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FORM OF LIFE, DEMOCRACY AND HABIT: THE CONTOURS OF A POSSIBLE DIALOGUE BETWEEN HABIT AND DEMOCRACY

Year 2020, Volume , Issue 11, 185 - 198, 10.06.2020

Abstract

In this paper I will be tracing the argument according to which the (re)current discussion about the “death” or “end” of democracy” is a sign that democracy within its abstract procedural form and without being embedded in people’s interaction cannot survive. Consistent with this insight many scholars in critical tradition try to reflect on democracy with a peculiar phrase: form of life. Primarily, along with this notion democracy is conceptualized as a process of the embodied and unpredictable encounters in which collective wills and desires are formed. Based upon this understanding, firstly, I follow the arguments within the contemporary critical theory which address democracy as a process of dynamic and embodied interactions with the notion of form of life. Subsequently, I will try to argue that in order to achieve this goal, the notion of habit might offer a broader understanding. Here, by deploying habit as a coincidental interference or an ongoing negotiation between one’s surroundings and oneself in which one is being transformed while one is transforming her surroundings, my concern is to try to deepen our understanding of democracy as an embodied process that also might pave the way to address the issues from a different angle.

References

  • Agamben, G. (2016). The use of bodies. (Trans. Adam Kotsko). Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Aristotle (1938). Categories. (Ed. Jeffrey Henderson and Trans. H.P. Cooke). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Bennett, T. (2016). Mind the gap toward a political history of habit. The Comparatist, 40, 28- 55.
  • Breu, C. (2016). After the event toward a post-capitalist conception of structure and habit. The Comparatist, 40, 56-70.
  • Callanan, J. J. (2014). The role of the holy will. Hegel Bulletin, 35, 163-184.
  • Carlisle, C. (2006). Becoming and unbecoming: The theory and practice of anatta. Contemporary Buddhism, 7(1), 75– 89.
  • Carlisle, C. (2014). On habit. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Deleuze, G. (1991). Empiricism and subjectivity: An essay on hume’s theory of human nature. (Trans. C. V. Boundas). New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Dewey, J. (2002) [1922]. Human nature and conduct. New York: Dover.
  • Esposito, R. (2008). Totalitarianism or biopolitics? Concerning the philosophical interpretation of the 20th century. Critical Inquiry, 39, 633–45.
  • Forman, D. (2010). Second nature and spirit: Hegel on the role of habit in the appearance of perceptual consciousness. Southern Journal of Philosophy, 48(4), 325-352.
  • Gronow, A. J. (2011). From habits to social structures: Pragmatism and contemporary social theory. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
  • Hegel, G. W. F. (1971). Hegel’s philosophy of mind. (Trans. William Wallace and A. C. Miller). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Honneth, A. (2014). Freedom’s right: The social foundations of democratic life. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Honneth, A. (2017). The ıdea of socialism: Towards a renewal. London: Polity.
  • Jaeggi, R. (2018). Critique of forms of life. (Trans. Ciaran Cronin). USA: Harvard.
  • James, W. (2007). The principles of psychology (Vol. 1). NY: Cosimo.
  • Khurana, T. (2018). Politics of second nature. On the democratic dimension of ethical life. In Philosophie der Republik, Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer and Benno Zabel (Eds.), pp. 422- 436. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck GmbH and Co. KG.
  • Kilpinen, E. (2009). The habitual conception of action and social theory. Semiotica, 173, 99- 128.
  • Lapworth, A. (2015). Habit, art, and the plasticity of the subject: The ontogenetic shock of the bioart encounter. Cultural Geographies, 22(1), 85 -102.
  • Lévi-Strauss, C. (1966). The savage mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Levitsky, S. and Ziblatt, D. (2018). How democracies die. New York: Crown.
  • Lumsden, S. (2012). Habit, sittlichkeit and second nature. Critical Horizons, 13(2), 220-243. doi: 10.1558/crit.v13i2.220.
  • Malabou, C. (2010). Plasticity at the dusk of writing: dialectic, destruction, deconstruction. (Trans. Carolyn Shread). New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Merleau-Ponty, M. (2002). The phenomenology of perception. (Trans. Colin Smith). London: Routledge.
  • Nietzsche, F. (1977). The portable Nietzsche. New York: Viking.
  • Prozorov, S. (2017). Living a’la mode: Form-of-life and democratic biopolitics in Giorgio Agamben’s the use of bodies. Philosophy & Social Criticism, 43(2), 144-163.
  • Prozorov, S. (2019). Democratic biopolitics: Popular sovereignty and the power of life. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Ravaisson, F. (2009). Of habit. (Trans. Clare Carlisle and Mark Sinclair). London: Continuum.
  • Runciman D. (2018). How democracy ends. UK: Profile.
  • Saar, M. (2014). The ımmanence of power: From Spinoza to “radical democracy”. Mededelingen vanwege het Spinozahuis 106, Voorschooten: Uitgeverij Spinozahuis.
  • Sparrow, T. (2015). Plastic bodies (New metaphysics). Open Humanities Press.
  • Wormald, T. (2014). Sculpted selves, sculpted worlds: Plasticity and habit in the thought of Catherine Malabou. https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredi r=1&article=3902&context=etd (Access date: 20/03/2018)

YAŞAM BİÇİMİ, DEMOKRASİ VE ALIŞKANLIK: ALIŞKANLIK VE DEMOKRASİ ARASINDA OLASI BİR DİYALOĞUN HATLARI

Year 2020, Volume , Issue 11, 185 - 198, 10.06.2020

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, demokrasinin “ölümü” veya “sonu”na ilişkin (tekrar tekrar) gündeme gelen tartışmayı, demokrasinin soyut bir biçiminde ve insanlar arası etkileşimde tecessüm etmediği sürece ayakta kalamayacağının bir işareti olarak ele alan argümanın izi sürülecektir. Bu görüşe uygun olarak, eleştirel teori geleneği içinde yer alan birçok düşünür, demokrasiyi özgün bir kavramla ele almaktadır: yaşam biçimi. Bu kavramla demokrasi, kolektif irade ve arzuların biçimlendiği, tecessümsel ve öngörülemeyen karşılaşmaların alanı olarak kavramsallaştırılır. Bu anlayışa dayanarak, öncelikle ve kısaca, demokrasiyi yaşam biçimi kavramı ile tecessümsel ve dinamik bir etkileşim süreci olarak ele alan eleştirel teori içindeki argümanlar takip edilmiştir. Daha sonra, alışkanlık kavramının tecessümsel bir demokrasi için daha geniş bir anlayış sunabileceğini savunulmaya çalışılmıştır. Burada alışkanlık, kişinin çevresini dönüştürdükçe kendisinin de dönüştüğü, kişinin çevresiyle olan tesadüfi etkileşimini işaret eden bir süreç olarak, başka bir ifadeyle, sürekli devam eden bir müzakere süreci olarak tanımlanmış ve tecessümsel bir süreç olarak demokrasiye ilişkin anlayış derinleştirilmek istenmiştir. Böylelikle demokrasiye ilişkin sorunların, farklı bir açıdan ele almanın mümkün olabileceği savunulmuştur.

References

  • Agamben, G. (2016). The use of bodies. (Trans. Adam Kotsko). Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Aristotle (1938). Categories. (Ed. Jeffrey Henderson and Trans. H.P. Cooke). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Bennett, T. (2016). Mind the gap toward a political history of habit. The Comparatist, 40, 28- 55.
  • Breu, C. (2016). After the event toward a post-capitalist conception of structure and habit. The Comparatist, 40, 56-70.
  • Callanan, J. J. (2014). The role of the holy will. Hegel Bulletin, 35, 163-184.
  • Carlisle, C. (2006). Becoming and unbecoming: The theory and practice of anatta. Contemporary Buddhism, 7(1), 75– 89.
  • Carlisle, C. (2014). On habit. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Deleuze, G. (1991). Empiricism and subjectivity: An essay on hume’s theory of human nature. (Trans. C. V. Boundas). New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Dewey, J. (2002) [1922]. Human nature and conduct. New York: Dover.
  • Esposito, R. (2008). Totalitarianism or biopolitics? Concerning the philosophical interpretation of the 20th century. Critical Inquiry, 39, 633–45.
  • Forman, D. (2010). Second nature and spirit: Hegel on the role of habit in the appearance of perceptual consciousness. Southern Journal of Philosophy, 48(4), 325-352.
  • Gronow, A. J. (2011). From habits to social structures: Pragmatism and contemporary social theory. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
  • Hegel, G. W. F. (1971). Hegel’s philosophy of mind. (Trans. William Wallace and A. C. Miller). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Honneth, A. (2014). Freedom’s right: The social foundations of democratic life. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Honneth, A. (2017). The ıdea of socialism: Towards a renewal. London: Polity.
  • Jaeggi, R. (2018). Critique of forms of life. (Trans. Ciaran Cronin). USA: Harvard.
  • James, W. (2007). The principles of psychology (Vol. 1). NY: Cosimo.
  • Khurana, T. (2018). Politics of second nature. On the democratic dimension of ethical life. In Philosophie der Republik, Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer and Benno Zabel (Eds.), pp. 422- 436. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck GmbH and Co. KG.
  • Kilpinen, E. (2009). The habitual conception of action and social theory. Semiotica, 173, 99- 128.
  • Lapworth, A. (2015). Habit, art, and the plasticity of the subject: The ontogenetic shock of the bioart encounter. Cultural Geographies, 22(1), 85 -102.
  • Lévi-Strauss, C. (1966). The savage mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Levitsky, S. and Ziblatt, D. (2018). How democracies die. New York: Crown.
  • Lumsden, S. (2012). Habit, sittlichkeit and second nature. Critical Horizons, 13(2), 220-243. doi: 10.1558/crit.v13i2.220.
  • Malabou, C. (2010). Plasticity at the dusk of writing: dialectic, destruction, deconstruction. (Trans. Carolyn Shread). New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Merleau-Ponty, M. (2002). The phenomenology of perception. (Trans. Colin Smith). London: Routledge.
  • Nietzsche, F. (1977). The portable Nietzsche. New York: Viking.
  • Prozorov, S. (2017). Living a’la mode: Form-of-life and democratic biopolitics in Giorgio Agamben’s the use of bodies. Philosophy & Social Criticism, 43(2), 144-163.
  • Prozorov, S. (2019). Democratic biopolitics: Popular sovereignty and the power of life. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Ravaisson, F. (2009). Of habit. (Trans. Clare Carlisle and Mark Sinclair). London: Continuum.
  • Runciman D. (2018). How democracy ends. UK: Profile.
  • Saar, M. (2014). The ımmanence of power: From Spinoza to “radical democracy”. Mededelingen vanwege het Spinozahuis 106, Voorschooten: Uitgeverij Spinozahuis.
  • Sparrow, T. (2015). Plastic bodies (New metaphysics). Open Humanities Press.
  • Wormald, T. (2014). Sculpted selves, sculpted worlds: Plasticity and habit in the thought of Catherine Malabou. https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredi r=1&article=3902&context=etd (Access date: 20/03/2018)

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Önder ÖZDEN (Primary Author)
0000-0002-8311-3718
Türkiye

Publication Date June 10, 2020
Application Date October 10, 2019
Acceptance Date May 15, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume , Issue 11

Cite

Bibtex @research article { viraverita635676, journal = {ViraVerita E-Dergi}, issn = {2149-3081}, address = {Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi}, publisher = {Çetin TÜRKYILMAZ}, year = {2020}, volume = {}, pages = {185 - 198}, doi = {}, title = {FORM OF LIFE, DEMOCRACY AND HABIT: THE CONTOURS OF A POSSIBLE DIALOGUE BETWEEN HABIT AND DEMOCRACY}, key = {cite}, author = {Özden, Önder} }
APA Özden, Ö. (2020). FORM OF LIFE, DEMOCRACY AND HABIT: THE CONTOURS OF A POSSIBLE DIALOGUE BETWEEN HABIT AND DEMOCRACY . ViraVerita E-Dergi , (11) , 185-198 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/viraverita/issue/54815/635676
MLA Özden, Ö. "FORM OF LIFE, DEMOCRACY AND HABIT: THE CONTOURS OF A POSSIBLE DIALOGUE BETWEEN HABIT AND DEMOCRACY" . ViraVerita E-Dergi (2020 ): 185-198 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/viraverita/issue/54815/635676>
Chicago Özden, Ö. "FORM OF LIFE, DEMOCRACY AND HABIT: THE CONTOURS OF A POSSIBLE DIALOGUE BETWEEN HABIT AND DEMOCRACY". ViraVerita E-Dergi (2020 ): 185-198
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - FORM OF LIFE, DEMOCRACY AND HABIT: THE CONTOURS OF A POSSIBLE DIALOGUE BETWEEN HABIT AND DEMOCRACY AU - Önder Özden Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - DO - T2 - ViraVerita E-Dergi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 185 EP - 198 VL - IS - 11 SN - 2149-3081- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 ViraVerita E-Journal FORM OF LIFE, DEMOCRACY AND HABIT: THE CONTOURS OF A POSSIBLE DIALOGUE BETWEEN HABIT AND DEMOCRACY %A Önder Özden %T FORM OF LIFE, DEMOCRACY AND HABIT: THE CONTOURS OF A POSSIBLE DIALOGUE BETWEEN HABIT AND DEMOCRACY %D 2020 %J ViraVerita E-Dergi %P 2149-3081- %V %N 11 %R %U
ISNAD Özden, Önder . "FORM OF LIFE, DEMOCRACY AND HABIT: THE CONTOURS OF A POSSIBLE DIALOGUE BETWEEN HABIT AND DEMOCRACY". ViraVerita E-Dergi / 11 (June 2020): 185-198 .
AMA Özden Ö. FORM OF LIFE, DEMOCRACY AND HABIT: THE CONTOURS OF A POSSIBLE DIALOGUE BETWEEN HABIT AND DEMOCRACY. viraverita. 2020; (11): 185-198.
Vancouver Özden Ö. FORM OF LIFE, DEMOCRACY AND HABIT: THE CONTOURS OF A POSSIBLE DIALOGUE BETWEEN HABIT AND DEMOCRACY. ViraVerita E-Dergi. 2020; (11): 185-198.
IEEE Ö. Özden , "FORM OF LIFE, DEMOCRACY AND HABIT: THE CONTOURS OF A POSSIBLE DIALOGUE BETWEEN HABIT AND DEMOCRACY", ViraVerita E-Dergi, no. 11, pp. 185-198, Jun. 2020