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The Justice Motive and Unconscious Decision Making

Year 2017, Volume -, Issue 6, 15 - 35, 28.11.2017

Abstract

Abstract

In two experiments we investigated the relation between implicit justice motive and quality of decisions in complex justice-specific situations. According to Unconscious-Thought Theory (Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), people make better complex decisions when thinking unconsciously than when thinking consciously or deciding immediately. We expected that decision quality would depend on participants’ implicit justice motive (Dalbert, 2001) which operates on an unconscious level and would thus explain especially unconscious decisions. Data were obtained from a total of N = 180 individuals. Findings of both experiments suggest that participants with a strong implicit justice motive were more likely to make just decisions in the unconscious-thought condition than in both other conditions. Findings are discussed in light of the justice motive theory (Dalbert, 2001).

References

  • Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 2, 267-299. doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60108-2 Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human Memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In: K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation. Vol 2. New York: Academic Press. Bos, M. W., Dijksterhuis, A., & van Baaren, R. B. (2008). On the goal-dependency of unconscious thought. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1114-1120. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.01.001 Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1982). The need for cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 116-131. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.42.1.116 Dalbert, C. (1999). The world is more just for me than generally: About the Personal Belief in a Just World Scale’s validity. Social Justice Research, 12, 79-98. doi:10.1023/A:1022091609047 Dalbert, C. (2001). The justice motive as a personal resource: Dealing with challenges and critical life events. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Dalbert, C., Montada, L., & Schmitt, M. (1987). Glaube an eine gerechte Welt als Motiv: Validierungskorrelate zweier Skalen [Belief in a just world as a motive: Validating correlates of two scales]. Psychologische Beiträge, 29, 596-615. Dalbert, C., & Umlauft, S. (2009). The role of the justice motive in economic decision making. Journal of Economic Psychology, 30, 172-180. doi:10.1016/j.joep.2008.07.006 Deutsch, M. (1975). Equity, equality, and need: What determines which value will be used as the basis of distributive justice. Journal of Social Issues, 31, 137-150. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1975.tb01000.x De Vries, M., Witteman, C. L. M., Holland, R. W., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2010). The unconscious thought effect in clinical decision making: An example in diagnosis. Medical Decision Making, 30, 578-581. doi:10.1177/0272989X09360820 Dijksterhuis, A. (2004). Think different: The merits of unconscious thought in preference development and decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 586-598. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.87.5.586 Dijksterhuis, A., Bos, M. W., Nordgren, L. F., & van Baaren, R. B. (2006). On making the right choice: The deliberation-without-attention effect. Science, 311, 1005-1007. doi:10.1126/science.1121629 Dijksterhuis, A., Bos, M. W., van der Leij, A., & van Baaren, R. B. (2009). Predicting soccer matches after unconscious and conscious thought as a function of expertise. Psychological Science, 20, 1381-1387. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02451.x Dijksterhuis, A., & Nordgren, L. F. (2006). A theory of unconscious thought. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 95-109. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00007.x Dijksterhuis, A, & van Knippenberg, A. (1995). Memory for stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information as a function of processing pace. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 689-694. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2420250607 Dijksterhuis, A., & van Olden, Z. (2006). On the benefits of thinking unconsciously: Unconscious thought can increase post-choice satisfaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 627-631. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2005.10.008 Epstein, S. (1990). Cognitive-experiential self-theory. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality. Theory and research (pp. 165-192). New York: Guilford Press. Hafer, C. L., & Bègue, L. (2005). Experimental research on just-world theory: Problems, development, and future challenges. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 128-167. Ham, J., & van den Bos, K. (2010). On unconscious morality: The effects of unconscious thinking on moral decision making. Social Cognition, 28, 74-83. doi:10.1521/soco.2010.28.1.74 Ham, J., van den Bos, K., & van Doorn, E. A. (2009). Lady Justice thinks unconsciously: Unconscious thought can lead to more accurate justice judgments. Social Cognition, 27, 509-521. doi:10.1521/soco.2009.27.4.509 Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley. Konow, J. (2005). Blind spots: The effects of information and stakes on fairness bias and dispersion. Social Justice Research, 18, 349–390. doi:10.1007/s11211-005-8566-6 Lassiter, G. D., Lindberg, M. J, González-Vallejo, C., Bellezza, F. S., & Phillips, N. D. (2009). The deliberation-without-attention effect. Evidence for an artifactual interpretation. Psychological Science, 20, 671-675. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02347.x Lerner, M. J. (1980). The belief in a just world: A fundamental delusion. New York: Plenum Press. Lerner, M. J., & Goldberg, J. H. (1999). When do decent people blame victims? The differing effects of the explicit/rational and implicit/experiential cognitive system. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 627-640). New York: Guilford. McClelland, D. C., Koestner, R., & Weinberger, J. (1989). How do self-attributed and implicit motives differ? Psychological Review, 96, 680-702. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.96.4.690 Miller, G. A. (1956). Information theory. Scientific American, 195, 42-46. Payne, J. W., Samper, A., Bettman, J. R., & Luce, M. F. (2008). Boundary conditions on unconscious thought in complex decision making. Psychological Science, 19, 1118-1123. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02212.x Peter, F., Donat, M., Umlauft, S., & Dalbert, C. (2013). Einführung in die Gerechtigkeitspsychologie [Introduction to justice psychology]. In C. Dalbert (Ed.), Gerechtigkeit in der Schule (pp. 11–32). Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-531-93128-9_1 Smith, K. P., Dijksterhuis, A., & Wigboldus, D. H. J. (2008). Powerful people make good decisions even when they consciously think. Psychological Science, 19, 1258-1259. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02207.x Spangler, W. D. (1992). Validity of questionnaire and TAT measures of need for achievement: Two meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 140-154. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.140 Strack, F., & Deutsch, R. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behaviour. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 220-247. doi:10.1207/-s15327957pspr0803_1 Strick, M., Dijksterhuis, A., & van Baaren, R. B. (2010). Unconscious-thought effects take place off-line, not on-line. Psychological Science, 21, 484-488. doi:10.1177/-0956797610363555 Wilson, T. D., & Schooler, J. W. (1991). Thinking too much: Introspection can reduce the quality of preferences and decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 181-192. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.60.2.181

Adalet Güdüsü ve Bilinçsiz Karar Verme

Year 2017, Volume -, Issue 6, 15 - 35, 28.11.2017

Abstract

Özet

Bu çalışmada iki deneyden hareketle, örtük adalet güdüsü ve adalete özgü karmaşık durumlardaki kararların niteliği arasındaki ilişkiyi inceledik. Bilinçsiz-Düşünce Teorisi'ne göre (Dijksterhuis ve Nordgren, 2006), insanlar bilinçsiz bir şekilde düşündüklerinde bilinçli bir şekilde düşündüklerinden ya da ani karar verdikleri durumlardan daha iyi karmaşık kararlar vermektedirler. Kararın niteliğinin katılımcıların, bilinçsiz bir düzeyde işleyen ve dolayısıyla özellikle bilinçsiz kararları açıklayacak olan, örtük adalet güdülerine (Dalbert, 2001) bağlı olacağını bekledik. Çalışmanın verisi N = 180 katılımcıdan elde edilmiştir. Her iki deneyin bulguları da; güçlü bir örtük adalet güdüsüne sahip katılımcıların adil kararlar vermelerinin, diğer iki koşuldansa  bilinçsiz-düşünce koşulunda daha olası olduğuna işaret etmektedir. Bulgular, adalet güdüsü teorisi (Dalbert, 2001) ışığında tartışılmaktadır. 

References

  • Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 2, 267-299. doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60108-2 Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human Memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In: K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation. Vol 2. New York: Academic Press. Bos, M. W., Dijksterhuis, A., & van Baaren, R. B. (2008). On the goal-dependency of unconscious thought. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1114-1120. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.01.001 Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1982). The need for cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 116-131. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.42.1.116 Dalbert, C. (1999). The world is more just for me than generally: About the Personal Belief in a Just World Scale’s validity. Social Justice Research, 12, 79-98. doi:10.1023/A:1022091609047 Dalbert, C. (2001). The justice motive as a personal resource: Dealing with challenges and critical life events. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Dalbert, C., Montada, L., & Schmitt, M. (1987). Glaube an eine gerechte Welt als Motiv: Validierungskorrelate zweier Skalen [Belief in a just world as a motive: Validating correlates of two scales]. Psychologische Beiträge, 29, 596-615. Dalbert, C., & Umlauft, S. (2009). The role of the justice motive in economic decision making. Journal of Economic Psychology, 30, 172-180. doi:10.1016/j.joep.2008.07.006 Deutsch, M. (1975). Equity, equality, and need: What determines which value will be used as the basis of distributive justice. Journal of Social Issues, 31, 137-150. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1975.tb01000.x De Vries, M., Witteman, C. L. M., Holland, R. W., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2010). The unconscious thought effect in clinical decision making: An example in diagnosis. Medical Decision Making, 30, 578-581. doi:10.1177/0272989X09360820 Dijksterhuis, A. (2004). Think different: The merits of unconscious thought in preference development and decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 586-598. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.87.5.586 Dijksterhuis, A., Bos, M. W., Nordgren, L. F., & van Baaren, R. B. (2006). On making the right choice: The deliberation-without-attention effect. Science, 311, 1005-1007. doi:10.1126/science.1121629 Dijksterhuis, A., Bos, M. W., van der Leij, A., & van Baaren, R. B. (2009). Predicting soccer matches after unconscious and conscious thought as a function of expertise. Psychological Science, 20, 1381-1387. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02451.x Dijksterhuis, A., & Nordgren, L. F. (2006). A theory of unconscious thought. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 95-109. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00007.x Dijksterhuis, A, & van Knippenberg, A. (1995). Memory for stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information as a function of processing pace. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 689-694. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2420250607 Dijksterhuis, A., & van Olden, Z. (2006). On the benefits of thinking unconsciously: Unconscious thought can increase post-choice satisfaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 627-631. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2005.10.008 Epstein, S. (1990). Cognitive-experiential self-theory. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality. Theory and research (pp. 165-192). New York: Guilford Press. Hafer, C. L., & Bègue, L. (2005). Experimental research on just-world theory: Problems, development, and future challenges. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 128-167. Ham, J., & van den Bos, K. (2010). On unconscious morality: The effects of unconscious thinking on moral decision making. Social Cognition, 28, 74-83. doi:10.1521/soco.2010.28.1.74 Ham, J., van den Bos, K., & van Doorn, E. A. (2009). Lady Justice thinks unconsciously: Unconscious thought can lead to more accurate justice judgments. Social Cognition, 27, 509-521. doi:10.1521/soco.2009.27.4.509 Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley. Konow, J. (2005). Blind spots: The effects of information and stakes on fairness bias and dispersion. Social Justice Research, 18, 349–390. doi:10.1007/s11211-005-8566-6 Lassiter, G. D., Lindberg, M. J, González-Vallejo, C., Bellezza, F. S., & Phillips, N. D. (2009). The deliberation-without-attention effect. Evidence for an artifactual interpretation. Psychological Science, 20, 671-675. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02347.x Lerner, M. J. (1980). The belief in a just world: A fundamental delusion. New York: Plenum Press. Lerner, M. J., & Goldberg, J. H. (1999). When do decent people blame victims? The differing effects of the explicit/rational and implicit/experiential cognitive system. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 627-640). New York: Guilford. McClelland, D. C., Koestner, R., & Weinberger, J. (1989). How do self-attributed and implicit motives differ? Psychological Review, 96, 680-702. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.96.4.690 Miller, G. A. (1956). Information theory. Scientific American, 195, 42-46. Payne, J. W., Samper, A., Bettman, J. R., & Luce, M. F. (2008). Boundary conditions on unconscious thought in complex decision making. Psychological Science, 19, 1118-1123. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02212.x Peter, F., Donat, M., Umlauft, S., & Dalbert, C. (2013). Einführung in die Gerechtigkeitspsychologie [Introduction to justice psychology]. In C. Dalbert (Ed.), Gerechtigkeit in der Schule (pp. 11–32). Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-531-93128-9_1 Smith, K. P., Dijksterhuis, A., & Wigboldus, D. H. J. (2008). Powerful people make good decisions even when they consciously think. Psychological Science, 19, 1258-1259. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02207.x Spangler, W. D. (1992). Validity of questionnaire and TAT measures of need for achievement: Two meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 140-154. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.140 Strack, F., & Deutsch, R. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behaviour. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 220-247. doi:10.1207/-s15327957pspr0803_1 Strick, M., Dijksterhuis, A., & van Baaren, R. B. (2010). Unconscious-thought effects take place off-line, not on-line. Psychological Science, 21, 484-488. doi:10.1177/-0956797610363555 Wilson, T. D., & Schooler, J. W. (1991). Thinking too much: Introspection can reduce the quality of preferences and decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 181-192. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.60.2.181

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Matthias DONAT This is me (Primary Author)
Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
Germany


Claudia DALBERT This is me
Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
Germany

Publication Date November 28, 2017
Application Date May 15, 2017
Acceptance Date August 21, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume -, Issue 6

Cite

APA Donat, M. & Dalbert, C. (2017). The Justice Motive and Unconscious Decision Making . ViraVerita E-Dergi , - (6) , 15-35 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/viraverita/issue/37259/430409