Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

DESTİNASYON İMAJ ÖLÇEĞİNİN İNGİLİZ, ALMAN VE RUS TURİSTLER ARASINDA FARKSIZLIĞININ TEST EDİLMESİ: ÇOKLU GRUP DOĞRULAYICI FAKTÖR ANALİZİ

Yıl 2018, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 119 - 146, 13.12.2018
https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.449176

Öz

Araştırmacılar destinasyon imajının çok boyutlu ve karmaşık tutum yapısına sahip olduğu konusunda fikir birliğine sahiptir. Sosyal psikoloji, bilişsel, duyuşsal ve davranışsal olmak üzere 3 tutum bileşenini ele almaktadır. Bu araştırma, (i) tüm tutum bileşenlerini içeren bütünsel ölçek geliştirerek , (ii) parselleme tekniği ile derinliği arttırılmış bir ölçüm aracı geliştirerek ve (iii) bu ölçeği İngiliz, Alman ve Rus turistler ile 3 milliyet üzerinde milliyetler arası farksızlığı test ederek literatüre üç alanda katkı sağlamaktadır. Araştırma 2017 yaz aylarında Antalya havalimanında Antalya’ya tatil amaçlı seyahat eden İngiliz, Alman ve Rus toplam 1495 katılımcı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Antalya Türkiye’nin güneyinde Akdeniz kıyısında bulunan mevsimsel bir kitle turizm destinasyonudur. 

Kaynakça

  • Agapito, D., Valle, P. O. and Mendes, J. C. (2013). The Cognitive-Affective-Conative Model of Destination Image: A Confirmatory Analysis. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(5), 471-481
  • Aksu, G., Eser, M. T., Güzeller, C. (2017). Açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ile yapısal eşitlik modeli uygulamaları. Detay yayıncılık, Ankara
  • Aktas, A., Aksu, A. A., & Cizel, B. (2003). Tourist profile research: Antalya region example 2001. Tourism Review, 58(1), 34–40.
  • Allport, G. W. (1935). Attitudes. In C. Murchison (Ed.), A handbook of social psychologyn(pp. 798–844). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
  • Aranson, E., Wilson, T. D., Akert, R. M.,(2010). Sosyal Psikoloji (Social Psychology, translated by O. Gündüz), Kaktüs publications, İstanbul
  • Awang, Z. (2012). Structural equation modeling using AMOS graphic, UITM Press.
  • Baloglu, S. & Brinberg , D. (1997). Affective Images of Tourism Destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 35(4), 11-15
  • Baloglu, S. & McClearly, K. W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Reseacrh, 26(4): 868-897
  • Baloglu, S. (2001). Image variations of Turkey by familiarity index: informational and experiential dimensions. Tourism Management, 22: 127-133
  • Beerli, A. & Martin, J. D. (2004a). Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: a quantitative analysis—a case study of Lanzarote, Spain. Tourism Management, 25(5): 623-636
  • Beerli, A. & Martin, J. D. (2004b). Factors influencing destination image. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3): 657-681
  • Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. NY: Wiley.
  • Bosque, I. R. & Martin, H. S. (2008). Tourist Satisfaction: A cognitive-affective model. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(2): 551-573
  • Byrne, B. M. (2004). Testing for Multigroup Invariance Using AMOS Graphics: A Road Less Traveled, Structural Equation Modeling, 11(2), 272-300
  • Caplan, S. E. (2005). A social skill account of problematic internet use. Journal of Communication, 55: 721-736
  • Churchill, G. A. Jr. (1979) A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs, Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1): 64-73
  • Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16: 297–334.
  • DeVellis, R. (2003). Scale development: Theory and application. New York, NY: Sage.
  • Echtner, C. M. and Ritchie, J. R. B, (1993). The Measurement of Destination Image: An Empirical Assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 31(4): 3-13
  • Engel, K. S. and Moosbrugger , H., Müller, H.(2003). Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodness-of-Fit Measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2): 23-74
  • Fayeke, P. C. & Crompton, J. L. (1991). Image differences between prospective, first-time and repeat visitors to the lower Rio Grande Valley. Journal of Travel Research, 30(2): 10-16
  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1): 39-50.
  • Gartner, W. (1993). Image formation process. In M. Uysal & D. Fesenmaier (Eds.), Communication and channel systems in tourism marketing (pp. 191–215). New York, NY: The Haworth Press.
  • Gursoy, D. (Ed.) and Chi, C. G. (Ed.). 2018). The Routledge Handbook of Destination Marketing. London: Routledge.)
  • Hair, J. F., Black,W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis (8th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.
  • Hall, R. J., Snell, A. F., Foust, M. S. (1999). Item Parceling Strategies in SEM: Investigating the Subtle Effects of Unmodeled Secondary Constructs. Organizational Research Methods, 2(3): 233-256
  • Hilgard, E. R. (1980), The triology of mind: Cognition, affection and conation, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 16: 107-117.
  • Hirschfeld, G. & von Brachel, R. (2014). Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 19(7): 1-12
  • Jöreskog, K. G. (1971). Simultaneous factor analysis in several populations. Psychometrika, 36: 409-426.
  • Kaiser, H. (1974). An index of factor simplicity. Psychometrika, 39: 31–36.
  • Kozak, M. (2002). Comparative analysis of tourist motivations by nationality and destinations. Tourism Management, 23(3): 221-232.
  • Kozak, M., Martin, D. (2012). Tourism life cycle and sustainability analysis: Profit-focused strategies for mature destinations. Tourism Management, 33: 188-194
  • Landis, R. S., Beale, D. J., & Tesluk, P. E. (2000). A comparison of approaches to forming composite measures in structural equation modeling. Organizational Research Methods, 3: 186–207.
  • Matsugana, M. (2008). Item Parceling in Structural Equation Modeling: A Primer. Communication Methods and Measures, 2(4): 260-293
  • Miyamoto, T. and Iwasaki, K. (2013). Tourism Appeal as the Driver of a Convention Attendee’s Destination Loyalty: Insights from two Japanese regional conventions. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276270716_Authentic_Tourism_Appeal_as_the_Driver_of_a_Convention_Attendee's_Destination_Loyalty_Insights_from_two_Japanese_regional_conventions (Accessed on: 06.04.2018)
  • Ozdemir, B., Aksu, A., Ehtiyar, R., Cizel, B., Cizel, R. B., and Icigen, E. T. (2012). Relationships Among Tourist Profile, Satisfaction and Destination Loyalty: Examining Empirical Evidences in Antalya Region of Turkey, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 21(5): 506-540
  • Pearce, P. L. (2005). Tourist behavior: Themes and conceptual schemes. UK, USA, Canada: Channel View Publications
  • Pike, S. & Ryan, C. (2004). Destination Positioning Analysis through a Comparison of Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Perceptions. Journal of Travel Research, 42: 333-342
  • Pike, S. (2007). Destination Image Questionnaires – The Trial of a ‘Don’t Know’ Option. Journal of Travel and Tourism Research, Fall 2007: 151-160
  • Russel, J. A. and Pratt, G. (1980). A Description of the Affective Quality Attributed to Environments . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(2): 311-322
  • Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling, Second edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Stylidis, D., Shani, A., Belhassen, Y. (2017). Testing and integrated destination image model across residents and tourists. Tourism Management 58: 184-195
  • Stylos, N., Bellou, V., Andronikidis, A., Vasilliadis, C. A. (2017). Linking the dots among destination images, place attachment, and revisit intentions: A study among British and Russian tourists. Tourism Management, 60: 15-29
  • Stylos, N., Vasilliadis, C. A., Bellou, V. & Andronikidis, A. (2016). Destination images, holistic images and personal normative beliefs: Predictors of intention to revisit a destination. Tourism Management, 53: 40-60
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). New York: Pearson.
  • Vanderberg, R. J., Lance, C. E., (2000). A Review and Synthesis of the Measurement Invariance Literature: Suggestions, Practices, and Recommendations for Organizational Research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(1): 4-70

Testing Destination Image Scale Invariance Among British, German and Russian Tourists: A Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Yıl 2018, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 119 - 146, 13.12.2018
https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.449176

Öz

Researchers agree that destination image is a multi-dimensional and complex structure of attitude. Social psychology suggests that attitudes are composed of affective, cognitive, and conative components. This study contributes to literature with (i) scale development integrating 3 explanatory dimensions of destination image; (ii) utilization of item parceling technique enabling extended depth with sub scales and (iii) by providing supporting evidence with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis that this measurement scale is invariant thus applicable for 3 nationalities namely British, German and Russian tourist. This empirical study provides clarity to number and definition of dimensions with an integrated scale invariant for three nationalities. The survey is carried in summer 2017 at Antalya Airport with a total of 1495 British, German and Russian respondents visiting Antalya region for holiday purposes.

Kaynakça

  • Agapito, D., Valle, P. O. and Mendes, J. C. (2013). The Cognitive-Affective-Conative Model of Destination Image: A Confirmatory Analysis. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(5), 471-481
  • Aksu, G., Eser, M. T., Güzeller, C. (2017). Açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ile yapısal eşitlik modeli uygulamaları. Detay yayıncılık, Ankara
  • Aktas, A., Aksu, A. A., & Cizel, B. (2003). Tourist profile research: Antalya region example 2001. Tourism Review, 58(1), 34–40.
  • Allport, G. W. (1935). Attitudes. In C. Murchison (Ed.), A handbook of social psychologyn(pp. 798–844). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
  • Aranson, E., Wilson, T. D., Akert, R. M.,(2010). Sosyal Psikoloji (Social Psychology, translated by O. Gündüz), Kaktüs publications, İstanbul
  • Awang, Z. (2012). Structural equation modeling using AMOS graphic, UITM Press.
  • Baloglu, S. & Brinberg , D. (1997). Affective Images of Tourism Destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 35(4), 11-15
  • Baloglu, S. & McClearly, K. W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Reseacrh, 26(4): 868-897
  • Baloglu, S. (2001). Image variations of Turkey by familiarity index: informational and experiential dimensions. Tourism Management, 22: 127-133
  • Beerli, A. & Martin, J. D. (2004a). Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: a quantitative analysis—a case study of Lanzarote, Spain. Tourism Management, 25(5): 623-636
  • Beerli, A. & Martin, J. D. (2004b). Factors influencing destination image. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3): 657-681
  • Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. NY: Wiley.
  • Bosque, I. R. & Martin, H. S. (2008). Tourist Satisfaction: A cognitive-affective model. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(2): 551-573
  • Byrne, B. M. (2004). Testing for Multigroup Invariance Using AMOS Graphics: A Road Less Traveled, Structural Equation Modeling, 11(2), 272-300
  • Caplan, S. E. (2005). A social skill account of problematic internet use. Journal of Communication, 55: 721-736
  • Churchill, G. A. Jr. (1979) A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs, Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1): 64-73
  • Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16: 297–334.
  • DeVellis, R. (2003). Scale development: Theory and application. New York, NY: Sage.
  • Echtner, C. M. and Ritchie, J. R. B, (1993). The Measurement of Destination Image: An Empirical Assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 31(4): 3-13
  • Engel, K. S. and Moosbrugger , H., Müller, H.(2003). Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodness-of-Fit Measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2): 23-74
  • Fayeke, P. C. & Crompton, J. L. (1991). Image differences between prospective, first-time and repeat visitors to the lower Rio Grande Valley. Journal of Travel Research, 30(2): 10-16
  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1): 39-50.
  • Gartner, W. (1993). Image formation process. In M. Uysal & D. Fesenmaier (Eds.), Communication and channel systems in tourism marketing (pp. 191–215). New York, NY: The Haworth Press.
  • Gursoy, D. (Ed.) and Chi, C. G. (Ed.). 2018). The Routledge Handbook of Destination Marketing. London: Routledge.)
  • Hair, J. F., Black,W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis (8th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.
  • Hall, R. J., Snell, A. F., Foust, M. S. (1999). Item Parceling Strategies in SEM: Investigating the Subtle Effects of Unmodeled Secondary Constructs. Organizational Research Methods, 2(3): 233-256
  • Hilgard, E. R. (1980), The triology of mind: Cognition, affection and conation, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 16: 107-117.
  • Hirschfeld, G. & von Brachel, R. (2014). Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 19(7): 1-12
  • Jöreskog, K. G. (1971). Simultaneous factor analysis in several populations. Psychometrika, 36: 409-426.
  • Kaiser, H. (1974). An index of factor simplicity. Psychometrika, 39: 31–36.
  • Kozak, M. (2002). Comparative analysis of tourist motivations by nationality and destinations. Tourism Management, 23(3): 221-232.
  • Kozak, M., Martin, D. (2012). Tourism life cycle and sustainability analysis: Profit-focused strategies for mature destinations. Tourism Management, 33: 188-194
  • Landis, R. S., Beale, D. J., & Tesluk, P. E. (2000). A comparison of approaches to forming composite measures in structural equation modeling. Organizational Research Methods, 3: 186–207.
  • Matsugana, M. (2008). Item Parceling in Structural Equation Modeling: A Primer. Communication Methods and Measures, 2(4): 260-293
  • Miyamoto, T. and Iwasaki, K. (2013). Tourism Appeal as the Driver of a Convention Attendee’s Destination Loyalty: Insights from two Japanese regional conventions. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276270716_Authentic_Tourism_Appeal_as_the_Driver_of_a_Convention_Attendee's_Destination_Loyalty_Insights_from_two_Japanese_regional_conventions (Accessed on: 06.04.2018)
  • Ozdemir, B., Aksu, A., Ehtiyar, R., Cizel, B., Cizel, R. B., and Icigen, E. T. (2012). Relationships Among Tourist Profile, Satisfaction and Destination Loyalty: Examining Empirical Evidences in Antalya Region of Turkey, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 21(5): 506-540
  • Pearce, P. L. (2005). Tourist behavior: Themes and conceptual schemes. UK, USA, Canada: Channel View Publications
  • Pike, S. & Ryan, C. (2004). Destination Positioning Analysis through a Comparison of Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Perceptions. Journal of Travel Research, 42: 333-342
  • Pike, S. (2007). Destination Image Questionnaires – The Trial of a ‘Don’t Know’ Option. Journal of Travel and Tourism Research, Fall 2007: 151-160
  • Russel, J. A. and Pratt, G. (1980). A Description of the Affective Quality Attributed to Environments . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(2): 311-322
  • Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling, Second edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Stylidis, D., Shani, A., Belhassen, Y. (2017). Testing and integrated destination image model across residents and tourists. Tourism Management 58: 184-195
  • Stylos, N., Bellou, V., Andronikidis, A., Vasilliadis, C. A. (2017). Linking the dots among destination images, place attachment, and revisit intentions: A study among British and Russian tourists. Tourism Management, 60: 15-29
  • Stylos, N., Vasilliadis, C. A., Bellou, V. & Andronikidis, A. (2016). Destination images, holistic images and personal normative beliefs: Predictors of intention to revisit a destination. Tourism Management, 53: 40-60
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). New York: Pearson.
  • Vanderberg, R. J., Lance, C. E., (2000). A Review and Synthesis of the Measurement Invariance Literature: Suggestions, Practices, and Recommendations for Organizational Research. Organizational Research Methods, 3(1): 4-70

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Otelcilik, Konaklama, Spor ve Turizm
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Demet CEYLAN>
ANTALYA BİLİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TURİZM FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye


Beykan ÇİZEL>
AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TURİZM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-0474-9222

Yayımlanma Tarihi 13 Aralık 2018
Başvuru Tarihi 30 Temmuz 2018
Kabul Tarihi 20 Eylül 2018
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 6, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Ceylan, D. & Çizel, B. (2018). Testing Destination Image Scale Invariance Among British, German and Russian Tourists: A Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis . Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) , 6 (2) , 119-146 . DOI: 10.30519/ahtr.449176


Follow us on our journal's social media account

 social-network-fb-logo-facebook-icon.png