Araştırma Makalesi
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Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila

Yıl 2018, Cilt 33, Sayı 3, 67 - 71, 28.06.2018

Öz

DOI: 10.26650/ASE201811


Aeromonas hydrophila causes symptoms of hemorrhagic septicemia in acute cases and can cause death in freshwater fish, whereas Saprolegnia parasitica is the cause of ulcers complicated by fungal mycelia located on skin that has lost its scales for various reasons. Both pathogens co-infect recirculating aquaculture systems at the İzmir Katip Çelebi University Fisheries Research and Training Center. Clinical, bacteriological, parasitological, and mycological studies were carried out on 25 fish samples during the infestation. Sabouraud glucose agar and malt extract agar were used to isolate the fungus, and the bacterial isolates were streaked on tryptic soy agar (Oxoid) with 5% defibrinated sheep blood. Gray-white cotton-like patches, erosions on the skin, and hemorrhaging were detected on the infected fish samples. The analytical profile index test and molecular identification showed that the bacterial agent was A. hydrophila and a fungal examination and amplification by polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the mycotic agent was S. parasitica.

Kaynakça

  • Abdel Aziz, E.S., Yonis, A.A., Ali., M.N.M. (2002). Effect of water temperature upon the response of cultured Clarias Lazera to Saprolegnia infection and the consequent haematologecal changes. Egyptian Journal of Compartive & Clinical Pathology 15, No.2. pp.108-125.
  • Akaylı, T., Zeybek, Z. (2005). Bazı Akvaryum Balıklarında Plesiomonas shigelloides Enfeksiyonu Üzerinde Bir Araştırma. Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 22(1-2), 31-34.
  • Angka, S.L. (1990). The pathology of the walking catfish Clarias batrachus (L.), infected intraperitoneally with Aeromonas hydrophila. Asian Fisheries Science 3, 343-351.
  • Arda, M. (2006). Temel mikrobiyoloji. Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara.
  • Arda, M., Seçer, S., Sarıeyyüpoğlu, M. (2002). Balık Hastalıkları. Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. s,142.
  • Austin B., Austin D.A. (2007). Bacterial Fish Pathogens, Disease of Farmed and Wild Fish, 4th Ed. Springer Praxis, Godalming.
  • Bakaletz, L.O. (2004). Developing animal models for polymicrobial diseases. Nat Rev Microbiol 2, 552-568.
  • Bangyeekhun, E., Pylkkö, P., Vennerström, P., Kuronen, H., Cerenius, L. (2003). Prevalence of a Single Fish-pathogenic Saprolegnia sp. Clone in Finland and Sweden. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 53(1), 47-53.
  • Bruno, D.W., van West, P., Beakes, G.W. (2011). Saprolegnia and other oomycetes In: Woo PTK, Bruno DW (eds). Fish Diseases and Disorders, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Infections 2nd edn, Vol 3. CABI; Wallingford, UK, pp. 669-720.
  • Cipriano R.C., Bullock G.L., Pyle S.W. (2001). Aeromonas hydrophila and Motile Aeromonad Septicemias of Fish. Fish Disease Leaflet 68, US Department of the Interior Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington.
  • Citarasu, T., Alfred, D.K., Velmurugan, S., Thanga, V.V., Kumaran, T., Michael, B.M., Selvaraj, T. (2011). Isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila from infected ornamental fish hatchery during massive disease outbreak. International Journal of Current Research 2, 37-41.
  • Cox, F.E.G. (2001). Concomitant infections, parasites and immune responses. Parasitology 122:S23–S38
  • Diler, Ö. (1992). Saprolegniasis Hastalığının Patogenesisi ve Isparta Bölgesi Balık İşletmelerindeki Dağılımı Üzerinde Bir Araştırma. A. Ü. Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, 117s.
  • Diler, Ö., Altun, S. (1995). Gökkuşağı Alabalıklarında (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Hemorajik Septisemi Etkeni Olarak İzole Edilen Bazı Aeromonas hydrophila Suslarının Biyokimyasal Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Mühendislik Dergisi 4, 169-178.
  • Egemen, Ö., Sunlu, U. (2003). Su Kalitesi. Ege Üniversitesi Basımevi, İzmir.
  • Gaikowski, M. P., Rach, J. J., Drobish, M., Hamilton, J., Harder, T., Lee, L. A., Moen, C., Moore, A. (2003). Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis on walleye, white sucker, and paddlefish eggs. North American Journal of Aquaculture 65(4), 349-355.
  • Hudzicki, J. (2009). Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test protocol. American Society for Microbiology 1-14.
  • Huizinga H.W., Esch, G.W., Hazen, T.C. (1979). Histopathology of Red-Sore Disease (Aeromonas hydrophila) in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede). Journal of Fish Diseases 2, 263-277.
  • Hussien, A. M., Ahmed, I. E., Waled, S. E., Omima, A. (2010). A trial for Induction of Saprolegniosis in Mugel cephalus with Special Reference to Biological Control. Journal of American Science, 6(6), 6.
  • Ibrahem, M.D., Mostafa, M.M., Arab, R.M.H., Rezk, M.A. (2008). Prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in wild and cultured tilapia nilotica (O. niloticus) in Egypt. Elghobashy H, Fitzsimmons K, Diab AS (eds.). Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, Cairo, Egypt, 12-14 Oct 2008. Vol. 2. pp. 1257-1270.
  • Klein, D., Wu, S. (1974). Stress. A Factor to be Considered in Heterotrophic Microorganism Enumeration From Aquatic Environments. Applied Microbiology, 27(2), 429-431.
  • Kotob, M. H., Menanteau-Ledouble, S., Kumar, G., Abdelzaher, M., El-Matbouli, M. (2016). The impact of co-infections on fish: a review. Veterinary Research, 47(1), 98.
  • Kubilay, A., Altun, S., Diler, Ö., Ekici, S. (2008). Isolation of Flavobacterium columnare from Cultured Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 8(1), 165-169.
  • Kusdarwati, R., Kismiyati, Sudarno, Kurniawan H., Prayogi, Y.T. (2017). Isolation and Identification of Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Floating cages in Bozem Moro Krembangan Surabaya. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 55 012038.
  • Laith, A.R., Najiah, M. (2013). Aeromonas hydrophila: Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Histopathology of Isolates from Diseased Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell). Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development, 5, 215.
  • Lukistyowati, I. (2012). Pelacakan Gen Aerolysin dari Aeromonas hydrophila pada Ikan Mas yang Diberi Pakan Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Detection of Aerolysin Gen orom Aeromonas hydrophila In Common Carp Fed With Garlic Extract). Jurnal Veteriner, 13(1), 43-50.
  • Neish, G. A., Hughes, G. C. (1980). Diseases of Fishes Book 6. Fungal Diseases of Fishes. T. W. F. Publications, Neptune, pp. 159, New Jersey.
  • Noga E.J. (1993). Water Mold Infections of Freshwater Fish: Recent Advances. Annual Review of Fish Diseases 3, 291-304
  • Osman, H.A.M., Solman, W.E., Noor El Deen, A.E., Lada, A.M. (2008). Induction of Saprolegniosis in Oreochromis niloticus with Special Reference to its Biological. Control. Global Veterinaria 2(1), 32-37.
  • Parsons, T.R., Matia, Y., Lalli, C.M. (1984). A manual of chemical and biological methods for sea water analysis, New York: Pergamon Press, p.173.
  • Peters, G., Faisal, M., Lang, T., Ahmed, I. (1988). Stress caused by social interaction and its effect on susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Disease of Aquatic Organisms 4: 83-89.
  • Pickering, A.D., Willoughby, L.G. (1988). Saprolegnia of Salmonid Fish. 15th Annual Report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. pp.38-48.
  • Pickering, A.D. (1994). Factors Which Predispose Salmonid Fish to Saprolegniasis. Edited by G. J. Mueller. U.S. Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon, 1994, pp.67-84.
  • Rey, G., Fouillet, A., Bessemoulin, P., Frayssinet, P., Dufour A. (2009). Heat Exposure and Socio-Economic Vulnerability as Synergistic Factors in Heat- Wave-Related Mortality. European Journal of Epidemiology 24: 495-502.
  • Roberts, R.J., Shepherd, C. J. (2001). Alabalık ve Salmon Hastalıkları (Handbook of Trout and Salmon Diseases), (Çevirmen: Vatansever, H.). Akademi-UĞURER Tarımsal Kitap Tanıtım ve Pazarlama Hizmetleri, Kayseri, s.254.
  • Roberts, R.J. (2012). Fish Pathology, 4.Edition. Blackwell Publishing, United Kingdom, pp.387-390.
  • Rogers, W.A. (1971). Disease in fish due to the protozoan Epistylis (Ciliata: Peritricha) in the southeastern U.S. Proc. 25th Ann. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. Game Fish Commis- sioners, pp. 493-496.
  • Sarder, H., Khan, T., Saha, M. L., Punom, N. J., Mandal, S.C., Rahman, M.S. (2016). Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from freshwater fishes. Journal of Fisheries, 4(3), 411-419.
  • Stirling, H.P. (1985). Chemical and Biological Methods of Water Analysis for Aquaculturalists. Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, 119 p.
  • Strickl, J.D.H., Parsons, T.R. (1972). A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis, 2nd ed. Bulletin, vol 167 Ottowa: Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 310 p.
  • Tanrıkul, T.T., Cagirgan, H., Toksen, E. (2004). Levreklerden (Dicentrarchus labrax l., 1758) izole edilen vibrio türlerinin API 20E yöntemiyle identifikasyonu. Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 2004, 243-247.
  • Timur, M. (1986). Aynalı Sazan (Cyprinus carpio L.) ve Japon Balıklarında (Carassius auratus) Görülen Bakteriyel Hemorajik Septisemi Hastalığı Üzerinde Karşılaştırmalı Bir Araştırma. Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 3, 95-105.
  • Timur, G., Korun J., Güvener, R.P. (2003). Lepistes (Poecillia reticulata) Üretim Ünitesindeki Anaç Ve Yavru Balıklarda Agır Mortalite Ile Seyreden Aeromonad Septisemi Üzerine Bir Çalışma, İstanbul Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 15, 1-11.
  • Yu, H.B., Rao, P.S.S., Lee, H.C., Vilches, S., Merino, S. (2004). A Type III Secretion System is Required for Aeromonas hydrophila AH-1 Pathogenesis. Infect Immun, 72: 1248-1256.

Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila

Yıl 2018, Cilt 33, Sayı 3, 67 - 71, 28.06.2018

Öz

DOI: 10.26650/ASE201811


Aeromonas hydrophila causes symptoms of hemorrhagic septicemia in acute cases and can cause death in freshwater fish, whereas Saprolegnia parasitica is the cause of ulcers complicated by fungal mycelia located on skin that has lost its scales for various reasons. Both pathogens co-infect recirculating aquaculture systems at the İzmir Katip Çelebi University Fisheries Research and Training Center. Clinical, bacteriological, parasitological, and mycological studies were carried out on 25 fish samples during the infestation. Sabouraud glucose agar and malt extract agar were used to isolate the fungus, and the bacterial isolates were streaked on tryptic soy agar (Oxoid) with 5% defibrinated sheep blood. Gray-white cotton-like patches, erosions on the skin, and hemorrhaging were detected on the infected fish samples. The analytical profile index test and molecular identification showed that the bacterial agent was A. hydrophila and a fungal examination and amplification by polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the mycotic agent was S. parasitica.

Kaynakça

  • Abdel Aziz, E.S., Yonis, A.A., Ali., M.N.M. (2002). Effect of water temperature upon the response of cultured Clarias Lazera to Saprolegnia infection and the consequent haematologecal changes. Egyptian Journal of Compartive & Clinical Pathology 15, No.2. pp.108-125.
  • Akaylı, T., Zeybek, Z. (2005). Bazı Akvaryum Balıklarında Plesiomonas shigelloides Enfeksiyonu Üzerinde Bir Araştırma. Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 22(1-2), 31-34.
  • Angka, S.L. (1990). The pathology of the walking catfish Clarias batrachus (L.), infected intraperitoneally with Aeromonas hydrophila. Asian Fisheries Science 3, 343-351.
  • Arda, M. (2006). Temel mikrobiyoloji. Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara.
  • Arda, M., Seçer, S., Sarıeyyüpoğlu, M. (2002). Balık Hastalıkları. Medisan Yayınevi, Ankara. s,142.
  • Austin B., Austin D.A. (2007). Bacterial Fish Pathogens, Disease of Farmed and Wild Fish, 4th Ed. Springer Praxis, Godalming.
  • Bakaletz, L.O. (2004). Developing animal models for polymicrobial diseases. Nat Rev Microbiol 2, 552-568.
  • Bangyeekhun, E., Pylkkö, P., Vennerström, P., Kuronen, H., Cerenius, L. (2003). Prevalence of a Single Fish-pathogenic Saprolegnia sp. Clone in Finland and Sweden. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 53(1), 47-53.
  • Bruno, D.W., van West, P., Beakes, G.W. (2011). Saprolegnia and other oomycetes In: Woo PTK, Bruno DW (eds). Fish Diseases and Disorders, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Infections 2nd edn, Vol 3. CABI; Wallingford, UK, pp. 669-720.
  • Cipriano R.C., Bullock G.L., Pyle S.W. (2001). Aeromonas hydrophila and Motile Aeromonad Septicemias of Fish. Fish Disease Leaflet 68, US Department of the Interior Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington.
  • Citarasu, T., Alfred, D.K., Velmurugan, S., Thanga, V.V., Kumaran, T., Michael, B.M., Selvaraj, T. (2011). Isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila from infected ornamental fish hatchery during massive disease outbreak. International Journal of Current Research 2, 37-41.
  • Cox, F.E.G. (2001). Concomitant infections, parasites and immune responses. Parasitology 122:S23–S38
  • Diler, Ö. (1992). Saprolegniasis Hastalığının Patogenesisi ve Isparta Bölgesi Balık İşletmelerindeki Dağılımı Üzerinde Bir Araştırma. A. Ü. Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, 117s.
  • Diler, Ö., Altun, S. (1995). Gökkuşağı Alabalıklarında (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Hemorajik Septisemi Etkeni Olarak İzole Edilen Bazı Aeromonas hydrophila Suslarının Biyokimyasal Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Mühendislik Dergisi 4, 169-178.
  • Egemen, Ö., Sunlu, U. (2003). Su Kalitesi. Ege Üniversitesi Basımevi, İzmir.
  • Gaikowski, M. P., Rach, J. J., Drobish, M., Hamilton, J., Harder, T., Lee, L. A., Moen, C., Moore, A. (2003). Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis on walleye, white sucker, and paddlefish eggs. North American Journal of Aquaculture 65(4), 349-355.
  • Hudzicki, J. (2009). Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test protocol. American Society for Microbiology 1-14.
  • Huizinga H.W., Esch, G.W., Hazen, T.C. (1979). Histopathology of Red-Sore Disease (Aeromonas hydrophila) in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede). Journal of Fish Diseases 2, 263-277.
  • Hussien, A. M., Ahmed, I. E., Waled, S. E., Omima, A. (2010). A trial for Induction of Saprolegniosis in Mugel cephalus with Special Reference to Biological Control. Journal of American Science, 6(6), 6.
  • Ibrahem, M.D., Mostafa, M.M., Arab, R.M.H., Rezk, M.A. (2008). Prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in wild and cultured tilapia nilotica (O. niloticus) in Egypt. Elghobashy H, Fitzsimmons K, Diab AS (eds.). Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, Cairo, Egypt, 12-14 Oct 2008. Vol. 2. pp. 1257-1270.
  • Klein, D., Wu, S. (1974). Stress. A Factor to be Considered in Heterotrophic Microorganism Enumeration From Aquatic Environments. Applied Microbiology, 27(2), 429-431.
  • Kotob, M. H., Menanteau-Ledouble, S., Kumar, G., Abdelzaher, M., El-Matbouli, M. (2016). The impact of co-infections on fish: a review. Veterinary Research, 47(1), 98.
  • Kubilay, A., Altun, S., Diler, Ö., Ekici, S. (2008). Isolation of Flavobacterium columnare from Cultured Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 8(1), 165-169.
  • Kusdarwati, R., Kismiyati, Sudarno, Kurniawan H., Prayogi, Y.T. (2017). Isolation and Identification of Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Floating cages in Bozem Moro Krembangan Surabaya. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 55 012038.
  • Laith, A.R., Najiah, M. (2013). Aeromonas hydrophila: Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Histopathology of Isolates from Diseased Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell). Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development, 5, 215.
  • Lukistyowati, I. (2012). Pelacakan Gen Aerolysin dari Aeromonas hydrophila pada Ikan Mas yang Diberi Pakan Ekstrak Bawang Putih (Detection of Aerolysin Gen orom Aeromonas hydrophila In Common Carp Fed With Garlic Extract). Jurnal Veteriner, 13(1), 43-50.
  • Neish, G. A., Hughes, G. C. (1980). Diseases of Fishes Book 6. Fungal Diseases of Fishes. T. W. F. Publications, Neptune, pp. 159, New Jersey.
  • Noga E.J. (1993). Water Mold Infections of Freshwater Fish: Recent Advances. Annual Review of Fish Diseases 3, 291-304
  • Osman, H.A.M., Solman, W.E., Noor El Deen, A.E., Lada, A.M. (2008). Induction of Saprolegniosis in Oreochromis niloticus with Special Reference to its Biological. Control. Global Veterinaria 2(1), 32-37.
  • Parsons, T.R., Matia, Y., Lalli, C.M. (1984). A manual of chemical and biological methods for sea water analysis, New York: Pergamon Press, p.173.
  • Peters, G., Faisal, M., Lang, T., Ahmed, I. (1988). Stress caused by social interaction and its effect on susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Disease of Aquatic Organisms 4: 83-89.
  • Pickering, A.D., Willoughby, L.G. (1988). Saprolegnia of Salmonid Fish. 15th Annual Report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. pp.38-48.
  • Pickering, A.D. (1994). Factors Which Predispose Salmonid Fish to Saprolegniasis. Edited by G. J. Mueller. U.S. Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon, 1994, pp.67-84.
  • Rey, G., Fouillet, A., Bessemoulin, P., Frayssinet, P., Dufour A. (2009). Heat Exposure and Socio-Economic Vulnerability as Synergistic Factors in Heat- Wave-Related Mortality. European Journal of Epidemiology 24: 495-502.
  • Roberts, R.J., Shepherd, C. J. (2001). Alabalık ve Salmon Hastalıkları (Handbook of Trout and Salmon Diseases), (Çevirmen: Vatansever, H.). Akademi-UĞURER Tarımsal Kitap Tanıtım ve Pazarlama Hizmetleri, Kayseri, s.254.
  • Roberts, R.J. (2012). Fish Pathology, 4.Edition. Blackwell Publishing, United Kingdom, pp.387-390.
  • Rogers, W.A. (1971). Disease in fish due to the protozoan Epistylis (Ciliata: Peritricha) in the southeastern U.S. Proc. 25th Ann. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. Game Fish Commis- sioners, pp. 493-496.
  • Sarder, H., Khan, T., Saha, M. L., Punom, N. J., Mandal, S.C., Rahman, M.S. (2016). Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from freshwater fishes. Journal of Fisheries, 4(3), 411-419.
  • Stirling, H.P. (1985). Chemical and Biological Methods of Water Analysis for Aquaculturalists. Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, 119 p.
  • Strickl, J.D.H., Parsons, T.R. (1972). A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis, 2nd ed. Bulletin, vol 167 Ottowa: Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 310 p.
  • Tanrıkul, T.T., Cagirgan, H., Toksen, E. (2004). Levreklerden (Dicentrarchus labrax l., 1758) izole edilen vibrio türlerinin API 20E yöntemiyle identifikasyonu. Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 2004, 243-247.
  • Timur, M. (1986). Aynalı Sazan (Cyprinus carpio L.) ve Japon Balıklarında (Carassius auratus) Görülen Bakteriyel Hemorajik Septisemi Hastalığı Üzerinde Karşılaştırmalı Bir Araştırma. Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 3, 95-105.
  • Timur, G., Korun J., Güvener, R.P. (2003). Lepistes (Poecillia reticulata) Üretim Ünitesindeki Anaç Ve Yavru Balıklarda Agır Mortalite Ile Seyreden Aeromonad Septisemi Üzerine Bir Çalışma, İstanbul Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 15, 1-11.
  • Yu, H.B., Rao, P.S.S., Lee, H.C., Vilches, S., Merino, S. (2004). A Type III Secretion System is Required for Aeromonas hydrophila AH-1 Pathogenesis. Infect Immun, 72: 1248-1256.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Fen
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Ezgi DİNÇTÜRK (Sorumlu Yazar)
Department of Aquaculture, İzmir Katip Çelebi University, Faculty of Fisheries, İzmir, Turkey
0000-0002-5826-2383
Türkiye


Tevfik Tansel TANRIKUL
Department of Aquaculture, İzmir Katip Çelebi University, Faculty of Fisheries, İzmir, Turkey
0000-0002-1684-7965
Türkiye


Saniye TÜRK ÇULHA
Department of Basic Sciences, İzmir Katip Çelebi University, Faculty of Fisheries, İzmir, Turkey
0000-0003-0380-0858

Yayımlanma Tarihi 28 Haziran 2018
Başvuru Tarihi 25 Ekim 2017
Kabul Tarihi 26 Mart 2018
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 33, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ase438343, journal = {Aquatic Sciences and Engineering}, issn = {2602-473X}, eissn = {2602-473X}, address = {}, publisher = {İstanbul Üniversitesi}, year = {2018}, volume = {33}, pages = {67 - 71}, doi = {}, title = {Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila}, key = {cite}, author = {Dinçtürk, Ezgi and Tanrıkul, Tevfik Tansel and Türk Çulha, Saniye} }
APA Dinçtürk, E. , Tanrıkul, T. T. & Türk Çulha, S. (2018). Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila . Aquatic Sciences and Engineering , 33 (3) , 67-71 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ase/issue/37964/438343
MLA Dinçtürk, E. , Tanrıkul, T. T. , Türk Çulha, S. "Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila" . Aquatic Sciences and Engineering 33 (2018 ): 67-71 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ase/issue/37964/438343>
Chicago Dinçtürk, E. , Tanrıkul, T. T. , Türk Çulha, S. "Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila". Aquatic Sciences and Engineering 33 (2018 ): 67-71
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila AU - Ezgi Dinçtürk , Tevfik Tansel Tanrıkul , Saniye Türk Çulha Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - Aquatic Sciences and Engineering JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 67 EP - 71 VL - 33 IS - 3 SN - 2602-473X-2602-473X M3 - UR - Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Aquatic Sciences and Engineering Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila %A Ezgi Dinçtürk , Tevfik Tansel Tanrıkul , Saniye Türk Çulha %T Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila %D 2018 %J Aquatic Sciences and Engineering %P 2602-473X-2602-473X %V 33 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Dinçtürk, Ezgi , Tanrıkul, Tevfik Tansel , Türk Çulha, Saniye . "Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila". Aquatic Sciences and Engineering 33 / 3 (Haziran 2018): 67-71 .
AMA Dinçtürk E. , Tanrıkul T. T. , Türk Çulha S. Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila. Aqua Sci Eng. 2018; 33(3): 67-71.
Vancouver Dinçtürk E. , Tanrıkul T. T. , Türk Çulha S. Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering. 2018; 33(3): 67-71.
IEEE E. Dinçtürk , T. T. Tanrıkul ve S. Türk Çulha , "Fungal and Bacterial Co-Infection of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) in a Recirculating Aquaculture System: Saprolegnia parasitica and Aeromonas hydrophila", Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, c. 33, sayı. 3, ss. 67-71, Haz. 2018

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