Year 2020, Volume 6 , Issue 4, Pages 164 - 174 2020-12-30

Effects of physical activity to cardiorespiratory changes

Bojan BJELICA [1] , Ljubica MİLANOVİĆ [2] , Nikola AKSOVIĆ [3] , Milan ZELENOVİĆ [4] , Danijel BOŽIĆ [5]

The current study aimed to investigate the effect of errorless learning (ELL) and errorful learning (EFL) on a discrete aiming task (dart-throwing). Thirty university students (male, n = 15; female, n = 15) with age of 22 ± 2.0 years old (M = 21.2; SD = 1.08) without any prior experience in dart-throwing participated in this study. After the pre-experimental evaluation, participants were randomly assigned into two groups (ELL and EFL group) by matched-pair design. There were three phases in the study, which were the acquisition, retention, and transfer phases. Both groups did not receive any instructions regarding the dart-throw. The results of variable error showed that there was a significant reduction in the ELL group over trials seemed to indicate that participants in ELL can utilize the learning to become more consistent in dart-throwing performance compared to the EFL group. The results in retention and transfer phases showed that the ELL group performed with significantly less error than the EFL group. The ELL group practiced with errorless learning performed with increased consistency during the retention phase compared to participants who practiced with errorful learning. The study concluded that implicit learning in errorless learning has been beneficial for the individual to get better dart-throwing performance as it can reduce the errors and lower cognitive demand when performing the task.
Blood pressure, heart rate, intensity, VO2max
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Primary Language en
Subjects Sport Sciences
Journal Section Reviews

Orcid: 0000-0001-5539-8210
Author: Bojan BJELICA (Primary Author)
Institution: Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of East Sarajevo
Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Author: Ljubica MİLANOVİĆ
Institution: Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of East Sarajevo
Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Orcid: 0000-0002-5312-3456
Author: Nikola AKSOVIĆ
Institution: Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Niš
Country: Serbia

Orcid: 0000-0003-0435-2399
Author: Milan ZELENOVİĆ
Institution: Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of East Sarajevo
Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Orcid: 0000-0003-1745-5282
Author: Danijel BOŽIĆ
Institution: Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of East Sarajevo
Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Supporting Institution No external funding was received for this study.
Thanks The authors would like to thank every participant for his effort and time.

Publication Date : December 30, 2020

APA Bjelıca, B , Mi̇lanovi̇ć, L , Aksovıć, N , Zelenovi̇ć, M , Božıć, D . (2020). Effects of physical activity to cardiorespiratory changes . Turkish Journal of Kinesiology , 6 (4) , 164-174 . DOI: 10.31459/turkjkin.832955