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Echocardiographic Evidence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Obese Cats

Year 2023, Volume: 18 Issue: 3, 117 - 122, 20.12.2023

Abstract

The primary objective of this study was to assess how obesity impacts the occurrence of left ventricular hypertrophy in healthy cats. The researchers evaluated the body condition
score of all participating cats before conducting the study. Additionally, they performed various echocardiographic examinations, including transthoracic 2D, M-mode, and Doppler, as well as measuring systolic blood pressure. The results indicated a notable distinction in body condition scores between the non-obese and obese groups (P < .001). Moreover, significant differences were observed in terms of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate between the 2 groups (P < .001, P = .002). Echocardiographic measurements revealed statistically significant variations in left atrium and left ventricular free wall thickness between non-obese and obese cats (P < .001 and P = .003). To address obesity, the obese group underwent a lowcalorie diet, leading to improvements in echocardiographic parameters and SBP. However, these improvements did not achieve statistical significance. The study findings indicate that obesity can lead to substantial myocardial changes, resulting in left ventricular hypertrophy in cats, which has been previously reported in humans and dogs. Additionally, the study suggests that a diet intervention for obese cats might help prevent diseases like hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

References

  • 1. Courcier EA, O’Higgins R, Mellor DJ, Yam PS. Prevalence and risk factors for feline obesity in a first opinion practice in Glasgow, Scotland. J Feline Med Surg. 2010;12(10):746-753. [CrossRef]
  • 2. Okada Y, Ueno H, Mizorogi T, Ohara K, Kawasumi K, Arai T. Diagnostic criteria for obesity disease in cats. Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:284. [CrossRef]
  • 3. Colliard L, Paragon BM, Lemuet B, Bénet JJ, Blanchard G. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in an urban population of healthy cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11(2):135-140. [CrossRef]
  • 4. Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk CA, Kolar LM, Klausner JS. Health status and population characteristics of dogs and cats examined at private veterinary practices in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999;214(9):1336-1341.
  • 5. German AJ. The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats. J Nutr. 2006;136(7):1940S-1946S. [CrossRef]
  • 6. Wall M, Cave NJ, Vallee E. Owner and cat-related risk factors for feline overweight or obesity. Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:266. [CrossRef]
  • 7. Keller E, Sagols E, Flanagan J, Biourge V, German AJ. Use of reducedenergy content maintenance diets for modest weight reduction in overweight cats and dogs. Res Vet Sci. 2020;131:194-205. [CrossRef]
  • 8. Tumuklu MM, Etikan I, Kisacik B, Kayikcioglu M. Effect of obesity on left ventricular structure and myocardial systolic function: assesment by tissue doppler imaging and strain/strain rate imaging. Echocardiography. 2007;24(8):802-809. [CrossRef]
  • 9. Wong CY, O’Moore-Sullivan T, Leano R, Byrne N, Beller E, Marwick TH. Alterations of left ventricular myocardial characteristics associated with obesity. Circulation. 2004;110(19):3081 3087. [CrossRef]
  • 10. Chetboul V, Passavin P, Trehiou‐Sechi E, et al. Clinical, epidemiological and echocardiographic features and prognostic factors in cats with restrictive cardiomyopathy: a retrospective study of 92 cases (2001-2015). J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(3):1222-1231. [CrossRef]
  • 11. Montani JP, Carroll JF, Dwyer TM, Antic V, Yang Z, Dulloo AG. Ectopic fat storage in heart, blood vessels and kidneys in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28(suppl 4):S58-S65. [CrossRef]
  • 12. Ren J, Wu NN, Wang S, Sowers JR, Zhang Y. Obesity cardiomyopathy: evidence, mechanisms, and therapeutic implications. Physiol Rev. 2021;101(4):1745-1807. [CrossRef]
  • 13. Mohajan D, Mohajan HK. Obesity and its related diseases: a new escalating alarming in global health. J Innov Med Res. 2023;2(3):12- 23. [CrossRef]
  • 14. Carroll JF, Braden DS, Cockrell K, Mizelle HL. Obese hypertensive rabbits develop concentric and eccentric hypertrophy and diastolic filling abnormalities. Am J Hypertens. 1997;10(2):230-233. [CrossRef]
  • 15. Mehlman E, Bright JM, Jeckel K, Porsche C, Veeramachaneni DNR, Frye M. Echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy in obese dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(1):62-68. [CrossRef]
  • 16. Partington C, Hodgkiss-Geere H, Woods GRT, et al. The effect of obesity and subsequent weight reduction on cardiac structure and function in dogs. BMC Vet Res. 2022;18(1):351. [CrossRef]
  • 17. O’Neill DG, Gunn-Moore D, Sorrell S, et al. Commonly diagnosed disorders in domestic cats in the UK and their associations with sex and age. J Feline Med Surg. 2023;25(2):1098612X231155016. [CrossRef]
  • 18. Finn E, Freeman LM, Rush JE, Lee Y. The relationship between body weight, body condition, and survival in cats with heart failure. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24(6):1369-1374. [CrossRef]
  • 19. Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk CA, Klausner JS. Prevalence and risk factors for obesity in adult cats from private US veterinary practices. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med. 2005;3(2):88-96.
  • 20. Acierno MJ, Brown S, Coleman AE, et al. ACVIM consensus statement: guidelines for the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med. 2018;32(6):1803-1822. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Sparkes AH, Caney SM, King MC, Gruffydd-Jones TJ. Inter- and intraindividual variation in Doppler ultrasonic indirect blood pressure measurements in healthy cats. J Vet Intern Med. 1999;13(4):314-318. [CrossRef]
  • 22. Boon JA. Manual of veterinary echocardiography. Published Online 1998.
  • 23. Côté E, MacDonald KA, Meurs KM, Sleeper MM. Feline Cardiology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 2011.
  • 24. Hand MS, Morris ML, Novotny BJ. Small animal clinical nutrition. Published Online 2000.
  • 25. AJ H. Predicting the body composition of cats: development of a zoometric measurement for estimation of percentage body fat in cats. J Vet Int Med. 2000;14:365.
  • 26. Larsen JA. Risk of obesity in the neutered cat. J Feline Med Surg. 2017;19(8):779-783. [CrossRef]
  • 27. do Nascimento RC, Souza CMM, Bastos TS, Kaelle GCB, de Oliveira SG, Félix AP. Effects of an herbal source of choline on diet digestibility and palatability, blood lipid profile, liver morphology, and cardiac function in dogs. Animals (Basel). 2022;12(19):2658. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Piantedosi D, Palatucci AT, Giovazzino A, et al. Effect of a weight loss program on biochemical and immunological profile, serum leptin levels, and cardiovascular parameters in obese dogs. Front Vet Sci. 2020;7:398. [CrossRef]
  • 29. Fettman MJ, Stanton CA, Banks LL, et al. Effects of neutering on body weight, metabolic rate and glucose tolerance of domestic cats. Res Vet Sci. 1997;62(2):131-136. [CrossRef]
  • 30. Hayes SG, Moya Del Pino NB, Kaufman MP. Estrogen attenuates the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to central command in cats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;92(4):1635 1641. [CrossRef]
  • 31. Souza FB de, Golino DV, Bonatelli SP, et al. Effect of obesity on ecocardiographic parameters and vertebral heart size (VHS) in cats. Semina: Ciênc Agrár. 2020;41(2):493-504. [CrossRef]
  • 32. Häggström J, Andersson ÅO, Falk T, et al. Effect of body weight on echocardiographic measurements in 19,866 pure‐bred cats with or without heart disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2016;30(5):1601-1611. [CrossRef]
  • 33. van Hoek I, Hodgkiss‐Geere H, Bode EF, et al. Association of diet with left ventricular wall thickness, troponin I and IGF‐1 in cats with subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med. 2020;34(6):2197-2210. [CrossRef]
  • 34. Rider OJ, Petersen SE, Francis JM, et al. Ventricular hypertrophy and cavity dilatation in relation to body mass index in women with uncomplicated obesity. Heart. 2011;97(3):203-208. [CrossRef]
  • 35. Acierno MJ, Brown S, Coleman AE, et al. ACVIM consensus statement: guidelines for the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats. J Jpn Assoc Vet Nephrol Urol. 2020;12(1):30-49.
  • 36. Litster AL, Buchanan JW. Radiographic and echocardiographic measurement of the heart in obese cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2000;41(4):320-325. [CrossRef]
  • 37. Chetboul V, Lefebvre HP, Pinhas C, Clerc B, Boussouf M, Pouchelon JL. Spontaneous feline hypertension: clinical and echocardiographic abnormalities, and survival rate. J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17(1):89-95. [CrossRef]
  • 38. Jamaly S, Carlsson L, Peltonen M, Andersson‐Assarsson JC, Karason K. Heart failure development in obesity: underlying risk factors and mechanistic pathways. ESC Heart Fail. 2021;8(1):356-367. [CrossRef]
  • 39. Gallo G, Forte M, Tocci G, et al. Association of NDUFC2 polymorphic variants with left ventricular hypertrophy in human hypertension. J Hypertens. 2022;40(suppl 1):e227. [CrossRef]
  • 40. DeFonte M, Goldstein J, Massera D, et al. Abstract 14042: weight loss favorably impacts left ventricular mass and wall thickness by CMR and CT in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a retrospective case series. Circulation. 2020;142A14042;142(suppl 3). [CrossRef]

Obez Kedilerde Sol Ventrikül Hipertrofisinin Ekokardiyografik Bulguları

Year 2023, Volume: 18 Issue: 3, 117 - 122, 20.12.2023

Abstract

Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, sağlıklı kedilerde obezitenin sol ventrikül hipertrofisi oluşumunu nasıl etkilediğini değerlendirmektir. Araştırmacılar, çalışmayı gerçekleştirmeden
önce tüm katılımcı kedilerin vücut kondisyon skorunu değerlendirdiler. Ayrıca, transtorasik 2D, M-mode ve Doppler dahil çeşitli ekokardiyografik muayeneler ve sistolik kan basıncı ölçümleri gerçekleştirdiler. Sonuçlar, obez ve obez olmayan gruplar arasında vücut kondisyon skorları arasında önemli bir farklılık olduğunu gösterdi (P < .001). Ayrıca, 2 grup arasında sistolik kan basıncı (SKB) ve kalp hızı açısından önemli farklar gözlendi (P < .001, P = .002). Ekokardiyografik ölçümler, obez ve obez olmayan kediler arasında sol atriyum ve sol ventrikül serbest duvar kalınlığı arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılıklar ortaya koydu (P < .001 ve P = .003). Obeziteyi ele almak için obez grupa, ekokardiyografik parametrelerde ve SKB’de iyileşmelere yol açan düşük kalorili bir diyet uyguladı. Ancak, bu iyileştirmeler istatistiksel bir anlamlılığa ulaşmadı. Çalışma bulguları, obezitenin kedi popülasyonunda sol ventrikül hipertrofisine neden olabilecek önemli miyokard değişikliklerine yol açabileceğini gösteriyor, ki bu daha önce insanlarda ve köpeklerde rapor edilmiştir. Ayrıca, çalışma, bir diyet müdahalesinin obez kedilerde hipertrofik kardiyomiyopati gibi hastalıkları önlemeye yardımcı olabileceğini öne sürmektedir.

References

  • 1. Courcier EA, O’Higgins R, Mellor DJ, Yam PS. Prevalence and risk factors for feline obesity in a first opinion practice in Glasgow, Scotland. J Feline Med Surg. 2010;12(10):746-753. [CrossRef]
  • 2. Okada Y, Ueno H, Mizorogi T, Ohara K, Kawasumi K, Arai T. Diagnostic criteria for obesity disease in cats. Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:284. [CrossRef]
  • 3. Colliard L, Paragon BM, Lemuet B, Bénet JJ, Blanchard G. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in an urban population of healthy cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11(2):135-140. [CrossRef]
  • 4. Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk CA, Kolar LM, Klausner JS. Health status and population characteristics of dogs and cats examined at private veterinary practices in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999;214(9):1336-1341.
  • 5. German AJ. The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats. J Nutr. 2006;136(7):1940S-1946S. [CrossRef]
  • 6. Wall M, Cave NJ, Vallee E. Owner and cat-related risk factors for feline overweight or obesity. Front Vet Sci. 2019;6:266. [CrossRef]
  • 7. Keller E, Sagols E, Flanagan J, Biourge V, German AJ. Use of reducedenergy content maintenance diets for modest weight reduction in overweight cats and dogs. Res Vet Sci. 2020;131:194-205. [CrossRef]
  • 8. Tumuklu MM, Etikan I, Kisacik B, Kayikcioglu M. Effect of obesity on left ventricular structure and myocardial systolic function: assesment by tissue doppler imaging and strain/strain rate imaging. Echocardiography. 2007;24(8):802-809. [CrossRef]
  • 9. Wong CY, O’Moore-Sullivan T, Leano R, Byrne N, Beller E, Marwick TH. Alterations of left ventricular myocardial characteristics associated with obesity. Circulation. 2004;110(19):3081 3087. [CrossRef]
  • 10. Chetboul V, Passavin P, Trehiou‐Sechi E, et al. Clinical, epidemiological and echocardiographic features and prognostic factors in cats with restrictive cardiomyopathy: a retrospective study of 92 cases (2001-2015). J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(3):1222-1231. [CrossRef]
  • 11. Montani JP, Carroll JF, Dwyer TM, Antic V, Yang Z, Dulloo AG. Ectopic fat storage in heart, blood vessels and kidneys in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28(suppl 4):S58-S65. [CrossRef]
  • 12. Ren J, Wu NN, Wang S, Sowers JR, Zhang Y. Obesity cardiomyopathy: evidence, mechanisms, and therapeutic implications. Physiol Rev. 2021;101(4):1745-1807. [CrossRef]
  • 13. Mohajan D, Mohajan HK. Obesity and its related diseases: a new escalating alarming in global health. J Innov Med Res. 2023;2(3):12- 23. [CrossRef]
  • 14. Carroll JF, Braden DS, Cockrell K, Mizelle HL. Obese hypertensive rabbits develop concentric and eccentric hypertrophy and diastolic filling abnormalities. Am J Hypertens. 1997;10(2):230-233. [CrossRef]
  • 15. Mehlman E, Bright JM, Jeckel K, Porsche C, Veeramachaneni DNR, Frye M. Echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy in obese dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(1):62-68. [CrossRef]
  • 16. Partington C, Hodgkiss-Geere H, Woods GRT, et al. The effect of obesity and subsequent weight reduction on cardiac structure and function in dogs. BMC Vet Res. 2022;18(1):351. [CrossRef]
  • 17. O’Neill DG, Gunn-Moore D, Sorrell S, et al. Commonly diagnosed disorders in domestic cats in the UK and their associations with sex and age. J Feline Med Surg. 2023;25(2):1098612X231155016. [CrossRef]
  • 18. Finn E, Freeman LM, Rush JE, Lee Y. The relationship between body weight, body condition, and survival in cats with heart failure. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24(6):1369-1374. [CrossRef]
  • 19. Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk CA, Klausner JS. Prevalence and risk factors for obesity in adult cats from private US veterinary practices. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med. 2005;3(2):88-96.
  • 20. Acierno MJ, Brown S, Coleman AE, et al. ACVIM consensus statement: guidelines for the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med. 2018;32(6):1803-1822. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Sparkes AH, Caney SM, King MC, Gruffydd-Jones TJ. Inter- and intraindividual variation in Doppler ultrasonic indirect blood pressure measurements in healthy cats. J Vet Intern Med. 1999;13(4):314-318. [CrossRef]
  • 22. Boon JA. Manual of veterinary echocardiography. Published Online 1998.
  • 23. Côté E, MacDonald KA, Meurs KM, Sleeper MM. Feline Cardiology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 2011.
  • 24. Hand MS, Morris ML, Novotny BJ. Small animal clinical nutrition. Published Online 2000.
  • 25. AJ H. Predicting the body composition of cats: development of a zoometric measurement for estimation of percentage body fat in cats. J Vet Int Med. 2000;14:365.
  • 26. Larsen JA. Risk of obesity in the neutered cat. J Feline Med Surg. 2017;19(8):779-783. [CrossRef]
  • 27. do Nascimento RC, Souza CMM, Bastos TS, Kaelle GCB, de Oliveira SG, Félix AP. Effects of an herbal source of choline on diet digestibility and palatability, blood lipid profile, liver morphology, and cardiac function in dogs. Animals (Basel). 2022;12(19):2658. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Piantedosi D, Palatucci AT, Giovazzino A, et al. Effect of a weight loss program on biochemical and immunological profile, serum leptin levels, and cardiovascular parameters in obese dogs. Front Vet Sci. 2020;7:398. [CrossRef]
  • 29. Fettman MJ, Stanton CA, Banks LL, et al. Effects of neutering on body weight, metabolic rate and glucose tolerance of domestic cats. Res Vet Sci. 1997;62(2):131-136. [CrossRef]
  • 30. Hayes SG, Moya Del Pino NB, Kaufman MP. Estrogen attenuates the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to central command in cats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;92(4):1635 1641. [CrossRef]
  • 31. Souza FB de, Golino DV, Bonatelli SP, et al. Effect of obesity on ecocardiographic parameters and vertebral heart size (VHS) in cats. Semina: Ciênc Agrár. 2020;41(2):493-504. [CrossRef]
  • 32. Häggström J, Andersson ÅO, Falk T, et al. Effect of body weight on echocardiographic measurements in 19,866 pure‐bred cats with or without heart disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2016;30(5):1601-1611. [CrossRef]
  • 33. van Hoek I, Hodgkiss‐Geere H, Bode EF, et al. Association of diet with left ventricular wall thickness, troponin I and IGF‐1 in cats with subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med. 2020;34(6):2197-2210. [CrossRef]
  • 34. Rider OJ, Petersen SE, Francis JM, et al. Ventricular hypertrophy and cavity dilatation in relation to body mass index in women with uncomplicated obesity. Heart. 2011;97(3):203-208. [CrossRef]
  • 35. Acierno MJ, Brown S, Coleman AE, et al. ACVIM consensus statement: guidelines for the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats. J Jpn Assoc Vet Nephrol Urol. 2020;12(1):30-49.
  • 36. Litster AL, Buchanan JW. Radiographic and echocardiographic measurement of the heart in obese cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2000;41(4):320-325. [CrossRef]
  • 37. Chetboul V, Lefebvre HP, Pinhas C, Clerc B, Boussouf M, Pouchelon JL. Spontaneous feline hypertension: clinical and echocardiographic abnormalities, and survival rate. J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17(1):89-95. [CrossRef]
  • 38. Jamaly S, Carlsson L, Peltonen M, Andersson‐Assarsson JC, Karason K. Heart failure development in obesity: underlying risk factors and mechanistic pathways. ESC Heart Fail. 2021;8(1):356-367. [CrossRef]
  • 39. Gallo G, Forte M, Tocci G, et al. Association of NDUFC2 polymorphic variants with left ventricular hypertrophy in human hypertension. J Hypertens. 2022;40(suppl 1):e227. [CrossRef]
  • 40. DeFonte M, Goldstein J, Massera D, et al. Abstract 14042: weight loss favorably impacts left ventricular mass and wall thickness by CMR and CT in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a retrospective case series. Circulation. 2020;142A14042;142(suppl 3). [CrossRef]

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Veterinary Sciences (Other)
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Farnoosh ARFAEE This is me

Publication Date December 20, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 18 Issue: 3

Cite

APA ARFAEE, F. (2023). Echocardiographic Evidence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Obese Cats. Veterinary Sciences and Practices, 18(3), 117-122.
AMA ARFAEE F. Echocardiographic Evidence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Obese Cats. Veterinary Sciences and Practices. December 2023;18(3):117-122.
Chicago ARFAEE, Farnoosh. “Echocardiographic Evidence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Obese Cats”. Veterinary Sciences and Practices 18, no. 3 (December 2023): 117-22.
EndNote ARFAEE F (December 1, 2023) Echocardiographic Evidence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Obese Cats. Veterinary Sciences and Practices 18 3 117–122.
IEEE F. ARFAEE, “Echocardiographic Evidence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Obese Cats”, Veterinary Sciences and Practices, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 117–122, 2023.
ISNAD ARFAEE, Farnoosh. “Echocardiographic Evidence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Obese Cats”. Veterinary Sciences and Practices 18/3 (December 2023), 117-122.
JAMA ARFAEE F. Echocardiographic Evidence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Obese Cats. Veterinary Sciences and Practices. 2023;18:117–122.
MLA ARFAEE, Farnoosh. “Echocardiographic Evidence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Obese Cats”. Veterinary Sciences and Practices, vol. 18, no. 3, 2023, pp. 117-22.
Vancouver ARFAEE F. Echocardiographic Evidence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Obese Cats. Veterinary Sciences and Practices. 2023;18(3):117-22.

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