Year 2019, Volume 5 , Issue 4, Pages 192 - 200 2019-12-15

Uyarlanmış Beden Eğitimi ve Spor
Adapted Physical Education and Sport

Yüksel SAVUCU [1]


Eğitim programları ile uyumlu bir şekilde düzenlenmiş beden eğitimi ve spor çalışmaları, eğitim ve öğretime olumlu etkilerinin yanında, sağlık, ruhsal ve sosyal yönlerin geliştirilmesine de olumlu katkılar sağlamakta ve bireylerin özel gereksinimlerini karşılamak için bireyselleştirilmiş programlar tasarlamaktadır. Bu çalışmada, yetersizliğe sahip olan bireyler için uyarlanmış beden eğitimi ve spor programlarının önemi vurgulanmaya çalışılmış ve literatür bilgileri kullanılarak örnekler sunulması amaçlanmıştır.


Toplum içinde farklı engel sınıflandırmaları vardır. Bu sınıflandırmalar içinde yer alan bireyler, normal gelişim gösteren akranlarına göre çeşitli alanlarda ve gelişimsel özelliklerinde daha fazla olumsuzluklar gösterebilmektedirler. Özellikle davranış bozukluğu, sosyalleşmede yetersizlik ve bağımsız hareket etme güçlüğü göze çarpmaktadır.     Bu insanların sağlıklı yaşayabilmeleri için sosyalleşmeye ve hareket etmeye ihtiyaçları vardır. Yapılarına uygun, özel seçilmiş aktivite ve programlar tercih edilmeli ve gerekli uyarlamalar yapılmalıdır. 


Uyarlanmış beden eğitimi ve spor programları, bireylerin değişen özel gereksinimleri ve becerileriyle ilişkidir. Bu gereksinim bazen sınıfta/etkinlikte yardımcıların olması şeklinde, bazen çeşitli ekipmanların kullanılması, bazen de ekipmanların uyarlanması şeklinde olmaktadır. Uyarlamalar için kimi zaman ayrıştırılmış ortamlar kullanılabilir. Bazen çok az uyarlama yeterli olurken bazen de uyarlamaya gerek olmayabilir. Önemli olan bireyin ihtiyacı doğrultusunda uygun olan programların seçilmesi ve uygulanabilir olmasıdır.

Sonuç olarak, uyarlanmış beden eğitimi ve spora, beden eğitiminin bir alt disiplini ve değişik yeteneklere sahip olanlar için güvenli, kişisel olarak tatmin edici ve başarılı bir deneyim olarak bakılmalıdır. Son yıllarda uyarlanmış beden eğitimine ilginin artması ile birlikte, uyarlanmış beden eğitimi üzerine tasarlanmış ve iyi uygulanan programlar ve programların nasıl uygulanacağı üzerine yazılmış ana hatlarla güçlenen ve tanımlanan yöntemlerde belirlenmiştir. Böylece bu programları uygulayan insanların neleri yapabileceklerini ve de imkânsız diye düşünülen birçok şeyi başarabilecekleri de ortaya çıkmış olacaktır. 

Physical education and sports activities arranged in accordance with educational programs provide positive contributions to the development of individuals with disabilities. We also know that physical education is considered an important tool for the promotion of physical activity, mental and psychosocial development, and teaching dance, games, and sports skills. Unfortunately, individuals with disabilities live often sedentary and socially isolated during physical education programs despite laws requiring individuals with disabilities to be included in general educational schools, physical education not excepted. The most important thing is to design individualized programs to meet the specific needs of individuals in these matters. However, most people find that including individuals with disabilities in physical education is challenging because of the need to change activities and adapt how they are implemented and evaluated. In this study, it was aimed to emphasize the importance of adapted physical education and sports programs for individuals with disabled and to present examples using literature information.

There are a various disability classifications. Individuals who have these classifications may show more negative attitudes in their various fields and developmental characteristics than their peers who cannot have any disability. Behavioral disorders and the weakness to act alone can also be seen in some cases. For this reason, individuals with disabled need to act in order to live well. The activities and programs should also be suitable and adapted for the structure of these people. Adapted physical education services should be addressed as appropriate if the results of assessments indicate that performance in general physical education is adversely affected because of the individual's disability. An individual with a disability must have access to and the ability to equally participate and benefit from programs designed to develop physical and motor fitness, fundamental motor skills and patterns, and skill in aquatics, dance, and individual and group games and sports. If a person demonstrates deficits in the motor, behavioral or cognitive areas, but is participating successfully in general physical education, then the person would not require the specialized services of adapted physical education. 

The adapt means to adjust or to fit. Adapted sport also refers to sport modified or created to meet the unique needs of individuals. Based on this definition, for example, basketball is a general sport and wheelchair basketball is an adapted sport. Adapted physical education is an individualized program including physical and motor fitness, fundamental motor skills and patterns, skills in aquatics and dance, and individual and group games and sports designed to meet the unique needs of individuals. Adapted physical education is viewed as a subdiscipline of physical education that provides safe, personally satisfying, and successful experiences for individuals of varying abilities. Adapted physical education is referred as physical education, special physical education, movement education, and motor development. Fundamentally, adapted physical education encompasses the same activities as general physical education. However, adapted physical education activities are individually prescribed for persons with disabilities while the regular physical education curriculum is assumed to be appropriate for all typically developing persons. When we provide the appropriate adapted physical education programs, we see that these people can achieve many things that are thought to be impossible and impossible. Especially for this, adapted physical education tests and scales should be used to see improvements in the structures of individuals with disabilities. Adapted physical education programs relate to the changing special needs and skills of individuals. These needs are sometimes in the form of helpers in class/activity, sometimes in the use of various equipment, and sometimes in the form of adaptation of equipment. Sometimes separated spaces can be used for adaptations. Sometimes very little adaptation suffices and sometimes it may not be necessary to adapt. It is important that the programs that fit the individual's needs are applicable.

As a result, physical activity programs look to be a good means of primary preventing adverse health in the secondary prevention in individuals with disability. Therefore, training programs could be adapted into the disabled person in the health care status. Adapted physical education and sport should be viewed as a safe, personally satisfying and successful experience for those with a subdiscipline of physical education and different abilities. In recent years, adaptation has been identified in methods that are strengthened and defined by guidelines outlined on how to apply well-designed programs and programs tailored to tailored physical education, along with increased interest in physical education. It will also become known that the people who implement these programs are able to do what they can and can accomplish many things that are thought impossible.

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Primary Language tr
Subjects Sport Sciences
Published Date December 15, 2019
Journal Section REVIEW
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-2749-6806
Author: Yüksel SAVUCU (Primary Author)
Institution: FIRAT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : December 15, 2019

APA SAVUCU, Y . (2019). Uyarlanmış Beden Eğitimi ve Spor. International Journal of Sport Exercise and Training Sciences - IJSETS , 5 (4) , 192-200 . DOI: 10.18826/useeabd.439838