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Down Sendromlu ve Normal Gelişim Gösteren Çocukların Motor Koordinasyon Düzeylerinin Karşılaştırması -Almanya Örneklemi-

Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 2, 33 - 44, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.18826/useeabd.942641

Abstract

Amaç: Bu çalışmanın öncelikli amacı 7-10 yaş grubundaki Down Sendromlu (DS) ve normal gelişim gösteren ilk okul çağındaki çocukların motor koordinasyon düzeylerinin karşılaştırmasıdır. İkincil amaç normal kilo, fazla kilo ve obezitenin motor koordinasyon değerlerine etkilerinin incelenmesidir.
Materyal ve Metot: Çalışmaya yaşları 7–10 arasında 47 DS’lu (37 erkek/10 kız) 54 normal gelişim gösteren (27 erkek/27 kız) toplam 101 ilk öğretim çağındaki çocuk katılmıştır. Motor koordinasyon değerlerinin belirlemesinde geriye adımlama, tek ayak sıçrama, yanlara sıçrama, yanlara adımlama alt testlerinden oluşan Körperkoordinasyon Test für Kinder (KTK) kullanılmıştır. Verilerin çarpıklık – basıklık değerleri ile normallik analizine bakılmış, normal dağılım gösteren verilerin analizinde bağımsız iki grup karşılaştırmasında t-testi, ilişkisiz iki ya da daha fazla grupların karşılaştırılmasında tek yönlü varyans analizi ve normal kilo, fazla kilo ve obez grupları arasındaki farkın kaynağının belirlenmesi için post hoc testlerinden Bonferroni testi kullanılmıştır.
Bulgular: Elde edilen verilerden DS’lu çocukların normal gelişim gösteren akranlarına göre fazla kilolu ve obez oldukları belirlenirken, uygulanan testlerin tamamında DS’lu çocukların normal gelişim gösteren akranlarına oranla istatiksel olarak daha düşük toplam motor performans sergiledikleri sonucuna ulaşılmıştır (p<0,.05). Aynı zamanda kızlar erkeklere göre daha düşük vücut koordinasyonu gösterirken (p<0.05), normal kilolu çocukların fazla kilolu ve obez çocuklara oranla daha yüksek toplam motor koordinasyon değerlerine ulaştıkları belirlenmiştir (p<0.05).
Sonuç: Elde edilen verilerin DS’lu çocukların motor koordinasyon değerleri ve vücut kompozisyonları hakkında önemli ipuçları vererek, normal gelişim gösteren akranlarına göre hareketsiz bir yaşam tarzından daha fazla etkilenen DS’lu çocukların sağlık risklerine karşı önlemler alınmasına katkıda bulunacağı düşünülmektedir. 

References

  • Aburawi, E.U., Nagelkerke, N., Deeb, A., Abdulla, S. & Abdulrazzaq, Y.M. (2014). National Growth Charts for United Arab Emirates Children With Down Syndrome From Birth to 15 Years of Age. Journal of Epidemiology, 27(6), 265-273.
  • Aksay, E. (2014a). The Effects of Physical Activities on Physical Performance, Motor Skills, and BMI Values in Children and Youth having Down Syndrome (DS). International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 1(9), 136-142.
  • Aksay, E. (2014b) The effects of physical activities on individuals having down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Journal of Health Sport and Tourism, 5(2), 5-14.
  • Arjona, O.A.M., Vargas, M.M.M. & Buendı́a, J.M.P. (2021). Motor coordination assessment of U13 soccer players. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 21(2), 934 – 941.
  • Barr, M. ve Shields, N. (2011). Identifying the barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for children with Down syndrome. J Intellect
Disabil Res, 55, 1020-33.
  • Boulet, S.L., Molinari, N.A., Grosse, S.D., Honein, M.A. & Correa- Villasenor, A. (2008). Health care expenditures for infants and young children with Down syndrome in a privately insured population. J Pediatr. 153, 241-246.
  • Bull, M.J. (2011). Health supervision for children with down syndrome. Pediatrics, 128, 393– 406. Cantell, M.H., Smyth, M.H. & Ahonen, T.P. (1994). Clumsiness in adolescence: Educational, motor and social outcomes of motor delay detected at 5 years. APAQ, 11, 113-129.
  • Chaney, R.H. ve Ayman, R.K. (2000). Patterns in mortality over 60 years among persons with mental retardation in a residential facility. Mental Retardation, 38, 289–293.
  • Chovanova, E. (2018): Differences in motor coordination levels between the Slovak and Portuguese school-aged populations. Physical Activity Review, 6, 251-256.
  • Chapman, R.S. ve Hesketh, L.J. (2000). Behavioral phenotype of individuals with down syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 6, 84–95.
  • Day, S.M., Strauss, D.J., Shavelle, R.M. & Reynolds, R.J. (2005). Mortality and causes of death in persons with Down syndrome in California. Dev Med Child Neurol, 47, 171-176.
  • De Freitas, C., V.S., da Silva, H.M, de Azevêdo, M., da Silva, A.R., Cabral, L., Lucena P. & Barros, J.F. (2017). Effect of hippotherapy in the global motor coordination in individuals with Down Syndrome. Fisioterapia em Movimento, 30(1), 229-240.
  • De Graaf, G., Buckley, F. & Skotko, B.G. (2017). Estimation of the number of people with Down syndrome in the United States. Genet Med, 19, 439–447. https://doi.org/10.1038/gim.2016.127
  • De, S., Small, J. & Baur, L.A. (2008). Overweight and obesity among children with developmentaldisabilities. J Intellect Dev Disabil, 33, 43-47.
  • Doolittle, T., Dominic, J. & Doolittle, J. (1969). The reliability of selected cardiorespiratory endurance field tests with adolescent female population. Am Correct Ther J. 23, 135–38.
  • Fidler, D.J., Most, D.E., Booth-LaForce, C. & Kelly, J.F. (2008). Emerging social strengths in young children with down syndrome. Infants & Young Children, 21(3), 207-220.
  • Foley, K. R., Jacoby, P., Girdler, S., Bourke, J., Pikora, T., Lennox, N., ... Leonard, H. (2013). Functioning and post-school transition outcomes for young people with Down syndrome. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39, 789-800. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12019
  • Gensous, N., Bacalini, M.G., Franceschi, C. & Garagnani, P. (2020). Down syndrome, accelerated aging and immunosenescence. Seminars in Immunopathology, 42(5), 635-645. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-020-00804
  • George, D. ve Mallery, M. (2010). SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference, 17.0 update (10a ed.) Pearson:Boston.
  • Hamilton, D. (2005). An ecobehavioral analysis of interactive engagement of children with developmental disabilities with their peers in inclusive preschools. International Journal of Disability and Education, 52, (2), 121-137.
  • Hardman, C.M., Wanderley-Junior, R.S., Oliveira, E. & Barros, M. (2017). Relationship between physical activity and BMI with level of motor coordination performance in schoolchildren. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum. 19, 50-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n1p50
  • Kazemi, M., Salehi, M. & Kheirollahi, M. (2016). Down syndrome: current status, challenges and future perspectives. International journal of molecular and cellular medicine, 5(3), 125.
  • Khodaverdi, Z., Bahram, A., Khalaji, H., Kazemnejad, A., Ghadiri, F. & Lopes, V. (2020). Performance assessments on three different motor competence testing batteries in girls aged 7–10. Sport Sciences for Health, 16, 747–753. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-020-00653-3
  • Kiphard, E.J., ve Schilling, F. (2007): Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. 2. Überarbeitete und ergänzte Auflage. Weinheim: Beltz Test GmbH.
  • Kiphard, E.J. ve Schilling, F. (1974): Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Weinheim: Beltz Test GmbH.
  • Leonard, S., Msall, M., Bower, C., Tremont, M. & Leonard, H. (2002). Functional status of school-aged children with Down syndrome. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 38, 160-165. https://doi. org/10.1046/j.1440-1754.2002.00736.x
  • Menear, K.S. (2007). Parents’ perceptions of health and physical activity needs of children with down syndrom. Downs Syndr Res Pract, 12(1), 60-68.
  • O’Leary, L., Hughes-McCormack, L., Dunn, K. & Cooper, S.A. (2018). Early death and causes of death of people with Down syndrome: A systematic review. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 31(5), 687-708. https://doi.org/10.1111/jar.12446
  • Palomba, A., Perez, D. & Tafuri, D. (2020). Review on the effects of physical activity on body composition and shape in people with Down Syndrome. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20 (4), 2300 – 05.
  • Panagopoulou, V., Nakou, I., Giannakoulia, V. & Serbezis, V. (2008). Evaluation of motor coordination in early school aged children. European Psychomotricity Journal, 1(1), 36-39.
  • Pitetti, K., Baynard, T. & Agiovlasitis, S. (2013). Children and adolescents with Down syndrome, physical fitness and physical activity. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 2(1), 47-57
  • Polastri, P.F. ve Barela J.A. (2005). Perception-Action Coupling in Infants with Down Syndrome: Effects of Experience and Pratice. Adapt Phys Act Quarterly, 22(1), 39-56.
  • Prätorius, B. & Milani, T.L. (2004): Motorische Leistungsfähigkeit bei Kindern: Koordinations- und Gleichgewichtsfähigkeit: Untersuchung des Leistungsgefälles zwischen Kindern mit verschiedenen Sozialisationsbedingungen. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin, 55, Nr. 7/8.
  • Roizen, N.J. ve Patterson, D. (2003). Down’s syndrome. Lancet 361, 1281–89.
  • Roubertoux, P.L. ve Kerdelhué, B. (2006). Trisomy 21: From chromosomes to mental retardation. Behavior Genetics 36, 346–354.
  • Rubin, S.S., Rimmer, J.H., Chicoine, B., Braddock, D. & McGuire, D.E. (1998). Overweight prevalence in persons with Down syndrome. Mental Retardation 36, 175–181.
  • Sherman, S.L., Allen, E.G., Bean, L.H. & Freeman, S.B. (2007). Epidemiology of Down syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 13, 221–227.
  • Shin, M., Besser, L.M., Kucik, J.E., Lu, C., Siffel, C. & Correa, A. (2009). Prevalence of Down syndrome among children and adolescents in 10 regions of the United States. Pediatrics, 124, 1565-71.
  • So, S.A., Urbano, R.C. & Hodapp, R.M. (2007). Hospitalizations of infants and young children with Down syndrome: evidence from inpatient person-records from a statewide administrative database. J Intellect Disabil Res, 51, 1030-38.
  • Tomlinson, T.W., Scott, C.H. & Trotman, H.L. (2010). Congenital cardiovascular lesions in children with trisomy 21 at the Bustamante Hospital for Children. Cardiology in the Young 20, 327–331. Vicari, S. (2006). Motor development and neuropsychological patterns in persons with Down syndrome. Behavior Genetics, 36, 355–364.
  • Wabitsch, M. ve Kunze, D. (2015) (federführend für die AGA). Konsensbasierte (S2) Leitlinie zur Diagnostik, Therapie und Prävention von Übergewicht und Adipositas im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Hg. v. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Adipositas im Kindes- und Jugendalter (AGA). Version 15.10.2015. https://www.maria-rudack.de/userfiles/downloads/pdf/ AGA_S2_Leitlinie.pdf
  • Walz, N.C. ve Benson, B. A. (2002). Behavioral phenotypes in children with Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, or Angelman syndrome. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 14(4), 307-321.
  • Wan Zakaria, W.H., Hosni, H. & Noor, R. (2020). Fundamental Motor Skills Proficiency in Children with Down Syndrome. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities. 28. 2465-75.
  • Wang, W.Y. ve Ju Y.H. (2002). Promoting balance and jumping skills in children with Down syndrome. Percept Mot Skills, 94(2), 443-48.
  • Vandorpe, B., Vandendriessche, J., Lefevre, J., Pion, J., Vaeyens, R., Matthys, S., Philippaerts, R. & Lenoir, M. (2011). The KörperkoordinationsTest für Kinder: reference values and suitability for 6-12-year-old children in Flanders. Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21(3), 378-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01067.x

Comparison of Motor Coordination Levels of Children With Down Syndrome and Normally Developed Children -Germany Case-

Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 2, 33 - 44, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.18826/useeabd.942641

Abstract

Aim: The primary aim of this study was to compare the motor coordination levels of primary school age children with Down Syndrome (DS) and normally developed children in the age group of 7-10 years. The secondary aim is to examine the effects of normal weight, excess weight, and obesity on motor coordination values.

 Methods: A total of 101 children of primary school age, 47 with Down Syndrome (37 boys / 10 girls) and 54 normally developed (27 boys / 27 girls) aged 7-10 participated in the study. In the determination of motor coordination values, the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK), which consists of the subtests of stepping back, jumping one foot, jumping sideways, and stepping sideways, was used. The skewness-kurtosis values of the data and the normality analysis were examined; and the t-test was used in the comparison of two independent groups in the analysis of the normally distributed data; and one-way analysis of variance was used to compare two or more unrelated groups; and Bonferroni test, one of the post hoc tests, was used to determine the source of the difference between normal weight, overweight and obese groups.

Results: According to the data obtained, it was determined that children with DS were overweight and obese compared to their normally developed peers, while all the tests conducted concluded that children with DS showed statistically lower overall motor performance than their normally developed peers (p<0,.05). However, girls showed lower motor coordination than boys (p<0.05), while normal-weight children achieved higher total motor coordination values than that of overweight and obese children (p<0.05). 

Conclusion: It is considered that the data obtained will provide important clues about the motor coordination values and body composition of children with DS and will contribute to taking precautions against the health risks of children with DS, who are more affected by a sedentary lifestyle compared to their normally developing peers.

References

  • Aburawi, E.U., Nagelkerke, N., Deeb, A., Abdulla, S. & Abdulrazzaq, Y.M. (2014). National Growth Charts for United Arab Emirates Children With Down Syndrome From Birth to 15 Years of Age. Journal of Epidemiology, 27(6), 265-273.
  • Aksay, E. (2014a). The Effects of Physical Activities on Physical Performance, Motor Skills, and BMI Values in Children and Youth having Down Syndrome (DS). International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 1(9), 136-142.
  • Aksay, E. (2014b) The effects of physical activities on individuals having down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Journal of Health Sport and Tourism, 5(2), 5-14.
  • Arjona, O.A.M., Vargas, M.M.M. & Buendı́a, J.M.P. (2021). Motor coordination assessment of U13 soccer players. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 21(2), 934 – 941.
  • Barr, M. ve Shields, N. (2011). Identifying the barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for children with Down syndrome. J Intellect
Disabil Res, 55, 1020-33.
  • Boulet, S.L., Molinari, N.A., Grosse, S.D., Honein, M.A. & Correa- Villasenor, A. (2008). Health care expenditures for infants and young children with Down syndrome in a privately insured population. J Pediatr. 153, 241-246.
  • Bull, M.J. (2011). Health supervision for children with down syndrome. Pediatrics, 128, 393– 406. Cantell, M.H., Smyth, M.H. & Ahonen, T.P. (1994). Clumsiness in adolescence: Educational, motor and social outcomes of motor delay detected at 5 years. APAQ, 11, 113-129.
  • Chaney, R.H. ve Ayman, R.K. (2000). Patterns in mortality over 60 years among persons with mental retardation in a residential facility. Mental Retardation, 38, 289–293.
  • Chovanova, E. (2018): Differences in motor coordination levels between the Slovak and Portuguese school-aged populations. Physical Activity Review, 6, 251-256.
  • Chapman, R.S. ve Hesketh, L.J. (2000). Behavioral phenotype of individuals with down syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 6, 84–95.
  • Day, S.M., Strauss, D.J., Shavelle, R.M. & Reynolds, R.J. (2005). Mortality and causes of death in persons with Down syndrome in California. Dev Med Child Neurol, 47, 171-176.
  • De Freitas, C., V.S., da Silva, H.M, de Azevêdo, M., da Silva, A.R., Cabral, L., Lucena P. & Barros, J.F. (2017). Effect of hippotherapy in the global motor coordination in individuals with Down Syndrome. Fisioterapia em Movimento, 30(1), 229-240.
  • De Graaf, G., Buckley, F. & Skotko, B.G. (2017). Estimation of the number of people with Down syndrome in the United States. Genet Med, 19, 439–447. https://doi.org/10.1038/gim.2016.127
  • De, S., Small, J. & Baur, L.A. (2008). Overweight and obesity among children with developmentaldisabilities. J Intellect Dev Disabil, 33, 43-47.
  • Doolittle, T., Dominic, J. & Doolittle, J. (1969). The reliability of selected cardiorespiratory endurance field tests with adolescent female population. Am Correct Ther J. 23, 135–38.
  • Fidler, D.J., Most, D.E., Booth-LaForce, C. & Kelly, J.F. (2008). Emerging social strengths in young children with down syndrome. Infants & Young Children, 21(3), 207-220.
  • Foley, K. R., Jacoby, P., Girdler, S., Bourke, J., Pikora, T., Lennox, N., ... Leonard, H. (2013). Functioning and post-school transition outcomes for young people with Down syndrome. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39, 789-800. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12019
  • Gensous, N., Bacalini, M.G., Franceschi, C. & Garagnani, P. (2020). Down syndrome, accelerated aging and immunosenescence. Seminars in Immunopathology, 42(5), 635-645. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00281-020-00804
  • George, D. ve Mallery, M. (2010). SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference, 17.0 update (10a ed.) Pearson:Boston.
  • Hamilton, D. (2005). An ecobehavioral analysis of interactive engagement of children with developmental disabilities with their peers in inclusive preschools. International Journal of Disability and Education, 52, (2), 121-137.
  • Hardman, C.M., Wanderley-Junior, R.S., Oliveira, E. & Barros, M. (2017). Relationship between physical activity and BMI with level of motor coordination performance in schoolchildren. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum. 19, 50-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n1p50
  • Kazemi, M., Salehi, M. & Kheirollahi, M. (2016). Down syndrome: current status, challenges and future perspectives. International journal of molecular and cellular medicine, 5(3), 125.
  • Khodaverdi, Z., Bahram, A., Khalaji, H., Kazemnejad, A., Ghadiri, F. & Lopes, V. (2020). Performance assessments on three different motor competence testing batteries in girls aged 7–10. Sport Sciences for Health, 16, 747–753. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-020-00653-3
  • Kiphard, E.J., ve Schilling, F. (2007): Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. 2. Überarbeitete und ergänzte Auflage. Weinheim: Beltz Test GmbH.
  • Kiphard, E.J. ve Schilling, F. (1974): Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Weinheim: Beltz Test GmbH.
  • Leonard, S., Msall, M., Bower, C., Tremont, M. & Leonard, H. (2002). Functional status of school-aged children with Down syndrome. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 38, 160-165. https://doi. org/10.1046/j.1440-1754.2002.00736.x
  • Menear, K.S. (2007). Parents’ perceptions of health and physical activity needs of children with down syndrom. Downs Syndr Res Pract, 12(1), 60-68.
  • O’Leary, L., Hughes-McCormack, L., Dunn, K. & Cooper, S.A. (2018). Early death and causes of death of people with Down syndrome: A systematic review. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 31(5), 687-708. https://doi.org/10.1111/jar.12446
  • Palomba, A., Perez, D. & Tafuri, D. (2020). Review on the effects of physical activity on body composition and shape in people with Down Syndrome. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20 (4), 2300 – 05.
  • Panagopoulou, V., Nakou, I., Giannakoulia, V. & Serbezis, V. (2008). Evaluation of motor coordination in early school aged children. European Psychomotricity Journal, 1(1), 36-39.
  • Pitetti, K., Baynard, T. & Agiovlasitis, S. (2013). Children and adolescents with Down syndrome, physical fitness and physical activity. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 2(1), 47-57
  • Polastri, P.F. ve Barela J.A. (2005). Perception-Action Coupling in Infants with Down Syndrome: Effects of Experience and Pratice. Adapt Phys Act Quarterly, 22(1), 39-56.
  • Prätorius, B. & Milani, T.L. (2004): Motorische Leistungsfähigkeit bei Kindern: Koordinations- und Gleichgewichtsfähigkeit: Untersuchung des Leistungsgefälles zwischen Kindern mit verschiedenen Sozialisationsbedingungen. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin, 55, Nr. 7/8.
  • Roizen, N.J. ve Patterson, D. (2003). Down’s syndrome. Lancet 361, 1281–89.
  • Roubertoux, P.L. ve Kerdelhué, B. (2006). Trisomy 21: From chromosomes to mental retardation. Behavior Genetics 36, 346–354.
  • Rubin, S.S., Rimmer, J.H., Chicoine, B., Braddock, D. & McGuire, D.E. (1998). Overweight prevalence in persons with Down syndrome. Mental Retardation 36, 175–181.
  • Sherman, S.L., Allen, E.G., Bean, L.H. & Freeman, S.B. (2007). Epidemiology of Down syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 13, 221–227.
  • Shin, M., Besser, L.M., Kucik, J.E., Lu, C., Siffel, C. & Correa, A. (2009). Prevalence of Down syndrome among children and adolescents in 10 regions of the United States. Pediatrics, 124, 1565-71.
  • So, S.A., Urbano, R.C. & Hodapp, R.M. (2007). Hospitalizations of infants and young children with Down syndrome: evidence from inpatient person-records from a statewide administrative database. J Intellect Disabil Res, 51, 1030-38.
  • Tomlinson, T.W., Scott, C.H. & Trotman, H.L. (2010). Congenital cardiovascular lesions in children with trisomy 21 at the Bustamante Hospital for Children. Cardiology in the Young 20, 327–331. Vicari, S. (2006). Motor development and neuropsychological patterns in persons with Down syndrome. Behavior Genetics, 36, 355–364.
  • Wabitsch, M. ve Kunze, D. (2015) (federführend für die AGA). Konsensbasierte (S2) Leitlinie zur Diagnostik, Therapie und Prävention von Übergewicht und Adipositas im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Hg. v. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Adipositas im Kindes- und Jugendalter (AGA). Version 15.10.2015. https://www.maria-rudack.de/userfiles/downloads/pdf/ AGA_S2_Leitlinie.pdf
  • Walz, N.C. ve Benson, B. A. (2002). Behavioral phenotypes in children with Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, or Angelman syndrome. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 14(4), 307-321.
  • Wan Zakaria, W.H., Hosni, H. & Noor, R. (2020). Fundamental Motor Skills Proficiency in Children with Down Syndrome. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities. 28. 2465-75.
  • Wang, W.Y. ve Ju Y.H. (2002). Promoting balance and jumping skills in children with Down syndrome. Percept Mot Skills, 94(2), 443-48.
  • Vandorpe, B., Vandendriessche, J., Lefevre, J., Pion, J., Vaeyens, R., Matthys, S., Philippaerts, R. & Lenoir, M. (2011). The KörperkoordinationsTest für Kinder: reference values and suitability for 6-12-year-old children in Flanders. Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21(3), 378-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01067.x

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Sport Sciences
Journal Section MOVEMENT and TRAINING SCIENCES
Authors

Ebubekir AKSAY> (Primary Author)
Germany TV Eberbach e.V. Health, Rehabilitation and Disability Sport
0000-0002-5706-6698
Germany

Thanks Vefatından önce yapılan çalışmalarda desteğini esirgemeyen, sadece Almanya’da değil, Dünyada örnek alınan değerli hocam, meslektaşım ve dostum Horst Stohkendl’a, TV Eberbach e.V. yönetimine, araştırmaya katılan öğrencilere ve ailelerine teşekkür ederim.
Publication Date June 30, 2022
Application Date May 27, 2021
Acceptance Date June 3, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 2

Cite

APA Aksay, E. (2022). Down Sendromlu ve Normal Gelişim Gösteren Çocukların Motor Koordinasyon Düzeylerinin Karşılaştırması -Almanya Örneklemi- . International Journal of Sport Exercise and Training Sciences - IJSETS , 8 (2) , 33-44 . DOI: 10.18826/useeabd.942641

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