Year 2018, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 157 - 167 2018-12-24

Investigation of Candida Microorganisms Adherence to Polymeric Surfaces: A Review
Candida Mikroorganizmalarının Polimerik Yüzeylere Yapışmasının İncelenmesi

Hakan Kır [1] , İkrime Orkan Uçar [2] , Özge Kılınçel [3] , Emel Çalışkan [4]

67 131

Microorganism adhesion on a material surface plays a crucial role on the application of biomedical devices, implants, drug delivery systems, scaffolds and so on. Desirable surfaces which have bioactive, bioinert or anti-biofoul property can be prepared by physical adsorption of specific compounds on these surfaces or chemical modification. Micro/nano patterned surface fabrication is one of the most important ways of surface modification. Studies reveal that surface properties such as wettability (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity) character of a surface, surface charge, surface free energy, and surface roughness effects the adhesion of the microorganisms on material surfaces.


The aim of this study is the investigation of relationship between surface properties of polymeric materials and adhesion of Candida microorganisms who known as opportunist pathogens in medical area and the main reason of the systemic fungal infections.

Bir malzeme yüzeyi üzerindeki mikroorganizma adezyonu biyomedikal cihazlar, implantlar, ilaç salım sistemleri, yapı iskeleleri v.b. uygulamalarda kritik önem taşır. Biyoaktif, biyoinert, biyolojik kirlenmeyi önleyici özelliklere sahip olması istenen yüzeyler, spesifik bileşiklerin bu yüzeyler üzerine fiziksel adsorpsiyonu  ya da kimyasal modifikasyon ile hazırlanabilirler. Mikro/nano desenli yüzey üretimi yüzey modifikasyon yollarının en önemli olanlarından biridir. Çalışmalar ıslatılabilirlik (hidrofilisite/hidrofobisite), bir yüzeyin karakteri, yüzey yükü, serbest yüzey enerjisi ve yüzey pürüzlülüğü gibi yüzey özelliklerinin malzeme yüzeylerine olan mikroorganizma adezyonunu etkilediğini ortaya koymaktadır.


Bu çalışmanın amacı polimerik materyallerin yüzey özellikleri ile medikal alanda fırsatçı patojenler olarakta bilinen ve sistemik mantar enfeksiyonlarının başlıca sebebi olan Candida mikroorganizmalarının adezyonu arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektir.

  • [1] Tournu H. and Van Dijck P. Candida biofilms and the host: models and new concepts for eradication. International Journal of Microbiology, 2012, 2012: 1-16. DOI: 10.1155/2012/845352
  • [2] Donlan R. M. and Costerton J. W. Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 2002, 15: 167-193. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.15.2.167-193.2002
  • [3] Bothwell M. R., Smith A. L. and Phillips T. Recalcitrant otorrhea due to Pseudomonas biofilm. Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery, 2003, 129: 599-601. DOI: 10.1016/S0194-5998(03)01395-0
  • [4] Post J. C., Hiller N. L., Nistico L., Stoodley P. and Ehrlich G. D. The role of biofilms in otolaryngologic infections: update 2007. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, 2007, 15: 347-351. DOI: 10.1097/MOO.0b013e3282b97327
  • [5] Ramage G., VandeWalle K., Wickes B. L. and López–Ribot J. L. Characteristics of biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Revista Iberoamericana De Micologia, 2001, 18: 163-170.
  • [6] Andes D., Nett J., Oschel P., Albrecht R., Marchillo K. and Pitula A. Development and characterization of an in vivo central venous catheter Candida albicans biofilm model. Infection and Immunity, 2004, 72: 6023-6031. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.72.10.6023–6031.2004
  • [7] Rodrigues L. R., Banat I. M., van der Mei H. C., Teixeira J. A. and Oliveira R. Interference in adhesion of bacteria and yeasts isolated from explanted voice prostheses to silicone rubber by rhamnolipid biosurfactants. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2006, 100: 470-480. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02826.x
  • [8] Imamura Y., Chandra J., Mukherjee P. K., Lattif A. A., Szczotka-Flynn L. B., Pearlman E., Lass J. H., O’Donnell K. and Ghannoum M. A. Fusarium and Candida albicans biofilms on soft contact lenses: model development, influence of lens type, and susceptibility to lens care solutions. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2008, 52: 171-182. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00387-07
  • [9] Chatterjee S., Maiti P. K., Dey R., Kundu A. K. and Dey R. K. Biofilms on indwelling urologic devices: microbes and antimicrobial management prospect. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 2014, 4: 100-104. DOI: 10.4103/2141-9248.126612
  • [10] Jones H. C., Roth I. L. and Sanders W. M. Electron microscopic study of a slime layer. Journal of Bacteriology, 1969, 99: 316-325.
  • [11] Marsh P. D. Dental plaque, Microbial biofilms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995.
  • [12] Rather P. N. Swarmer cell differentiation in proteus mirabilis. Environmental Microbiology, 2005, 7: 1065-1073. DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00806.x
  • [13] Altun H. U. and Sener B. Biofilm infections and antimicrobial resistance. Hacettepe Tıp Dergisi, 2008, 39: 82-88.
  • [14] Potera C. Microbiology: Forging a link between biofilms and disease. Science, 1999, 283: 1837-1839. DOI: 10.1126/science.283.5409.1837
  • [15] Lindsay D. and von Holy A. Bacterial biofilms within the clinical setting: what healthcare professionals should know. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2006, 64: 313-325. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2006.06.028
  • [16] Kumamoto C. A. Candida biofilms. Current Opinion in Microbiology, 2002, 5: 608-611. DOI:
  • [17] Coenye T., De Prijck K., Nailis H. and Nelis H. J. Prevention of Candida albicans biofilm formation. The Open Mycology Journal, 2011, 5: 9-20. DOI: 10.2174/1874437001105010009
  • [18] Winn W. C., Allen S. D., Janda W. M., Koneman E. W., Procop G. W., Schreckenberger P. C. and Woods G. L. Mycology. Koneman's Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA, 2006.
  • [19] Yucel A. and Kantarcioğlu A. S. Epidemiology of hospital acquired (nosocomial) fungal infections. Cerrahpaşa Journal of Medicine, 2001, 32: 259-269.
  • [20] Birinci A., Cihan C. C., Bilgin K., Acuner C. and Durupınar B. The investigation of slime production in Candida species. Türk Mikrobiyoloji Cemiyeti Dergisi, 2005, 35: 163-166.
  • [21] Cannon R. D. and Chaffin W. L. Oral colonization by Candida albicans. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine. 1999, 10: 359-383. DOI: 10.1177/10454411990100030701
  • [22] Kavanagh K., Sullivan D., Moran G. and Coleman D. Fungal diseases of humans. Fungi: Biology and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2005.
  • [23] Hawser S. P. and Douglas L. J. Biofilm formation by Candida species on the surface of catheter materials in vitro. Infection and Immunity, 1994, 62: 915-921.
  • [24] Chandra J., Patel J. D., Li J., Zhou G., Mukherjee P. K., McCormick T. S., Anderson J. M. and Ghannoum M. A. Modification of surface properties of biomaterials influences the ability of Candida albicans to form biofilms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2005, 71: 8795-8801. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.71.12.8795–8801.2005
  • [25] Jin Y., Samaranayake L. P., Samaranayake Y. and Yip H. K. Biofilm formation of Candida albicans is variably affected by saliva and dietary sugars. Archives of Oral Biology, 2004, 49: 789-798. DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2004.04.011
  • [26] Krom B. P., Cohen, J. B., McElhaney Feser G. E. and Cihlar R. L. Optimized Candidal biofilm microtiter assay. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2007, 68: 421-423. DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2006.08.003
  • [27] Millsap K. W., Bos R., Busscher H. J. and Van der Mei H. C. Surface aggregation of Candida albicans on glass in the absence and presence of adhering Streptococcus gordoni in a parallel-plate flow chamber: a surface thermodynamical analysis based on acid-base interactions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1999, 212: 495-502. DOI: 10.1006/jcis.1998.6054
  • [28] Gallardo-Moreno A. M., González-Martín M. L., Pérez-Giraldo C., Bruque J. M. and Gómez-García A. C. The measurement temperature: an important factor relating physicochemical and adhesive properties of yeast cells to biomaterials. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2004, 271: 351-358. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2003.12.008
  • [29] Davey M. E. and O’toole G. A. Microbial biofilms: from ecology to molecular genetics. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 2000, 64: 847-867. DOI: 10.1128/MMBR.64.4.847-867.2000
  • [30] Donlan R. M. Biofilms: microbial life on surface. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2002, 8: 881-890. DOI: 10.3201/eid0809.020063
  • [31] Chandra J., Kuhn D. M., Mukherjee P. K., Hoyer L. L., Mccormick T. and Ghannoum M. A. Biofilm formation by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans: development, architecture, and drug resistance. Journal of Bacteriology, 2001, 183: 5385-5394. DOI: 10.1128/JB.183.18.5385-5394.2001
  • [32] Blankenship J. R. and Mitchell A. P. How to build a biofilm: a fungal perspective. Current Opinion in Microbiology, 2006, 9: 588-594. DOI: 10.1016/j.mib.2006.10.003
  • [33] ten Cate J. M., Klis F. M., Pereira-Cenci T., Crielaard W. and de Groot P. W. J. Molecular and cellular mechanisms that lead to Candida biofilm formation. Journal of Dental Research, 2009, 88: 105-115. DOI: 10.1177/0022034508329273
  • [34] Darwazeh A. M. G., Lamey P. J., Samaranayake L. P., Macfarlane T. W., Fisher B. M., Macrury S. M. and Maccuish A. C. The relationship between colonisation, secretor status and in-vitro adhesion of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells from diabetics. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 1990, 33: 43-49. DOI: 10.1099/00222615-33-1-43
  • [35] Samaranayake Y. H., Wu P. C., Samaranayake L. P. and So M. Relationship between the cell surface hydrophobicity and adherence of Candida krusei and Candida albicans to epithelial and denture acrylic surfaces. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica, 1995, 103: 707-713. DOI:
  • [36] Seneviratne C. J., Jin L. and Samaranayake L. P. Biofilm lifestyle of Candida: a mini review. Oral Diseases, 2008, 14: 582-590. DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2007.01424.x
  • [37] Cousins B. G., Allison H. E., Doherty P. J., Edwards C., Garvey M. J., Martin D. S. and Williams R. L. Effects of a nanoparticulate silica substrate on cell attachment of Candida albicans. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2007, 102: 757-765. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.03124.x
  • [38] Erbil H. Y. Surface chemistry of solid and liquid interfaces. Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2006.
  • [39] Vladkova T. G. Surface engineering of polymeric biomaterials. iSmithers Rapra Publishing, United Kingdom, 2013.
  • [40] Minagi S., Miyake Y., Inagaki K., Tsuru H. and Suginaka H. Hydrophobic interaction in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis adherence to various denture base resin materials. Infection and Immunity, 1985, 47: 11-14.
  • [41] Klotz S. A., Drutz D. J. and Zaric J. E. Factors governing adherence of Candida species to plastic surfaces. Infection and Immunity, 1985, 50: 97-101.
  • [42] Nikawa H., Chen, J., Hamada T., Nishumura M. and Polyzois G. Candida albicans colonization on thermal cycled maxillofacial polymeric materials in vitro. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 2001, 28: 526-533. DOI:
  • [43] Park S. E., Periathamby A. R. and Loza J. C. Effect of surface-charged poly(methyl methacrylate) on the adhesion of Candida albicans. Journal of Prosthodontics, 2003, 12: 249-254. DOI: 10.1016/S1059-941X(03)00107-4
  • [44] Gallardo-Moreno A. M., Gonzales-Martin M. L., Bruque J. M. and Perez-Giraldo C. The adhesion strength of Candida parapsilosis to glass and silicone as a function of hydrophobicity, roughness and cell morphology. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2004, 249: 99-103. DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2004.08.058
  • [45] Yıldırım M. S., Hasanresioglu U., Hasırcı N. and Sultan N. Adherence of Candida albicans to glow-discharge modified acrylic denture base polymers. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 2005, 32: 518-525. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2005.01454.x
  • [46] Zhou L., Tong Z., Wu G., Feng Z., Bai S., Dong Y., Ni L. and Zhao Y. Parylene coating hinders Candida albicans adhesion to silicone elastomers and denture bases resin. Archives of Oral Biology, 2010, 55: 401-409. DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2010.03.013
  • [47] Singh N., Agrawal V., Pemmaraju S. C., Panwar R. and Pruthi V. Impact of infectious Candida albicans biofilm on biomaterials. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 2011, 10: 417-422.
  • [48] Kang S. H., Lee H. J., Hong S. H., Kim K. H. and Kwon T. Y. Influence of surface characteristics on the adhesion of Candida albicans to various denture lining materials. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 2013, 71: 241-248. DOI: 10.3109/00016357.2012.671360
  • [49] Atay A., Piskin B., Akin H., Sipahi C., Karakas A. and Saracli M. A. Evaluation of Candida albicans adherence on the surface of various maxillofacial silicone materials. Journal de Mycologie Médicale, 2013, 23: 27-32. DOI:
  • [50] Koch C., Bürgers R. and Hahnel S. Candida albicans adherence and proliferation on the surface of denture base materials. Gerodontolojy, 2013, 30: 309-313. DOI: 10.1111/ger.12056
  • [51] Serrano-Granger C., Cerero-Lapiedra R. and Campo-Trapero J. In vitro study of the adherence of Candida albicans to acrylic resins: relationship to surface energy. The International Journal of Prosthodontics, 2005, 18: 392-398.
  • [52] Moura J. S., da Silva W. J., Pereira T., Del Bel Cury A. A. and Rodrigues Garcia R. C. Influence of acrylic resin polymerization methods and saliva on the adherence of four Candida species. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 2006, 96: 205-211. DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2006.07.004
  • [53] Pereira-Cenci T., Cury A. A., Cenci M. S. and Rodrigues-Garcia R. C. In vitro Candida colonization on acrylic resins and denture liners: influence of surface free energy, roughness, saliva, and adhering bacteria. International Journal of Prosthodontics, 2007, 20: 308-310.
  • [54] Pan H., Wang G., Pan J., Ye G., Sun K., Zhang J. and Wang J. Cold plasma-induced surface modification of heat-polymerized acrylic resin and prevention of early adherence of Candida albicans. Dental Materials Journal, 2015, 34: 529-536. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2015-035 JOI JST.JSTAGE/dmj/2015-035
  • [55] Radford D. R., Sweet S. P., Challocombe S. J. and Walter J. D. Adherance of Candida albicans to denture-base materials with different surface finishes. Journal of Dentistry, 1998, 26: 577-583. DOI:
  • [56] Yamauchi M., Yamamoto K., Wakabayashi M. and Kawano J. In vitro adherence of microorganisms to denture base resin with different surface texture. Dental Materials Journal, 1990, 9: 19-24. DOI:
  • [57] Verran J., Lees G. and Shakespeare A. P. “The effect of surface roughness on the adhesion of Candida albicans to acrylic. Biofouling, 1991, 3: 183-191. DOI: 10.1080/08927019109378173
  • [58] Al Bakri I. A., Harty D., Al Omari W. M., Swain M. V., Chrzanowski W. and Ellakwa A. Surface characteristics and microbial adherence ability of modified polymethylmethacrylate by fluoridated glass fillers. Australian Dentral Journal, 2014, 59: 482-489. DOI: 10.1111/adj.12218
  • [59] Bollen C. M., Lambrechts P. and Quirynen M. Comparison of surface roughness of oral hard materials to the threshold surface roughness for bacterial plaque retention: a review of the literature. Dental Materials, 1997, 13: 258-269. DOI:
  • [60] Morgan T. D. and Wilson M. The effects of surface roughness and type of denture acrylic on biofilm formation by Streptococcus Oralis in a constant depth film fermentor. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2001, 91: 47-53. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01338.x
  • [61] Zamperini C. A., Pa dos Santos Schiavinato P. C., Machado A. L., Giampaolo E. T., Pavarina A. C. and Vergani C. E. Effect of different periods of preconditioning with saliva on Candida albicans adhesion to a denture base resin bycrystal violet staining and XTT assay. Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry, 2010, 1: 114-119. DOI: 10.1111/j.2041-1626.2010.00013.x
  • [62] Wilson M. and Harvey W. Prevention of bacterial adhesion to denture acrylic. Journal of Dentistry, 1989, 17:166-170. DOI:
  • [63] Nikawa H., Jin C., Hamada T. and Murata H. Interactions between thermal cycled resilient denture lining materials, salivary and serum pellicles and Candida albicans in vitro. Part I. Effects on fungal growth. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 2000, 27: 41-51.
  • [64] Samaranayake L. P., McCourtie J. and MacFarlane T. W. Factors affecting the in vitro adherence of Candida albicans to acrylic surfaces. Archives of Oral Biology, 1980, 25: 611-615. DOI:
  • [65] Karaagaclioglu L., Can G., Yilmaz B., Ayhan N., Semiz O. and Levent H. The adherence of Candida albicans to acrylic resin reinforced with different fibers. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 2008, 19: 959-963. DOI: 10.1007/s10856-007-3177-4
Primary Language en
Subjects Engineering, Chemical
Journal Section Conference Paper

Orcid: 0000-0002-6330-1666
Author: Hakan Kır
Country: Turkey

Orcid: 0000-0003-4026-1830
Author: İkrime Orkan Uçar (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey

Orcid: 0000-0003-1872-6670
Author: Özge Kılınçel
Country: Turkey

Orcid: 0000-0002-9451-7865
Author: Emel Çalışkan
Country: Turkey


Publication Date: December 24, 2018

Bibtex @conference paper { gmbd427557, journal = {Gazi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (GMBD)}, issn = {2149-4916}, eissn = {2149-9373}, address = {Aydın KARAPINAR}, year = {2018}, volume = {4}, pages = {157 - 167}, doi = {}, title = {Investigation of Candida Microorganisms Adherence to Polymeric Surfaces: A Review}, key = {cite}, author = {Kır, Hakan and Orkan Uçar, İkrime and Kılınçel, Özge and Çalışkan, Emel} }
APA Kır, H , Orkan Uçar, İ , Kılınçel, Ö , Çalışkan, E . (2018). Investigation of Candida Microorganisms Adherence to Polymeric Surfaces: A Review. Gazi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (GMBD), 4 (3), 157-167. Retrieved from
MLA Kır, H , Orkan Uçar, İ , Kılınçel, Ö , Çalışkan, E . "Investigation of Candida Microorganisms Adherence to Polymeric Surfaces: A Review". Gazi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (GMBD) 4 (2018): 157-167 <>
Chicago Kır, H , Orkan Uçar, İ , Kılınçel, Ö , Çalışkan, E . "Investigation of Candida Microorganisms Adherence to Polymeric Surfaces: A Review". Gazi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (GMBD) 4 (2018): 157-167
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Investigation of Candida Microorganisms Adherence to Polymeric Surfaces: A Review AU - Hakan Kır , İkrime Orkan Uçar , Özge Kılınçel , Emel Çalışkan Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - Gazi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (GMBD) JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 157 EP - 167 VL - 4 IS - 3 SN - 2149-4916-2149-9373 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Gazi Journal of Engineering Sciences (GJES) Investigation of Candida Microorganisms Adherence to Polymeric Surfaces: A Review %A Hakan Kır , İkrime Orkan Uçar , Özge Kılınçel , Emel Çalışkan %T Investigation of Candida Microorganisms Adherence to Polymeric Surfaces: A Review %D 2018 %J Gazi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (GMBD) %P 2149-4916-2149-9373 %V 4 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Kır, Hakan , Orkan Uçar, İkrime , Kılınçel, Özge , Çalışkan, Emel . "Investigation of Candida Microorganisms Adherence to Polymeric Surfaces: A Review". Gazi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (GMBD) 4 / 3 (December 2018): 157-167.
AMA Kır H , Orkan Uçar İ , Kılınçel Ö , Çalışkan E . Investigation of Candida Microorganisms Adherence to Polymeric Surfaces: A Review. GJES. 2018; 4(3): 157-167.
Vancouver Kır H , Orkan Uçar İ , Kılınçel Ö , Çalışkan E . Investigation of Candida Microorganisms Adherence to Polymeric Surfaces: A Review. Gazi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (GMBD). 2018; 4(3): 167-157.