Bread was enhanced with defatted moringa seed flour in various quantities (0-7.5%) in this investigation. The functional properties of the flour and the physical, proximate, mineral content and sensory attributes of the defatted moringa fortiﬁed bread samples were evaluated. The functional properties of the defatted moringa seed flour showed Bulk Density (0.75g/ml), Oil Absorption Capacity (88.45 %), Reconstitution index (76.28 %), Swelling index (8.25 g/vol), Solubility (8.63 %), Viscosity (342.60 cp), and Water Absorption Capacity (82.45 %). Results of the proximate analysis showed that defatted moringa seed flour addition signiﬁcantly (p < 0.05) increased the protein (13.82–15.39%), fat (1.25–1.56%), ash (1.51–1.61%) and ﬁbre content (0.13–0.18%) of the bread samples, while the moisture (7.85–7.60%), carbohydrates content (75.44–72.88%) and pH (8.05-7.8%) of the bread decreased. Addition of defatted moringa seed flour significantly (p<0.05) decreased the loaf heights from 10.50 to 6.90 (cm), loaf weights from 133.1 to 118.0 (g), loaf volumes from 1148 to 671(cm3) and the specific volumes from 9.05 to 5.55 (g/cm3). The mineral contents (calcium, Iron, Sodium, potassium, and Phosphorus) of the moringa fortiﬁed bread also increased signiﬁcantly as the proportion of defatted moringa seed flour. Results of the sensory evaluation indicated that the 5% defatted moringa fortiﬁed bread was not signiﬁcantly different from the bread produced from 100% wheat ﬂour in terms of most of the quality attributes evaluated in this study. In conclusion, fortiﬁcation of bread with defatted moringa seed flour increased both the micro and macronutrient of conventional bread and acceptable to consumers at 5% fortiﬁcation level.
|Konular||Gıda Bilimi ve Teknolojisi|
|Erken Görünüm Tarihi||23 Haziran 2022|
|Yayımlanma Tarihi||23 Haziran 2022|
|Gönderilme Tarihi||4 Haziran 2022|
|Kabul Tarihi||28 Haziran 2022|
|Yayınlandığı Sayı||Yıl 2022, Cilt 3, Sayı 1|