Author Guidelines


  1. In typing the manuscript, titles and subtitles should not be run within the text. They should be typed on a separate line, without indentation. Use lower-case lettertype.

  2. Units and abbreviations

  3. In principle SI units should be used except where they conflict with current practise or are confusing. Other equivalent units may be given in parentheses.

    1. Units  and  their  abbreviations  should  be  those  approved  by  ISO  (International Standard 1000:92

    2. SI units and recommendations for the use of their multiples and of certain other units). Abbreviate units of measure only when used with numerals.

    3. If a special instruction to the copy editor or typesetter is written on the copy it should be encircled. The typesetter will then know that the enclosed matter is not to be set in type. When a typewritten character may have more than one meaning (e.g. the lower case letter l may be confused with the numeral 1), a note should be inserted in a circle in the margin to make the meaning clear to the typesetter. If Greek letters or uncommon symbols are used in the manuscript, they should be written very clearly, and if necessary a note such as "Greek lower-case chi" should be put in the margin and encircled.


The English abstract should be clear, descriptive and not longer than 175 words (if the article is written in Turkish, Turkish abstract must be added in addition to English abstract).


  1. Authors should take notice of the limitations set by the size and lay-out of the journal. Large tables should be avoided. Reversing columns and rows will often reduce the dimensions of a table.

  2. If many data are to be presented, an attempt should be made to divide them over two or more tables.

  3. Drawn tables, from which prints need to be made, should not be folded.

  4. Tables should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. The text should include references to all tables.

  5. Each table should be typewritten on a separate page of the manuscript. Tables should never be included in the text.

  6. Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title.

  7. Column    headings   should    be   brief,    but   sufficiently   explanatory.    Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should be added between parentheses.

  8. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead.

  9. Any explanation essential to the understanding of the table should be given as a footnote at the bottom of the table.


Electronic Illustrations

  1. Submitting your artwork in an electronic format helps us to produce your work to the best possible standards, ensuring accuracy, clarity and a high level of detail.

  2. Always supply high-quality printouts of your artwork, in case conversion of the electronic artwork is problematic.

  3. Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.

  4. Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.

  5. Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times, Symbol.

  6. Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.

  7. Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files, and supply a separate listing of the files and the software used.

  8. Provide all illustrations as separate files.

  9. Provide captions to illustrations separately.

  10. Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.


Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (Note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below.):

 JPEG or PNG: min. 300 dpi

EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".

TIFF: Colour or greyscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.

TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (colour or greyscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.

DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is".

Please do not:

  • Supply  embedded  graphics  in  your  word  processor  (spreadsheet,  presentation) document;

  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;

  • Supply files that are too low in resolution;

  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Authors please note:

If you submit artwork that does not satisfy these criteria, publication may be delayed.

Provide all illustrations as high-quality printouts, suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction) without retouching. Number illustrations consecutively in the order in which they are referred to in the text. Clearly mark all illustrations on the back (or - in case of line drawings - on the lower front side) with the figure number and the author's name and, in cases of ambiguity, the correct orientation. Mark the appropriate position of a figure in the article.

Reference System is APA 6th Edition

In-text Citation with APA

The APA style calls for three  kinds  of  information  to  be  included  in  in-text  citations. The author's last name and the work's date of publication must always appear, and these items must match exactly the corresponding entry in the references list. The third kind of information, the page number, appears only in a citation to a direct quotation.


....(Crockatt, 1995).

....(Crockatt et. al., 1996).

Major Citations for a Reference List

Note: All second and third lines in the APA Bibliography should be indented.

A book in print

Baxter, C. (1997). Race equality in health care and education. Philadelphia: Ballière Tindall. ISBN 4546465465

A book chapter, print version

Haybron, D.M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press. ISBN 4546469999

An eBook

Millbower, L. (2003). Show biz training: Fun and effective business training techniques from the worlds of stage, screen, and song. Retrieved from (accessed 10.10.15)

An article in a print journal

Carter, S. & Dunbar-Odom, D. (2009). The converging literacies center: An integrated model for writing programs. Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy, 14(1): 38-48.

An article with DOI

Gaudio, J.L. & Snowdon, C. T. (2008). Spatial cues more salient than color cues in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) reversal learning. Journal of Comparative Psychology, doi: 10.1037/0735-7036.122.4.441

Websites - professional or personal sites

The World Famous Hot Dog Site. (1999, July 7). Retrieved January 5, 2008, from   (accessed 10.10.15)

Websites - online government publications

U.S. Department of Justice. (2006, September 10). Trends in violent victimization by age, 1973-2005. Retrieved from  (accessed 10.10.15)

Photograph (from book, magazine or webpage)

Close, C. (2002). Ronald. [photograph]. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. Retrieved from (accessed 10.10.15)

Artwork - from library database

Clark, L. (c.a. 1960's). Man with Baby. [photograph]. George Eastman House, Rochester, NY. Retrieved from ARTstor

Artwork - from website

Close, C. (2002). Ronald. [photograph]. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Retrieved from  (accessed 10.10.15)



(0) and the letter O, and between one (1) and the letter l.



  1. Footnotes should be used only if absolutely essential. In most cases it should be possible to incorporate the information in normal text.

  2. If used, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers, and kept as short as possible.


Formula should be typewritten, if possible. Leave ample space around the formulae.

Subscripts and superscripts should be clear.

Greek letters and other non-Latin symbols should be explained in the margin where they are first used. Take special care to show clearly the difference between zero

Give the meaning of all symbols immediately after the equation in which they are first used.

For simple fractions use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line.

Equations should be numbered serially at the right-hand side in parentheses. In general only equations explicitly referred to in the text need be numbered.

The use of fractional powers instead of root signs is recommended. Also powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp.

Levels of statistical significance  which  can  be  mentioned  without  further explanation are *P<0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001.

In chemical formulae, valence of ions should be given as, e.g., Ca2+  and not as

Isotope numbers should precede the symbols, e.g., 18O.

The repeated writing of chemical formulae in the text is to be avoided where reasonably possible; instead, the name of the compound should be given in full. Exceptions may be made in the case of a very long name occurring very frequently or in the case of a compound being described as the end product of a gravimetric determination (e.g., phosphate as P2O5).

 Footnotes should be used only if absolutely essential. In most cases it should be possible to incorporate the information in normal text.

If used, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers, and kept as short as possible.

 Authors and Editors are, by general agreement, obliged to accept the rules governing biological nomenclature, as laid down in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

All biotica (crops, plants, insects, birds, mammals, etc.) should be identified by their scientific names when the English term is first used, with the exception of common domestic animals.

All biocides and other organic compounds must be identified by their Geneva names when first used in the text. Active ingredients of all formulations should be likewise identified.

For chemical nomenclature, the conventions of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the official recommendations of the IUPAC IUB Combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature should be followed.


An author, when quoting from someone else's work or when considering reproducing an illustration or table from a book or journal article, should make sure that he is not infringing a copyright.

Although in general an author may quote from other published works, he should obtain permission from the holder of the copyright if he wishes to make substantial extracts or to reproduce tables, plates, or other illustrations. If the copyright-holder is not the author of the quoted or reproduced material, it is recommended that the permission of the author should also be sought.

Material in unpublished letters and manuscripts is also protected and must not be published unless permission has been obtained.

A suitable acknowledgement of any borrowed material must always be made.


One set of proofs will be sent to the corresponding author as given on the title page of the manuscript. Only typesetter's errors may be corrected; no changes in, or additions to, the edited manuscript will be allowed. Subsequent corrections will not be possible, so please ensure your first sending is complete.