaydan-ekran-karsisinda-gecirilen-sureler-icin-uyari#:~:text=%C3%87ocuklar%C4%B1n%20ve%20gen%C3%A7lerin%20ekran%20kar%C5%9F%C4%B1s%C4%B1nda,fazla%20ekran%20kar%C5%9F%C4%B1s%C4%B1nda%20kalmamal%C4%B1%22%20dedi.
  • Gold, J. (2015). Screen-smart parenting. Guilford Publications.
  • Holochwost, S. J., Kolacz, J., & Mills‐Koonce, W. R. (2021). Towards an understanding of neurophysiological self‐regulation in early childhood: A heuristic and a new approach. Developmental Psychobiology, 63(4), 734-752.
  • Hosokawa, R., & Katsura, T. (2018). Association between mobile technology use and child adjustment in early elementary school age. Plos One, 13(7), e0199959.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199959
  • Howard, S. J., Vasseleu, E., Neilsen-Hewett, C., De Rosnay, M., & Williams, K. E. (2021). Predicting academic school readiness and risk status from different assessment approaches and constructs of early self-regulation. In Child & Youth Care Forum, 1-25.
  • Huber, B., Tarasuik, J., Antoniou, M., Garrett, C., Bowe, S., & Kaufman, J. (2016). Young children's transfer of learning from a touchscreen device. Computers in Human Behavior, 56, 56-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.11.010
  • Huber, B., Yeates, M., Meyer, D., Fleckhammer, L., & Kaufman, J. (2018). The effects of screen media content on young children’s executive functioning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 170, 72-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2018.01.006
  • Karasar, N. (2006). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemi. Nobel.
  • Kim, Y., & Smith, D. (2015). Pedagogical and technological augmentation of mobile learning for young children interactive learning environments. Interactive Learning Environments, 25(1), 4-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2015.1087411
  • LaRose, R., Lin, C. A., & Eastin, M. S. (2003). Unregulated internet usage: Addiction, habit, or deficient self-regulation? Media Psychology, 5(3), 225-253.
  • Lauricella A. R., Blackwell C. K., & Wartella E. (2017). The “new” technology environment: The role of content and context on learning and development from mobile media. In Barr R., Linebarger D. (eds) Media exposure during infancy and early childhood. Springer.
  • Lester, C. (2016). The children's horror film: Characterizing an “impossible” subgenre. The Velvet Light Trap, 78, 22-37. https://doi.org/10.7560/vlt7803
  • Li, H. (2014). The effect of television on children’s executive function. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Central China Normal University.
  • Li, H., Subrahmanyam, K., Bai, X., Xie, X., & Liu, T. (2018). Viewing fantastical events versus touching fantastical events: Short-term effects on children’s inhibitory control. Child Development, 89, 48-57. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12820
  • Lieberman, D., Bates, C., & So, J. (2009a). Young children's learning with digital media. Computers in The Schools, 26(4), 271-283. https://doi.org/10.1080/07380560903360194
  • Lieberman, D., Fisk, M., & Biely, E. (2009b). Digital games for young children ages three to six: From research to design. Computers in The Schools, 26(4), 299-313. https://doi.org/10.1080/07380560903360178
  • Lillard, A. S., & Peterson, J. (2011). The immediate impact of different types of television on young children's executive function. Pediatrics, 128(4), 644-649.
  • Lillard, A., Drell, M., Richey, E., Boguszewski, K., & Smith, E. (2015). Further examination of the immediate impact of television on children’s executive function. Developmental Psychology, 51(6), 792-805. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039097
  • Linebarger, D. L., Barr, R., Lapierre, M. A., & Piotrowski, J. T. (2014). Associations between parenting, media use, cumulative risk, and children’s executive functioning. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 35(6), 367–377.https://doi.org/ 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000069
  • Lissak, G. (2018). Adverse physiological and psychological effects of screen time on children and adolescents: Literature review and case study. Environmental research, 164, 149-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.015
  • Long, M., & Li, H. (2020, July). The Impact of Viewing and Listening to Fantastic Events on Children’s Inhibitory Control. In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 543-548). Springer.
  • Mares, M. L., & Pan, Z. (2013). Effects of Sesame Street: A meta-analysis of children’s learning in 15 countries. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34(3), 140-151.
  • McCabe, L. A., Cunnington, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2004). The development of self-regulation in young children: Individual characteristics and environmental contexts. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 340–356). The Guilford Press.
  • McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., Piccinin, A., Rhea, S. A., & Stallings, M. C. (2013). Relations between preschool attention span-persistence and age 25 educational outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 314-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2012.07.008
  • McClelland, M., & Cameron, C. (2011). Self-regulation in early childhood: Improving conceptual clarity and developing ecologically valid measures. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 136-142. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00191.x
  • McClelland, M. M., Ponitz, C. C., Messersmith, E. E., & Tominey, S. (2010). Self-regulation: Integration of cognition and emotion. In W. F. Overton & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), The handbook of life-span development, Vol. 1. Cognition, biology, and methods (pp. 509-553). John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • McClelland, M. M., & Tominey, S. L. (2015). Stop, think, act: Integrating self-regulation in the early childhood classroom. Routledge.
  • McNeill, J., Howard, S., Vella, S., & Cliff, D. (2019). Longitudinal associations of electronic application use and media program viewing with cognitive and psychosocial development in preschoolers. Academic Pediatrics. 9(5), 520-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2019.02.010
  • Mischel, W., Ayduk, O., Berman, M. G., Casey, B. J., Gotlib, I. H., Jonides, J., . . . Shoda, Y. (2011). “Willpower” over the life span: Decomposing self-regulation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 252-256. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsq081
  • Mistry, K. B., Minkovitz, C. S., Strobino, D. M., & Borzekowski, D. L. (2007). Children’s television exposure and behavioral and social outcomes at 5.5 years: Does timing of exposure matter. Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 120(4), 762-769.
  • Nathanson, A., Sharp, M., Aladé, F., Rasmussen, E., & Christy, K. (2013). The relation between television exposure and theory of mind among preschoolers. Journal of Communication, 63(6), 1088-1108. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12062
  • Nathanson, A. I., Aladé, F., Sharp, M. L., Rasmussen, E. E., & Christy, K. (2014). The relation between television exposure and executive function among preschoolers. Developmental Psychology, 50(5), 1497-506. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035714
  • Palmer, S. (2007). Toxic childhood. Orion.
  • Paulus, F. W., Möhler, E., Recktenwald, F., Albert, A., & Mall, V. (2021). Electronic media and early childhood: A review. Klinische Pädiatrie. 233(4):157-172. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1335-4936
  • Pellicano, E., Kenny, L., Brede, J., Klaric, E., Lichwa, H., & McMillin, R. (2017). Executive function predicts school readiness in autistic and typical preschool children. Cognitive Development, 43,1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2017.02.003
  • Orhan, M. A., Castellano, S., Khelladi, I., Marinelli, L., & Monge, F. (2021). Technology distraction at work. Impacts on self-regulation and work engagement. Journal of Business Research, 126(C), 341-349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.12.048
  • Özdemir, A. A., & Budak, K. S. (2019). The role of temperament and self-regulation on predicting children's play behavior. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 45(45), 78-98. https://doi.org/10.9779/PUJE.2018.223
  • O’Mara, J., & Laidlaw, L. (2011). Living in the world: Two literacy researchers reflect on the changing texts and literacy practices of childhood. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 10 (4), 149-159.
  • Radesky, J., Silverstein, M., Zuckerman, B., & Christakis, D. (2014a). Infant self-regulation and early childhood media exposure. Pediatrics, 133(5), 1172-1178. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-2367.
  • Radesky, J., Schumacher, J., & Zuckerman, B. (2014b). Mobile and interactive media use by young children: The good, the bad, and the unknown. Pediatrics, 135(1), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-2251
  • Radesky, J. (2018). Digital media and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents. Jama, 320(3), 237-239.
  • Radesky, J., Weeks, H., Ball, R., Schaller, A., Yeo, S., & Durnez, J. (2020). Young children’s use of smartphones and tablets. Pediatrics, e20193518. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-3518
  • Reid Chassiakos, Y., Radesky, J., Christakis, D., Moreno, M., & Cross, C. (2016). Children and adolescents and digital media. Pediatrics, 138(5), 2016-2593. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2593
  • Rideout, V. (2017). The Common Sense census: Media use by kids age zero to eight. Common Sense Media, 263-283.
  • Robson, D. A., Allen, M. S., & Howard, S. J. (2020). Self-regulation in childhood as a predictor of future outcomes: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 146(4), 324-354. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000227
  • Savina, E. (2021). Self-regulation in preschool and early elementary classrooms: Why it is important and how to promote it. Early Childhood Educ J, 49, 493–501. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-020-01094-w
  • Schmidt, M., Pempek, T., Kirkorian, H., Lund, A., & Anderson, D. (2008). The effects of background television on the toy play behavior of very young children. Child Development, 79(4), 1137-1151. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01180.x
  • Schmitt, S., Pratt, M., & McClelland, M. (2014). Examining the validity of behavioral self-regulation tools in predicting preschoolers' academic achievement. Early Education and Development, 25(5), 641-660. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2014.850397
  • Schunk, D., & Zimmerman, B. (1997). Social origins of self-regulatory competence. Educational Psychologist, 32, 195-208. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3204_1.
  • Steeves, V. (2014). Young Canadians in a wired world, phase III: Experts or amateurs? Gauging young Canadians’ digital literacy skills. Ottawa: MediaSmarts. Retrieved from: http://mediasmarts.ca/ycww/experts-or-amateurs-gauging-young-canadians-digital-literacy-skills.
  • Swing, E. L., & Anderson, C. A. (2014). The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 40, 197-203. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21519
  • Taggart, J., Eisen, S., & Lillard, A. (2019). The current landscape of US children’s television: Violent, prosocial, educational, and fantastical content. Journal of Children and Media, 13(3), 276-294. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482798.2019.1605916
  • Ursache, A., Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2012). The promotion of self‐regulation as a means of enhancing school readiness and early achievement in children at risk for school failure. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 122-128.
  • Uzun, A. M., & Kilis, S. (2019). Does persistent involvement in media and technology lead to lower academic performance? Evaluating media and technology use in relation to multitasking, self-regulation and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 90, 196-203.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.08.045
  • Valkenburg, P., & Piotrowski, J. (2017). Plugged in: How media attract and affect youth. Yale University Press.
  • Willis, E., & Dinehart, L. H. (2014). Contemplative practices in early childhood: implications for self-regulation skills and school readiness. Early Child Development and Care, 184(4), 487-499.
  • Wolfe, C. D, & Bell. M. A. (2007). Sources of variability in working memory in early childhood: A consideration of age, temperament, language, and brain electrical activity. Cognitive Development, 22, 431-455.
  • Wartella, E., Rideout, V., Lauricella, A., & Connell, S. (2013). Parenting in the age of digital technology: A national survey. Report of the Center on Media and Human Development, School of Communication, Northwestern University. Retrieved from https://cmhd.northwestern.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/ParentingAgeDigitalTechnology.REVISED.FINAL_.2014.pdf
  • Williams, K. E., & Berthelsen, D. (2017). The development of prosocial behaviour in early childhood: Contributions of early parenting and self-regulation. International Journal of Early Childhood,49(1), 73-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s1315 8-017-0185-5
  • Zelazo, P. D., Blair, C. B., & Willoughby, M. T. (2016). Executive function: Implications for education (NCER 2017-2000). National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. http://ies.ed.gov/
  • Zhao, J., Zhang, Y., Jiang, F., Ip, P., Ho, F., Zhang, Y., & Huang, H. (2018). Excessive screen time psychosocial well-being: The mediating role of body mass index, sleep duration, and parent-child interaction. The Journal of Pediatrics, 202, 157-162.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.06.029
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (1986). Becoming a self-regulated learner: Which are the key subprocess? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11, 307-313.
  • Zimmerman, F. J., & Christakis, D. A. (2005). Children’s television viewing and cognitive outcomes: A longitudinal analysis of national data. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 159(7), 619-625.

Okul öncesi dönemi çocuklarının dijital medya kullanımları ve öz-düzenleme becerisi

Year 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2, 126 - 142, 30.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.19128/turje.889549

Abstract

Bu çalışma 4-6 yaş arasındaki çocukların öz-düzenleme becerisini dijital medya kullanımları açısından incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bu çalışmanın verileri Türkiye’de yaşayan 911 annenin gönüllü olarak doldurduğu 4-6 Yaş Çocuklarına Yönelik Öz-Düzenleme Becerileri (Anne Formu) ve demografik bilgiler bölümünü içeren anket aracılığı ile toplanmıştır. Çocukların dijital medya kullanımları dijital medya kullanılarak geçirilen süre, kullanılan dijital medya aracı ve tercih edilen içerikler açısından araştırılmıştır. Bütün veriler çevrimiçi form aracılığı ile toplanmıştır. Çalışmanın sonuçları açıkça göstermektedir ki dijital medya ile geçirilen süre arttıkça çocukların öz-düzenleme puanları azalmaktadır. Ayrıca akıllı telefon kullanmayan çocukların kullanan çocuklara göre daha yüksek öz-düzenleme puanına sahip olduğu çalışma sonucunda ortaya konulmuştur. Diğer taraftan eğitim içerikleri ve yabancı dil içeriklerini tercih eden çocukların öz-düzenleme beceri puanları daha yüksektir. Fakat şiddet ve korku unsuru içeren içerikleri tercih eden çocukların öz-düzenleme puanlarının daha düşük olduğu bulunmuştur. Çalışmanın sonuçlarına dayanarak dijital medya kullanımı ile öz-düzenleme becerileri arasında ilişki bulunmuştur. Bu sebeple çocukların dijital medya kullanım saatleri kısıtlanmalı, çocukların tercih ettiği içerikler kontrol edilmeli ve kullanılan dijital araç türlerine dikkat edilmelidir. Bu noktada ebeveynlerin katkısı çok önemlidir. Ebeveynler uygun olmayan dijital medya kullanımlarının çocukların öz-düzenleme becerilerine olumsuz yönde etkisi olacağının farkında olmalıdırlar.

References

  • Adelantado-Renau, M., Moliner-Urdiales, D., Cavero-Redondo, I., Beltran-Valls, M. R., Martínez-Vizcaíno, V., & Álvarez-Bueno, C. (2019). Association between screen media use and academic performance among children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(11), 1058-1067.
  • Anderson, C., Bushman, B., Donnerstein, E., Hummer, T., & Warburton, W. (2015). SPSSI research summary on media violence. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 15(1), 4-19. https://doi.org/10.1111/asap.12093
  • Antunes, F. (2017). Rethinking PG-13: Ratings and the boundaries of childhood and horror. Journal of Film and Video, 69(1), 27. https://doi.org/10.5406/jfilmvideo.69.1.0027
  • Austin, E. W., Hust, S. J. T., & Kistler, M. E. (2009). Powerful media tools: Armin parents with strategies to affect children’s interactions with commercial interests. In T. J. Socha & G. H. Stamp (Eds.), Parents and children communicating with society: Managing relationships outside of home (pp. 215-240). Routledge.
  • Barr, R., Lauricella, A., Zack, E., & Calvert, S. L. (2010). Infant and early childhood exposure to adult-directed and child-directed television programming: Relations with cognitive skills at age 4. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56, 21-48. https://doi.org/10.1353/mpq.0.0038
  • Blair, C. (2016). The development of executive functions and self‑regulation: A bidirectional psychobiological model. In K., Vohs & P., R., Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (3rd ed., pp. 417-439). The Guilford Press.
  • Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2015). School readiness and self-regulation: A developmental psychobiological approach. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 711-731.https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015221
  • Blankson, A. N. Marion, O., Leerkes, E. M.., Calkins, S. D., & Marcovitch., S. (2015). Do hours spent viewing television at ages 3 and 4 predict vocabulary and executive functioning at age 5?. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 61(2), 264-289. https://doi.org/ 10.13110/merrpalmquar1982.61.2.0264
  • Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2006). Self-Regulation as a key to school readiness: How early childhood teachers can promote this critical competency. In M. Zaslow & I. Martinez-Beck (Eds.), Critical issues in early childhood professional development (pp. 203-224). Paul H Brookes Publishing
  • Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2008). Developing self-regulation in kindergarten: Can we keep all the crickets in the basket? Beyond the Journal. Young Children on the Web. Retrieved from: http://bpsearlychildhood.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/1/3/10131776/self_regulation_deb_leong.pdf
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989). Ecological systems theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development: Vol 6. Six theories of child development: Revised formulations and current issues (pp. 187–249). JAI Press
  • Bronson, M. B., Goodson, B. D., Layzer, J. I., & Love, J. M. (1990). Child behavior rating scale. Abt Associates.
  • Canaslan-Akyar, B., & Sevimli-Celik, S. (2022). Playfulness of early childhood teachers and their views in supporting playfulness. Education 3-13, 50(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2021.1921824
  • Christakis, D., Garrison, M., Herrenkohl, T., Haggerty, K., Rivara, F., Zhou, C., & Liekweg, K.(2013). Modifying media content for preschool children: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics, 131(3), 431-438. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1493
  • Cliff, D. P., Howard, S. J., Radesky, J. S., McNeill, J., & Vella, S. A. (2018). Early childhood media exposure and self-regulation: bidirectional longitudinal associations. Academic Pediatrics, 18(7), 813-819.
  • Courage, M., & Howe, M. (2010). To watch or not to watch: Infants and toddlers in a brave new electronic world. Developmental Review, 30(2), 101-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2010.03.002
  • Coyne, S. M., Radesky, J., Collier, K. M., Gentile, D. A., Linder, J. R., Nathanson, A. I., ... & Rogers, J. (2017). Parenting and digital media. Pediatrics, 140(Supplement 2), 112-116. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1758N
  • Coyne, S., Warburton, W., Essig, L., & Stockdale, L. (2018). Violent video games, externalizing behavior, and prosocial behavior: A five-year longitudinal study during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 54(10), 1868-1880. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000574
  • Das, S., Mitra, K., & Mandal, M. (2016). Sample size calculation: Basic principles. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 60(9), 652.
  • Denissen, J. J. A., Thomaes, S., & Bushman, B. J. (2018). Self-regulation and aggression: Aggression-provoking cues, individual differences, and self-control strategies. In D. deRidder, M. Adriaanse, & K. Fujita (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of self-control in health and well-being (pp. 330-339). Routledge/Taylor&Francis Group.
  • Dias, P., & Cadime, I. (2017). Protective factors and resilience in adolescents: The mediating role of self-regulation. Psicología Educativa, 23(1), 37-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pse.2016.09.003.
  • Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135-168.
  • Eisenberg, N., Smith, C. L., Sadovsky, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2004). Effortful control: Relations with emotion regulation, adjustment, and socialization in childhood. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 259-282). Guilford.
  • Ellen, W. (2014). Parenting in the age of digital technology. Retrieved from: https://cmhd.northwestern.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2015/06/ParentingAgeDigitalTechnology.REVISED.FINAL_.2014.pdf
  • Erol, A., & Ivrendi, A. (2018) Developing an instrument for measuring self-regulation skills of 4-6-year-old children (Mother Form). Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 44, 178-195.
  • Ferguson, C. J. (2011). The influence of television and video game use on attention and school problems: A multivariate analysis with other risk factors controlled. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45,808-813. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.11.010
  • Fitzpatrick, C., Oghia, M. J., Melki, J. & Pagani, L. S., (2016). Early childhood exposure to media violence: What parents and policymakers ought to know. South African Journal of Childhood Education 6(1), a431. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajce.v6i1.431
  • Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
  • Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (2002). Early intervention and the development of self-regulation. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 22, 307-335.
  • Fuhs, M. W., Farran, D. C., & Nesbitt, K. T. (2013). Preschool classroom processes as predictors of children’s cognitive self-regulation skills development. School Psychology Quarterly, 28(4),347.
  • Gravetter, F., Wallnau, L., & Forzano, L. (2014). Essentials of statistics for the behavioral sciences (8th ed.). Wadsworth.
  • Green Crescent. (2017). Yeşilay’dan ekran karşısında geçirilen süreler için uyarı. https://www.yesilay.org.tr/tr/haberler/yesilaydan-ekran-karsisinda-gecirilen-sureler-icin-uyari#:~:text=%C3%87ocuklar%C4%B1n%20ve%20gen%C3%A7lerin%20ekran%20kar%C5%9F%C4%B1s%C4%B1nda,fazla%20ekran%20kar%C5%9F%C4%B1s%C4%B1nda%20kalmamal%C4%B1%22%20dedi.
  • Gold, J. (2015). Screen-smart parenting. Guilford Publications.
  • Holochwost, S. J., Kolacz, J., & Mills‐Koonce, W. R. (2021). Towards an understanding of neurophysiological self‐regulation in early childhood: A heuristic and a new approach. Developmental Psychobiology, 63(4), 734-752.
  • Hosokawa, R., & Katsura, T. (2018). Association between mobile technology use and child adjustment in early elementary school age. Plos One, 13(7), e0199959.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199959
  • Howard, S. J., Vasseleu, E., Neilsen-Hewett, C., De Rosnay, M., & Williams, K. E. (2021). Predicting academic school readiness and risk status from different assessment approaches and constructs of early self-regulation. In Child & Youth Care Forum, 1-25.
  • Huber, B., Tarasuik, J., Antoniou, M., Garrett, C., Bowe, S., & Kaufman, J. (2016). Young children's transfer of learning from a touchscreen device. Computers in Human Behavior, 56, 56-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.11.010
  • Huber, B., Yeates, M., Meyer, D., Fleckhammer, L., & Kaufman, J. (2018). The effects of screen media content on young children’s executive functioning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 170, 72-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2018.01.006
  • Karasar, N. (2006). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemi. Nobel.
  • Kim, Y., & Smith, D. (2015). Pedagogical and technological augmentation of mobile learning for young children interactive learning environments. Interactive Learning Environments, 25(1), 4-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2015.1087411
  • LaRose, R., Lin, C. A., & Eastin, M. S. (2003). Unregulated internet usage: Addiction, habit, or deficient self-regulation? Media Psychology, 5(3), 225-253.
  • Lauricella A. R., Blackwell C. K., & Wartella E. (2017). The “new” technology environment: The role of content and context on learning and development from mobile media. In Barr R., Linebarger D. (eds) Media exposure during infancy and early childhood. Springer.
  • Lester, C. (2016). The children's horror film: Characterizing an “impossible” subgenre. The Velvet Light Trap, 78, 22-37. https://doi.org/10.7560/vlt7803
  • Li, H. (2014). The effect of television on children’s executive function. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Central China Normal University.
  • Li, H., Subrahmanyam, K., Bai, X., Xie, X., & Liu, T. (2018). Viewing fantastical events versus touching fantastical events: Short-term effects on children’s inhibitory control. Child Development, 89, 48-57. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12820
  • Lieberman, D., Bates, C., & So, J. (2009a). Young children's learning with digital media. Computers in The Schools, 26(4), 271-283. https://doi.org/10.1080/07380560903360194
  • Lieberman, D., Fisk, M., & Biely, E. (2009b). Digital games for young children ages three to six: From research to design. Computers in The Schools, 26(4), 299-313. https://doi.org/10.1080/07380560903360178
  • Lillard, A. S., & Peterson, J. (2011). The immediate impact of different types of television on young children's executive function. Pediatrics, 128(4), 644-649.
  • Lillard, A., Drell, M., Richey, E., Boguszewski, K., & Smith, E. (2015). Further examination of the immediate impact of television on children’s executive function. Developmental Psychology, 51(6), 792-805. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039097
  • Linebarger, D. L., Barr, R., Lapierre, M. A., & Piotrowski, J. T. (2014). Associations between parenting, media use, cumulative risk, and children’s executive functioning. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 35(6), 367–377.https://doi.org/ 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000069
  • Lissak, G. (2018). Adverse physiological and psychological effects of screen time on children and adolescents: Literature review and case study. Environmental research, 164, 149-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.015
  • Long, M., & Li, H. (2020, July). The Impact of Viewing and Listening to Fantastic Events on Children’s Inhibitory Control. In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 543-548). Springer.
  • Mares, M. L., & Pan, Z. (2013). Effects of Sesame Street: A meta-analysis of children’s learning in 15 countries. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34(3), 140-151.
  • McCabe, L. A., Cunnington, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2004). The development of self-regulation in young children: Individual characteristics and environmental contexts. In R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 340–356). The Guilford Press.
  • McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., Piccinin, A., Rhea, S. A., & Stallings, M. C. (2013). Relations between preschool attention span-persistence and age 25 educational outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 314-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2012.07.008
  • McClelland, M., & Cameron, C. (2011). Self-regulation in early childhood: Improving conceptual clarity and developing ecologically valid measures. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 136-142. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00191.x
  • McClelland, M. M., Ponitz, C. C., Messersmith, E. E., & Tominey, S. (2010). Self-regulation: Integration of cognition and emotion. In W. F. Overton & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), The handbook of life-span development, Vol. 1. Cognition, biology, and methods (pp. 509-553). John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • McClelland, M. M., & Tominey, S. L. (2015). Stop, think, act: Integrating self-regulation in the early childhood classroom. Routledge.
  • McNeill, J., Howard, S., Vella, S., & Cliff, D. (2019). Longitudinal associations of electronic application use and media program viewing with cognitive and psychosocial development in preschoolers. Academic Pediatrics. 9(5), 520-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2019.02.010
  • Mischel, W., Ayduk, O., Berman, M. G., Casey, B. J., Gotlib, I. H., Jonides, J., . . . Shoda, Y. (2011). “Willpower” over the life span: Decomposing self-regulation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 252-256. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsq081
  • Mistry, K. B., Minkovitz, C. S., Strobino, D. M., & Borzekowski, D. L. (2007). Children’s television exposure and behavioral and social outcomes at 5.5 years: Does timing of exposure matter. Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 120(4), 762-769.
  • Nathanson, A., Sharp, M., Aladé, F., Rasmussen, E., & Christy, K. (2013). The relation between television exposure and theory of mind among preschoolers. Journal of Communication, 63(6), 1088-1108. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12062
  • Nathanson, A. I., Aladé, F., Sharp, M. L., Rasmussen, E. E., & Christy, K. (2014). The relation between television exposure and executive function among preschoolers. Developmental Psychology, 50(5), 1497-506. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035714
  • Palmer, S. (2007). Toxic childhood. Orion.
  • Paulus, F. W., Möhler, E., Recktenwald, F., Albert, A., & Mall, V. (2021). Electronic media and early childhood: A review. Klinische Pädiatrie. 233(4):157-172. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1335-4936
  • Pellicano, E., Kenny, L., Brede, J., Klaric, E., Lichwa, H., & McMillin, R. (2017). Executive function predicts school readiness in autistic and typical preschool children. Cognitive Development, 43,1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2017.02.003
  • Orhan, M. A., Castellano, S., Khelladi, I., Marinelli, L., & Monge, F. (2021). Technology distraction at work. Impacts on self-regulation and work engagement. Journal of Business Research, 126(C), 341-349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.12.048
  • Özdemir, A. A., & Budak, K. S. (2019). The role of temperament and self-regulation on predicting children's play behavior. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 45(45), 78-98. https://doi.org/10.9779/PUJE.2018.223
  • O’Mara, J., & Laidlaw, L. (2011). Living in the world: Two literacy researchers reflect on the changing texts and literacy practices of childhood. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 10 (4), 149-159.
  • Radesky, J., Silverstein, M., Zuckerman, B., & Christakis, D. (2014a). Infant self-regulation and early childhood media exposure. Pediatrics, 133(5), 1172-1178. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-2367.
  • Radesky, J., Schumacher, J., & Zuckerman, B. (2014b). Mobile and interactive media use by young children: The good, the bad, and the unknown. Pediatrics, 135(1), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-2251
  • Radesky, J. (2018). Digital media and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents. Jama, 320(3), 237-239.
  • Radesky, J., Weeks, H., Ball, R., Schaller, A., Yeo, S., & Durnez, J. (2020). Young children’s use of smartphones and tablets. Pediatrics, e20193518. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-3518
  • Reid Chassiakos, Y., Radesky, J., Christakis, D., Moreno, M., & Cross, C. (2016). Children and adolescents and digital media. Pediatrics, 138(5), 2016-2593. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2593
  • Rideout, V. (2017). The Common Sense census: Media use by kids age zero to eight. Common Sense Media, 263-283.
  • Robson, D. A., Allen, M. S., & Howard, S. J. (2020). Self-regulation in childhood as a predictor of future outcomes: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 146(4), 324-354. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000227
  • Savina, E. (2021). Self-regulation in preschool and early elementary classrooms: Why it is important and how to promote it. Early Childhood Educ J, 49, 493–501. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-020-01094-w
  • Schmidt, M., Pempek, T., Kirkorian, H., Lund, A., & Anderson, D. (2008). The effects of background television on the toy play behavior of very young children. Child Development, 79(4), 1137-1151. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01180.x
  • Schmitt, S., Pratt, M., & McClelland, M. (2014). Examining the validity of behavioral self-regulation tools in predicting preschoolers' academic achievement. Early Education and Development, 25(5), 641-660. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2014.850397
  • Schunk, D., & Zimmerman, B. (1997). Social origins of self-regulatory competence. Educational Psychologist, 32, 195-208. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3204_1.
  • Steeves, V. (2014). Young Canadians in a wired world, phase III: Experts or amateurs? Gauging young Canadians’ digital literacy skills. Ottawa: MediaSmarts. Retrieved from: http://mediasmarts.ca/ycww/experts-or-amateurs-gauging-young-canadians-digital-literacy-skills.
  • Swing, E. L., & Anderson, C. A. (2014). The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 40, 197-203. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21519
  • Taggart, J., Eisen, S., & Lillard, A. (2019). The current landscape of US children’s television: Violent, prosocial, educational, and fantastical content. Journal of Children and Media, 13(3), 276-294. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482798.2019.1605916
  • Ursache, A., Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2012). The promotion of self‐regulation as a means of enhancing school readiness and early achievement in children at risk for school failure. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 122-128.
  • Uzun, A. M., & Kilis, S. (2019). Does persistent involvement in media and technology lead to lower academic performance? Evaluating media and technology use in relation to multitasking, self-regulation and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 90, 196-203.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.08.045
  • Valkenburg, P., & Piotrowski, J. (2017). Plugged in: How media attract and affect youth. Yale University Press.
  • Willis, E., & Dinehart, L. H. (2014). Contemplative practices in early childhood: implications for self-regulation skills and school readiness. Early Child Development and Care, 184(4), 487-499.
  • Wolfe, C. D, & Bell. M. A. (2007). Sources of variability in working memory in early childhood: A consideration of age, temperament, language, and brain electrical activity. Cognitive Development, 22, 431-455.
  • Wartella, E., Rideout, V., Lauricella, A., & Connell, S. (2013). Parenting in the age of digital technology: A national survey. Report of the Center on Media and Human Development, School of Communication, Northwestern University. Retrieved from https://cmhd.northwestern.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/ParentingAgeDigitalTechnology.REVISED.FINAL_.2014.pdf
  • Williams, K. E., & Berthelsen, D. (2017). The development of prosocial behaviour in early childhood: Contributions of early parenting and self-regulation. International Journal of Early Childhood,49(1), 73-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s1315 8-017-0185-5
  • Zelazo, P. D., Blair, C. B., & Willoughby, M. T. (2016). Executive function: Implications for education (NCER 2017-2000). National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. http://ies.ed.gov/
  • Zhao, J., Zhang, Y., Jiang, F., Ip, P., Ho, F., Zhang, Y., & Huang, H. (2018). Excessive screen time psychosocial well-being: The mediating role of body mass index, sleep duration, and parent-child interaction. The Journal of Pediatrics, 202, 157-162.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.06.029
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (1986). Becoming a self-regulated learner: Which are the key subprocess? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11, 307-313.
  • Zimmerman, F. J., & Christakis, D. A. (2005). Children’s television viewing and cognitive outcomes: A longitudinal analysis of national data. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 159(7), 619-625.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Begüm CANASLAN (Primary Author)
TARSUS ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK HİZMETLERİ MESLEK YÜKSEKOKULU
0000-0002-9032-6631
Türkiye


Semra SUNGUR
ORTA DOĞU TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-3372-6495
Türkiye

Publication Date April 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 11, Issue 2

Cite

APA Canaslan, B. & Sungur, S. (2022). Preschool children's digital media usage and self-regulation skill . Turkish Journal of Education , 11 (2) , 126-142 . DOI: 10.19128/turje.889549

Creative Commons License TURJE is licensed to the public under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license.