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Göçün Güvenlikleştirilmesi: Almanya’da Aşırı Sağ Parti AfD’nin Yükselişi ve Suriyeli Mülteci Krizi

Year 2018, Volume -, Issue 8, 123 - 150, 18.12.2018

Abstract

Bu çalışmada Almanya İçin Alternatif Partisi’nin (Alternative für Deutschland) 2015’teki parti imajı ve kadro değişiminden sonra göçmen karşıtlığı temelinde politika yaparak hem eyalet parlamentolarında hem de ulusal parlamentoda elde ettiği başarılar üzerinde durulmuştur. Bu bağlamda çalışmanın hipotezi, Suriye İç Savaşı sonucunda Almanya’ya ulaşmayı hedefleyen mülteci göçünün artan oranının AfD’nin parti manifestosu, lider söylemleri ve seçim afişleri aracılığıyla bir güvenlikleştirme unsuru olarak kullanıldığı, böylece toplumsal alanda İslamofobi ve göçmen karşıtlığını kışkırttığı üzerinedir. Almanya’nın kriz içerisinde Avrupa’daki en fazla mülteci alan ülke olması toplumsal alanda göçe yönelik reflekslerin de burada en net şekilde gözlenmesine imkân sağlamıştır. Diğer yandan 2015 sonrası mülteci krizinin yoğunlaştığı sürece paralel olarak AfD’de büyük bir misyon değişikliği yaşandığı gözlemlenmiştir. Partinin neoliberal, Avrupa şüpheci, Euro karşıtı kimliği parti içindeki milliyetçi-muhafazakâr kesimin liderliği ele geçirmesiyle birlikte yabancı düşmanlığı ve göçmen karşıtlığı üzerinden şekillenmeye başlamıştır. Bu dönüşümden sonra göçün bir propaganda aracı olarak kullanılmasıyla birlikte AfD, eyalet parlamentolarında %25’e varan oranlara ulaşmış ve Almanya’da son durumda bütün eyalet parlamentolarında temsil edilir hale gelmiştir. Son olarak da, 2017 yılındaki genel seçimlerde Nazi döneminden bu yana Almanya’da Federal Parlamento’ya giren ilk aşırı sağ parti olması özelliğiyle hem Almanya siyasetinde hem de aşırı sağ literatüründe özgün bir konum kazanmıştır.

Dolayısıyla bu çalışmada 2013 yılında kurulan AfD’nin 2015 yılı itibariyle göçü bir propaganda aracı olarak kullanması; 2015-2017 yılları arasındaki parti programı, seçim afişleri ve liderlerinin söylemlerindeki göçmenlere ve Müslüman mültecilere yönelik güvenlikleştirici argümanlar çerçevesinde incelenecek ve bunun partinin toplumsal ve siyasal alandaki iktidarına yansımaları araştırılacaktır.

References

  • Alternative für Deustchland. (2016). Immigration, integration und asylum. Manifesto for Germany, https://www.afd.de/wp-content/uploads/sites/111/2017/04/2017-04-12_afdgrundsatzprogramm-englisch_web.pdf 12, (Erişim 18 Aralık, 2016).
  • Alternative für Deutschland. n.d. (2018, Ağustos 05). Meuthen: Asylbetrug konsequent ahnden, sozialleistungen für asylbewerber kürzen. Erişim Tarihi 5 Ağustos 2018. https://www.afd.de/meuthen-asylbetrug-konsequent-ahnden-sozialleistungen-fuerasylbewerber- kuerzen/
  • Arzheimer, K. (2015). The AfD: Finlally a successful right-wing populist eurosceptic party for Germany? West European Politics, 38(3),535-556.
  • Aslan, N. S. (2010). Migration and security: History, practice and theory. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ankara, Bilkent University, Department of International Relations, 70.
  • Benam, Ç. (2011). Emergence of a ‘Big Brother’ in Europe: Border control and securitization of migration. Insight Turkey. 13(3), 193.
  • Berbuir, N. (2015). Lewandowsky M. and Siri, J. The AfD and its sympathisers: Finally a rightwing populist movement in Germany? German Politics 24 (2), 154-178.
  • Betz, H. G. (2003). Xenophobia, identity politics and exclusionary populism in Western Europe. Socialist Register, 193-210.
  • Bigo, D. (2002). Security and immigration: Toward a critique of the governmentality of UNEAS. Alternatives 27 Special Issue, 63–92.
  • Kain, F. (2016, Ağustos 10). Bild will wissen, was er wirklich über die AfD denkt!. Bild. Retrieved from http://www.bild.de/politik/inland/alternative-fuer-deutschland/geht-mittuerkischem-model-auf-stimmenfang-47218678.bild.html
  • Bohman, A. and Hjerm, M. (2016). In The Wake Of Radical Right Electoral Success: A Cross- Country Comparative Study Of Anti İmmigration Attitudes Over Time. Journal Of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42(11), 1729-1747.
  • Bulman, M. (2016, Eylül 5). How anti-immigrant AfD Party is gaining ground in Germany in one map. Indipendent. Erişim (2016, Aralık 16) http://www.independent.co.uk/news/- world/europe/afd-germany-alternative-fur-deutschland-elections-map-statista-partya7226956. html.
  • Bundeswahlleiter.de (2017). Bundestag election 2017. The Federal Returning Officer. Erişim (2016, 10 Aralık), https://www.bundeswahlleiter.de/en/-bundestagswahlen/2017/-ergebnisse.html
  • Buofino, A. (2006). Between unity and plurality: The politicization and securitization of the dicourse of immigration in Europe. New Political Science 26 (1), 35.
  • Deutsche Welle. (2015, Ocak 14). ”PEGIDA a vehicle for discontent, fear of islamization secondary. Deutsche Welle. Erişim (18 Aralık 2016) http://www.dw.com/en/pegida-avehicle- for-discontent-fear-of-islamization-secondary/a-18192385.
  • Dudasova, M. (2016). Political consequences of the refugee crisis- the case of Germany. Economic Review, 45(3), 323.
  • Gans, H. J. (2017). Racialization and racialization research. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40(3), 341-352.
  • Grabow, K. (2016). Pegida and the Alternative für Deutschland: Two sides of the same coin? European View, 2.
  • Green, S. (2013). Germany: A changing country of immigration. German Politics 22 (3), 333- 351.
  • Grimm, R. (2015). The Rise of the German Eurosceptic party Alternative für Deutschland, between ordoliberal critique and popular anxiety. International Political Sciense Review, 36(3), 264-278.
  • Golder, M. (2003). Explaining Variation In The Success Of Extreme Right Parties In Western Europe. Comparative Political Studies 36(4), 432-466.
  • Hellmann, G. (2016). Germany’s World: Power and followership in a crisis ridden Europe. Global Affairs 2(1), 3-20.
  • Huysmans, J. (2000). The European Union and the securitization of migration. Journal Of Common Market Studies, 38(5), 751-777.
  • Ibrahim, M. (2005). The securitization of migration: A racial discourse. International Migration, 43(5), 164.
  • Kemper, A. (2015). AfD, Pegida and New Rigth in Germany. The European Far Right: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, G. Charalambous (Eds.), 44.
  • Krell, G., Nicklas, H. & Ostermann, A. (1996). Immigration, Asylum, and Anti-Foreigner Violence in Germany, Journal of Peace Research, 33(2), 153-170.
  • Lubbers, M., Gıjsberts, M. & Scheepers, P. (2002). Extreme right-wing voting ın Western Europe. European Journal Of Political Research, 41, 345-378.
  • Mandacı, N. ve Özerim, G. (2013). Uluslararası göçlerin bir güvenlik konusuna dönüşümü: Avrupa’da radikal sağ partiler ve göçün güvenlikleştirilmesi. Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi 10(39), 107.
  • Mudde, C. (1999). The single ıssue party thesis: extreme right parties and immigration issue. West European Politics, 22(3), 182-197.
  • Saeedy, A. (11 Mart 2016, Mart 11). Germany’s far right AfD Party is scaring Europe, And rising in the polls. Vice News. Erişim (2018, Kasım 4) https://news.vice.com/en_us/-article/43m74g/-germanys-far-right-afd-party-is-scaring-europe-and-rising-in-the-polls .
  • Sarmadi, D. & Sagener, N. (2015, Ocak 9). Germany’s rigt wing populists join hands with anti- Islamist PEGIDA. Euroactive. Erişim (2016, Aralık 18) https://www.euractiv.com/-section/-justice-home-affairs/-news/germany-s-right-wing-populists-join-hands-with-anti-islamistpegida/.
  • Schmitt-Beck, R. (2016). The ‘Alternative Für Deutschland in the electorate’: Between single issue and right wing populist party. German Politics, 1-24.
  • Voice of America. (2016, Mart 11). Germany’s Nationalist Party set for gains as three states vote. Voice of America. Erişim (2016, Aralık 18) http://www.voanews.com/a/germanysnationalist- party-set-gains-three-states-vote/3231977.html.

Securitization of Migration: Rising of Radical Right Wing Party 'AfD' in Germany and Syrian Refugee Crisis

Year 2018, Volume -, Issue 8, 123 - 150, 18.12.2018

Abstract

Hosting the largest number of refugees in Europe, Germany has witnessed the strongest reactions against immigration. This study examines how the AfD, with the change of its party manifesto and leadership, has manipulated the Syrian Refugee Crisis by using refugees as a political instrument post 2015. By constructing refugees as a security threat and provoking negative feelings in people against Muslims and refugees, the AfD has gained success both in Federal and State Parliaments, becoming the first radical right wing party to enter Federal Parliament after World War II. The main argument of this study is to show that the rise of Syrian refugee migration in Germany is used as a securitization instrument through AfD’s party manifesto, leaders’ discourse and election posters. As a result, the AfD achieved the spread of anti-immigration and Islamophobic sentiments in society. Furthermore, considering that migration as a result of Syrian civil war has intensified, AfD has redirected its party’s mission. Party identity and focus turned from Neoliberalism to anti-immigration and nationalism with the leadership change in AfD in 2015. After this process, by using refugees as an instrument of propaganda, AfD has reached 25% in state parliament elections. In this study, AfD’s securitization factors on immigration issues and the effects on the party’s success in both the social and political realm between 2015 and 2017 will be analysed.

References

  • Alternative für Deustchland. (2016). Immigration, integration und asylum. Manifesto for Germany, https://www.afd.de/wp-content/uploads/sites/111/2017/04/2017-04-12_afdgrundsatzprogramm-englisch_web.pdf 12, (Erişim 18 Aralık, 2016).
  • Alternative für Deutschland. n.d. (2018, Ağustos 05). Meuthen: Asylbetrug konsequent ahnden, sozialleistungen für asylbewerber kürzen. Erişim Tarihi 5 Ağustos 2018. https://www.afd.de/meuthen-asylbetrug-konsequent-ahnden-sozialleistungen-fuerasylbewerber- kuerzen/
  • Arzheimer, K. (2015). The AfD: Finlally a successful right-wing populist eurosceptic party for Germany? West European Politics, 38(3),535-556.
  • Aslan, N. S. (2010). Migration and security: History, practice and theory. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ankara, Bilkent University, Department of International Relations, 70.
  • Benam, Ç. (2011). Emergence of a ‘Big Brother’ in Europe: Border control and securitization of migration. Insight Turkey. 13(3), 193.
  • Berbuir, N. (2015). Lewandowsky M. and Siri, J. The AfD and its sympathisers: Finally a rightwing populist movement in Germany? German Politics 24 (2), 154-178.
  • Betz, H. G. (2003). Xenophobia, identity politics and exclusionary populism in Western Europe. Socialist Register, 193-210.
  • Bigo, D. (2002). Security and immigration: Toward a critique of the governmentality of UNEAS. Alternatives 27 Special Issue, 63–92.
  • Kain, F. (2016, Ağustos 10). Bild will wissen, was er wirklich über die AfD denkt!. Bild. Retrieved from http://www.bild.de/politik/inland/alternative-fuer-deutschland/geht-mittuerkischem-model-auf-stimmenfang-47218678.bild.html
  • Bohman, A. and Hjerm, M. (2016). In The Wake Of Radical Right Electoral Success: A Cross- Country Comparative Study Of Anti İmmigration Attitudes Over Time. Journal Of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42(11), 1729-1747.
  • Bulman, M. (2016, Eylül 5). How anti-immigrant AfD Party is gaining ground in Germany in one map. Indipendent. Erişim (2016, Aralık 16) http://www.independent.co.uk/news/- world/europe/afd-germany-alternative-fur-deutschland-elections-map-statista-partya7226956. html.
  • Bundeswahlleiter.de (2017). Bundestag election 2017. The Federal Returning Officer. Erişim (2016, 10 Aralık), https://www.bundeswahlleiter.de/en/-bundestagswahlen/2017/-ergebnisse.html
  • Buofino, A. (2006). Between unity and plurality: The politicization and securitization of the dicourse of immigration in Europe. New Political Science 26 (1), 35.
  • Deutsche Welle. (2015, Ocak 14). ”PEGIDA a vehicle for discontent, fear of islamization secondary. Deutsche Welle. Erişim (18 Aralık 2016) http://www.dw.com/en/pegida-avehicle- for-discontent-fear-of-islamization-secondary/a-18192385.
  • Dudasova, M. (2016). Political consequences of the refugee crisis- the case of Germany. Economic Review, 45(3), 323.
  • Gans, H. J. (2017). Racialization and racialization research. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40(3), 341-352.
  • Grabow, K. (2016). Pegida and the Alternative für Deutschland: Two sides of the same coin? European View, 2.
  • Green, S. (2013). Germany: A changing country of immigration. German Politics 22 (3), 333- 351.
  • Grimm, R. (2015). The Rise of the German Eurosceptic party Alternative für Deutschland, between ordoliberal critique and popular anxiety. International Political Sciense Review, 36(3), 264-278.
  • Golder, M. (2003). Explaining Variation In The Success Of Extreme Right Parties In Western Europe. Comparative Political Studies 36(4), 432-466.
  • Hellmann, G. (2016). Germany’s World: Power and followership in a crisis ridden Europe. Global Affairs 2(1), 3-20.
  • Huysmans, J. (2000). The European Union and the securitization of migration. Journal Of Common Market Studies, 38(5), 751-777.
  • Ibrahim, M. (2005). The securitization of migration: A racial discourse. International Migration, 43(5), 164.
  • Kemper, A. (2015). AfD, Pegida and New Rigth in Germany. The European Far Right: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, G. Charalambous (Eds.), 44.
  • Krell, G., Nicklas, H. & Ostermann, A. (1996). Immigration, Asylum, and Anti-Foreigner Violence in Germany, Journal of Peace Research, 33(2), 153-170.
  • Lubbers, M., Gıjsberts, M. & Scheepers, P. (2002). Extreme right-wing voting ın Western Europe. European Journal Of Political Research, 41, 345-378.
  • Mandacı, N. ve Özerim, G. (2013). Uluslararası göçlerin bir güvenlik konusuna dönüşümü: Avrupa’da radikal sağ partiler ve göçün güvenlikleştirilmesi. Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi 10(39), 107.
  • Mudde, C. (1999). The single ıssue party thesis: extreme right parties and immigration issue. West European Politics, 22(3), 182-197.
  • Saeedy, A. (11 Mart 2016, Mart 11). Germany’s far right AfD Party is scaring Europe, And rising in the polls. Vice News. Erişim (2018, Kasım 4) https://news.vice.com/en_us/-article/43m74g/-germanys-far-right-afd-party-is-scaring-europe-and-rising-in-the-polls .
  • Sarmadi, D. & Sagener, N. (2015, Ocak 9). Germany’s rigt wing populists join hands with anti- Islamist PEGIDA. Euroactive. Erişim (2016, Aralık 18) https://www.euractiv.com/-section/-justice-home-affairs/-news/germany-s-right-wing-populists-join-hands-with-anti-islamistpegida/.
  • Schmitt-Beck, R. (2016). The ‘Alternative Für Deutschland in the electorate’: Between single issue and right wing populist party. German Politics, 1-24.
  • Voice of America. (2016, Mart 11). Germany’s Nationalist Party set for gains as three states vote. Voice of America. Erişim (2016, Aralık 18) http://www.voanews.com/a/germanysnationalist- party-set-gains-three-states-vote/3231977.html.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Sabiha Nur MEÇ
0000-0003-0714-3795
Türkiye

Publication Date December 18, 2018
Application Date September 18, 2018
Acceptance Date December 5, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume -, Issue 8

Cite

APA Meç, S. N. (2018). Göçün Güvenlikleştirilmesi: Almanya’da Aşırı Sağ Parti AfD’nin Yükselişi ve Suriyeli Mülteci Krizi . ViraVerita E-Dergi , - (8) , 123-150 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/viraverita/issue/41684/510898