Research Article
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Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid in Cats with Bacterial Cystitis

Year 2023, Volume: 18 Issue: 3, 107 - 111, 20.12.2023

Abstract

This study was aimed to reveal the efficacy of hypochlorous acid in cats with bacterial cystitis. The animal material of the study consisted of 14 cats of different races, 1-8 years of age, of different sexes, diagnosed with bacterial cystitis as a result of clinical and urine examinations and bacterial urine culture, who applied to Afyon Kocatepe University Veterinary Health Application and Research Centre Internal Diseases Clinic with complaints of lower urinary system disease and diagnosed with bacterial cystitis as a result of the examinations. After the diagnosis of bacterial cystitis, the cats were divided into 2 groups: fluid therapy + enrofloxacin + vitamin C + nitrofurantoin (group I, n = 7) and fluid therapy + enrofloxacin + hypochlorous acid (group II, n = 7). Both groups were treated for 7 days. It was observed that clinical recovery was faster according to the clinical scoring table created in the cats in group II, and bacterial growth in the urine was eliminated more quickly and effectively as a result of urine cultures. As a result, it was concluded that hypochlorous acid is effective in the clinical improvement and elimination of bacteriuria in cats with bacterial cystitis.

References

  • 1. Low DA, Braaten BA, Ling GV, Johnson DL, Ruby AL. Isolation and comparison of Escherichia coli strains from canine and human patients with urinary tract infections. Infect Immun. 1988;56(10):2601-2609. [CrossRef]
  • 2. Johnson JR, Stell AL, Delavari P. Canine feces as a reservoir of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2001;69(3):1306-1314. [CrossRef]
  • 3. Johnson JR, Kaster N, Kuskowski MA, Ling GV. Identification of urovirulence traits in Escherichia coli by comparison of urinary and rectal E.coli isolates from dogs with urinary tract infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41(1):337-345. [CrossRef]
  • 4. Dorsch R, Teichmann-Knorrn S, Sjetne Lund HS. Urinary tract infection and subclinical bacteriuria in cats: A clinical update. J Feline Med Surg. 2019;21(11):1023-1038. [CrossRef]
  • 5. Dorsch R, Remer C, Sauter-Louis C, Hartmann K. Feline lower urinary tract disease in a German cat population. A retrospective analysis of demographic data, causes and clinical signs. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere. 2014;42(4):231-239. [CrossRef]
  • 6. Marques C, Gama LT, Belas A, et al. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12(1):213. [CrossRef]
  • 7. Dorsch R, von Vopelius-Feldt C, Wolf G, Mueller RS, Straubinger RK, Hartmann K. Urinary tract infections in cats. Prevalence of comorbidities and bacterial species, and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere. 2016;44(4):227-236. [CrossRef]
  • 8. Bailiff NL, Westropp JL, Nelson RW, Sykes JE, Owens SD, Kass PH. Evaluation of urine specific gravity and urine sediment as risk factors for urinary tract infections in cats. Vet Clin Pathol. 2008;37(3):317-322. [CrossRef]
  • 9. Weese JS, Blondeau JM, Boothe D, et al. Antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of urinary tract disease in dogs and cats: antimicrobial guidelines working group of the international society for companion animal infectious diseases. Vet Med Int. 2011;2011:263768. [CrossRef]
  • 10. Martinez-Ruzafa I, Kruger JM, Miller R, Swenson CL, Bolin CA, Kaneene JB. Clinical features and risk factors for development of urinary tract infections in cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2012;14(10):729-740. [CrossRef]
  • 11. Teichmann-Knorrn S, Reese S, Wolf G, Hartmann K, Dorsch R. Prevalance of feline urinary tract pathogens and antimicrobial resistance over five years. Vet Rec. 2018;183(1):21. [CrossRef]
  • 12. Lund HS, Krontveit RI, Halvorsen I, Eggertsdóttir AV. Evaluation of urinalyses from untreated adult cats with lower urinary tract disease and healthy control cats: predictive abilities and clinical relevance. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(12):1086-1097. [CrossRef]
  • 13. Hardefeldt LY, Selinger J, Stevenson MA, et al. Population wide assessment of antimicrobial use in dogs and cats using a novel data source - A cohort study using pet insurance data. Vet Microbiol. 2018;225:34-39. [CrossRef]
  • 14. Schmitt K, Lehner C, Schuller S, et al. Antimicrobial us efor selected diseases in cats in Switzerland. BMC Vet Res. 2019;15(1):94. [CrossRef]
  • 15. Weese JS, Stull JW, Evason M, et al. A multicenter study of antimicrobial prescriptions for cats diagnosed with bacterial urinary tract disease. J Feline Med Surg. 2022;24(8):806-814. [CrossRef]
  • 16. Weese JS, Bergman PJ, Battersby I, McKee T, Ballance D, Kimmerlein A. Estimation of defined daily doses of antimicrobials for dogs and cats treated for bacterial cystitis. Can Vet J. 2022;63(8): 851-854.
  • 17. Kettle AJ, Winterbourn CC. Myeloperoxidase: a key regülatör of neutrophil oxidant production. Redox Rep. 1997;3(1):3-15. [CrossRef]
  • 18. Andrés CMC, Pérez de la Lastra JMP, Juan CA, Plou FJ, Pérez-Lebeña E. Hypochlorous acid chemistry in mammalian cells—influence on infection and role in various pathologies. Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(18):10735. [CrossRef]
  • 19. Wang L, Bassiri M, Najafi R, et al. Hypochlorous acid as a potential wound care agent: part I. Stabilized hypochlorous acid: a component of the inorganic armamentarium of innate immunity. J Burns Wounds. 2007;6:e5.
  • 20. Block MS, Rowan BG. Hypochlorous acid: a review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020;78(9):1461-1466. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Severing AL, Rembe JD, Koester V, Stuermer EK. Safety and efficacy profiles of different commercial sodium hypoc hlori te/hy pochl orous acid solutions (NaClO/HClO): antimicrobial efficacy, cytotoxic impact and physicochemical parameters in vitro. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019;74(2):365-372. [CrossRef]
  • 22. Weyler M, Jaekel A, Kirschner-Hermanns R, Kowollik M, Zeller F, Knuepfer S. Electrochemically activated solution as bladder irrigation— an individual curative trial in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and recurrent urinary infections. Neurourol Urodyn. 2021;40(7):1796-1803. [CrossRef]
  • 23. Lekcharoensuk C, Osborne CA, Lulich JP. Epidemiologic study of risk factors for lower urinary tract diseases in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;218(9):1429-1435. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Kopecny L, Palm CA, Drobatz KJ, Balsa IM, Culp WTN. Risk factors for positive urine cultures in cats with subcutaneous ureteral bypass and ureteral stents (2010-2016). J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(1):178-183. [CrossRef]
  • 25. Hugonnard M, Chalvet-Monfray K, Dernis J, et al. Occurrence of bacteriuria in 18 catheterised cats with obstructive lower urinary tracct disease: a pilot study. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(10):843-848. [CrossRef]
  • 26. Koontz CW, Epstein SE, Westropp JL. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from urinary isolatesobtained from cats (2013-2020). J Vet Intern Med. 2023;37(3):1077-1087. [CrossRef]
  • 27. Dorsch R, von Vopelius-Feldt C, Wolf G, Straubinger RK, Hartmann K. Feline urinary tract pathogens: prevalence of bacterial species and antimicrobial resistance over a 10-year period. Vet Rec. 2015;176(8):201. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Pomba C, Couto N, Moodley A. Treatment of a lower urinary tract infection in a cat caused by a multi-drug methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Enterococcus faecalis. J Feline Med Surg. 2010;12(10):802-806. [CrossRef]
  • 29. Mayrer AR, Andriole VT. Urinary tract antiseptics. Med Clin North Am. 1982;66(1):199-208. [CrossRef]
  • 30. Ball AJ, Carr TW, Gillespie WA, Kelly M, Simpson RA, Smith PJ. Bladder irrigation with chlorhexidine for the prevention of urinary infection after transurethral operations: a prospective controlled study. J Urol. 1987;138(3):491-494. [CrossRef]

Bakteriyel Sistitli Kedilerde Hipokloröz Asidin Etkinliği

Year 2023, Volume: 18 Issue: 3, 107 - 111, 20.12.2023

Abstract

Bu çalışmada bakteriyel sistitli kedilerde hipokloröz asit etkinliğinin ortaya koyulması amaçlandı. Çalışmanın hayvan materyalini Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Veteriner Sağlık
Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi İç Hastalıkları Kliniğine getirilen ve yapılan muayeneler sonucunda bakteriyel sistit tanısı konan 14 kedi oluşturdu. Bakteriyel sistit tanısı konulduktan
sonra kediler sıvı tedavisi+enrofl oksasin+vi tamin C+nitrofurantoin (grup I, n=7) ve sıvı tedavisi+e nrofloksasin+hipoklo röz asit (grup II, n=7) olmak üzere iki gruba ayrıldı. Her iki gruba 7
günlük tedavi uygulandı. Grup II’deki kedilerde oluşturulan klinik skorlama tablosuna göre klinik iyileşmenin daha hızlı olduğu ve idrar kültürleri sonucunda idrarda bakteriyel üremenin daha hızlı ve etkili ortadan kaldırıldığı gözlendi. Sonuç olarak hipokloröz asidin bakteriyel sistitli kedilerde klinik iyileşme ve bakteriürinin giderilmesinde etkili olduğu kanaatine varıldı.

References

  • 1. Low DA, Braaten BA, Ling GV, Johnson DL, Ruby AL. Isolation and comparison of Escherichia coli strains from canine and human patients with urinary tract infections. Infect Immun. 1988;56(10):2601-2609. [CrossRef]
  • 2. Johnson JR, Stell AL, Delavari P. Canine feces as a reservoir of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2001;69(3):1306-1314. [CrossRef]
  • 3. Johnson JR, Kaster N, Kuskowski MA, Ling GV. Identification of urovirulence traits in Escherichia coli by comparison of urinary and rectal E.coli isolates from dogs with urinary tract infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41(1):337-345. [CrossRef]
  • 4. Dorsch R, Teichmann-Knorrn S, Sjetne Lund HS. Urinary tract infection and subclinical bacteriuria in cats: A clinical update. J Feline Med Surg. 2019;21(11):1023-1038. [CrossRef]
  • 5. Dorsch R, Remer C, Sauter-Louis C, Hartmann K. Feline lower urinary tract disease in a German cat population. A retrospective analysis of demographic data, causes and clinical signs. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere. 2014;42(4):231-239. [CrossRef]
  • 6. Marques C, Gama LT, Belas A, et al. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12(1):213. [CrossRef]
  • 7. Dorsch R, von Vopelius-Feldt C, Wolf G, Mueller RS, Straubinger RK, Hartmann K. Urinary tract infections in cats. Prevalence of comorbidities and bacterial species, and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere. 2016;44(4):227-236. [CrossRef]
  • 8. Bailiff NL, Westropp JL, Nelson RW, Sykes JE, Owens SD, Kass PH. Evaluation of urine specific gravity and urine sediment as risk factors for urinary tract infections in cats. Vet Clin Pathol. 2008;37(3):317-322. [CrossRef]
  • 9. Weese JS, Blondeau JM, Boothe D, et al. Antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of urinary tract disease in dogs and cats: antimicrobial guidelines working group of the international society for companion animal infectious diseases. Vet Med Int. 2011;2011:263768. [CrossRef]
  • 10. Martinez-Ruzafa I, Kruger JM, Miller R, Swenson CL, Bolin CA, Kaneene JB. Clinical features and risk factors for development of urinary tract infections in cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2012;14(10):729-740. [CrossRef]
  • 11. Teichmann-Knorrn S, Reese S, Wolf G, Hartmann K, Dorsch R. Prevalance of feline urinary tract pathogens and antimicrobial resistance over five years. Vet Rec. 2018;183(1):21. [CrossRef]
  • 12. Lund HS, Krontveit RI, Halvorsen I, Eggertsdóttir AV. Evaluation of urinalyses from untreated adult cats with lower urinary tract disease and healthy control cats: predictive abilities and clinical relevance. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(12):1086-1097. [CrossRef]
  • 13. Hardefeldt LY, Selinger J, Stevenson MA, et al. Population wide assessment of antimicrobial use in dogs and cats using a novel data source - A cohort study using pet insurance data. Vet Microbiol. 2018;225:34-39. [CrossRef]
  • 14. Schmitt K, Lehner C, Schuller S, et al. Antimicrobial us efor selected diseases in cats in Switzerland. BMC Vet Res. 2019;15(1):94. [CrossRef]
  • 15. Weese JS, Stull JW, Evason M, et al. A multicenter study of antimicrobial prescriptions for cats diagnosed with bacterial urinary tract disease. J Feline Med Surg. 2022;24(8):806-814. [CrossRef]
  • 16. Weese JS, Bergman PJ, Battersby I, McKee T, Ballance D, Kimmerlein A. Estimation of defined daily doses of antimicrobials for dogs and cats treated for bacterial cystitis. Can Vet J. 2022;63(8): 851-854.
  • 17. Kettle AJ, Winterbourn CC. Myeloperoxidase: a key regülatör of neutrophil oxidant production. Redox Rep. 1997;3(1):3-15. [CrossRef]
  • 18. Andrés CMC, Pérez de la Lastra JMP, Juan CA, Plou FJ, Pérez-Lebeña E. Hypochlorous acid chemistry in mammalian cells—influence on infection and role in various pathologies. Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(18):10735. [CrossRef]
  • 19. Wang L, Bassiri M, Najafi R, et al. Hypochlorous acid as a potential wound care agent: part I. Stabilized hypochlorous acid: a component of the inorganic armamentarium of innate immunity. J Burns Wounds. 2007;6:e5.
  • 20. Block MS, Rowan BG. Hypochlorous acid: a review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020;78(9):1461-1466. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Severing AL, Rembe JD, Koester V, Stuermer EK. Safety and efficacy profiles of different commercial sodium hypoc hlori te/hy pochl orous acid solutions (NaClO/HClO): antimicrobial efficacy, cytotoxic impact and physicochemical parameters in vitro. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019;74(2):365-372. [CrossRef]
  • 22. Weyler M, Jaekel A, Kirschner-Hermanns R, Kowollik M, Zeller F, Knuepfer S. Electrochemically activated solution as bladder irrigation— an individual curative trial in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and recurrent urinary infections. Neurourol Urodyn. 2021;40(7):1796-1803. [CrossRef]
  • 23. Lekcharoensuk C, Osborne CA, Lulich JP. Epidemiologic study of risk factors for lower urinary tract diseases in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;218(9):1429-1435. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Kopecny L, Palm CA, Drobatz KJ, Balsa IM, Culp WTN. Risk factors for positive urine cultures in cats with subcutaneous ureteral bypass and ureteral stents (2010-2016). J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(1):178-183. [CrossRef]
  • 25. Hugonnard M, Chalvet-Monfray K, Dernis J, et al. Occurrence of bacteriuria in 18 catheterised cats with obstructive lower urinary tracct disease: a pilot study. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(10):843-848. [CrossRef]
  • 26. Koontz CW, Epstein SE, Westropp JL. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from urinary isolatesobtained from cats (2013-2020). J Vet Intern Med. 2023;37(3):1077-1087. [CrossRef]
  • 27. Dorsch R, von Vopelius-Feldt C, Wolf G, Straubinger RK, Hartmann K. Feline urinary tract pathogens: prevalence of bacterial species and antimicrobial resistance over a 10-year period. Vet Rec. 2015;176(8):201. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Pomba C, Couto N, Moodley A. Treatment of a lower urinary tract infection in a cat caused by a multi-drug methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Enterococcus faecalis. J Feline Med Surg. 2010;12(10):802-806. [CrossRef]
  • 29. Mayrer AR, Andriole VT. Urinary tract antiseptics. Med Clin North Am. 1982;66(1):199-208. [CrossRef]
  • 30. Ball AJ, Carr TW, Gillespie WA, Kelly M, Simpson RA, Smith PJ. Bladder irrigation with chlorhexidine for the prevention of urinary infection after transurethral operations: a prospective controlled study. J Urol. 1987;138(3):491-494. [CrossRef]

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Veterinary Medicine
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Abuzer ACAR

Publication Date December 20, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 18 Issue: 3

Cite

APA ACAR, A. (2023). Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid in Cats with Bacterial Cystitis. Veterinary Sciences and Practices, 18(3), 107-111.
AMA ACAR A. Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid in Cats with Bacterial Cystitis. Veterinary Sciences and Practices. December 2023;18(3):107-111.
Chicago ACAR, Abuzer. “Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid in Cats With Bacterial Cystitis”. Veterinary Sciences and Practices 18, no. 3 (December 2023): 107-11.
EndNote ACAR A (December 1, 2023) Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid in Cats with Bacterial Cystitis. Veterinary Sciences and Practices 18 3 107–111.
IEEE A. ACAR, “Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid in Cats with Bacterial Cystitis”, Veterinary Sciences and Practices, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 107–111, 2023.
ISNAD ACAR, Abuzer. “Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid in Cats With Bacterial Cystitis”. Veterinary Sciences and Practices 18/3 (December 2023), 107-111.
JAMA ACAR A. Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid in Cats with Bacterial Cystitis. Veterinary Sciences and Practices. 2023;18:107–111.
MLA ACAR, Abuzer. “Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid in Cats With Bacterial Cystitis”. Veterinary Sciences and Practices, vol. 18, no. 3, 2023, pp. 107-11.
Vancouver ACAR A. Effectiveness of Hypochlorous Acid in Cats with Bacterial Cystitis. Veterinary Sciences and Practices. 2023;18(3):107-11.

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