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OVERVIEW OF COVID-19 DIAGNOSIS METHODS: RAPID REVIEW

Yıl 2020, Cilt 4, Sayı 2, 10 - 35, 31.12.2020

Öz

Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of viral nucleic acid is accepted as the reference standard in the diagnosis of COVID-19. RT-PCR; It is included in nucleic acid amplification tests and is based on the detection of specific sequences of virus RNA and verification by nucleic acid sequence analysis method when necessary. The complementary role of chest computed tomography (CT) to RT-PCR for the early detection of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia is increasing due to its wide availability and rapid investigation time. CT examination is of great importance not only in the diagnosis of COVID-19, but also in monitoring the progression of the disease and evaluating therapeutic efficacy. Another alternative to diagnosing COVID-19 is serological (antibody) tests. Serological tests are an important alternative or complementary to RT-PCR in the diagnosis of acute infection. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive and consistent assessment of the diagnosis of COVID-19 by performing a systematic screening of diagnostic methods for COVID-19. It has been concluded that the most important issues in the fight against COVID-19 are the early detection of infected people, the follow-up of the contact people and the necessary isolation, and in this context, it is of great importance that each country has a test policy determined within itself.

Kaynakça

  • Akçay, M. Ş., Özlü, T., & Yilmaz, A. (2020). Radiological approaches to COVID-19 pneumonia. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50(SI-1), 604-610.
  • Bastos, M. L., Tavaziva, G., Abidi, S. K., Campbell, J. R., Haraoui, L. P., Johnston, J. C., ... & Menzies, D. (2020). Diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for covid-19: systematic review and meta-analysis. bmj, 370.
  • Beeching, N. J., Fletcher, T. E., & Beadsworth, M. B. (2020). Covid-19: testing times.
  • Cao, Y., Liu, X., Xiong, L., & Cai, K. (2020). Imaging and clinical features of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Journal of medical virology.
  • Chen, Z. M., Fu, J. F., Shu, Q., Chen, Y. H., Hua, C. Z., Li, F. B., ... & Wang, Y. S. (2020). Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus. World journal of pediatrics, 1-7.
  • Chen, C., Huang, J., Cheng, Z., Wu, J., Chen, S., Zhang, Y., ... & Yin, P. (2020a). Favipiravir versus arbidol for COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. MedRxiv.
  • Chen, W., Lan, Y., Yuan, X., Deng, X., Li, Y., Cai, X., ... & Gao, M. (2020b). Detectable 2019-nCoV viral RNA in blood is a strong indicator for the further clinical severity. Emerging microbes & infections, 9(1), 469-473.
  • Cheng, S. C., Chang, Y. C., Chiang, Y. L. F., Chien, Y. C., Cheng, M., Yang, C. H., ... & Hsu, Y. N. (2020). First case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in Taiwan. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association.
  • Chu, D. K., Pan, Y., Cheng, S. M., Hui, K. P., Krishnan, P., Liu, Y., ... & Peiris, M. (2020). Molecular diagnosis of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causing an outbreak of pneumonia. Clinical chemistry, 66(4), 549-555.
  • Chung, M., Bernheim, A., Mei, X., Zhang, N., Huang, M., Zeng, X., ... & Jacobi, A. (2020). CT imaging features of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Radiology, 295(1), 202-207. Cipriano, M., Ruberti, E., & Giacalone, A. (2020). Gastrointestinal infection could be new focus for coronavirus diagnosis. Cureus, 12(3).
  • Corman, V. M., Landt, O., Kaiser, M., Molenkamp, R., Meijer, A., Chu, D. K., ... & Mulders, D. G. (2020). Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR. Eurosurveillance, 25(3), 2000045.
  • Demirbilek, Y., Pehlivantürk, G., Özgüler, Z. Ö., & MEŞE, E. A. (2020). COVID-19 outbreak control, example of ministry of health of Turkey. Turkish journal of medical sciences, 50(SI-1), 489-494.
  • Duan, Y. N., Zhu, Y. Q., Tang, L. L., & Qin, J. (2020). CT features of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) in children. European Radiology, 1-7.
  • Fomsgaard, A. S., & Rosenstierne, M. W. (2020). An alternative workflow for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2–escape from the NA extraction kit-shortage, Copenhagen, Denmark, March 2020. Eurosurveillance, 25(14), 2000398.
  • Gao, L., & Zhang, J. (2020). Pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of patients with early-stage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hangzhou, China. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 26, e923885-1.
  • Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. (2020). Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. BioScience Trends; 14 (1): 72. doi: 10.5582/bst.2020.01047.
  • Ge, H., Wang, X., Yuan, X., Xiao, G., Wang, C., Deng, T., ... & Xiao, X. (2020). The epidemiology and clinical information about COVID-19. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 1.
  • Han, W., Quan, B., Guo, Y., Zhang, J., Lu, Y., Feng, G., ... & Li, X. (2020). The course of clinical diagnosis and treatment of a case infected with coronavirus disease 2019. Journal of medical virology, 92(5), 461-463.
  • Hanley, B., Lucas, S. B., Youd, E., Swift, B., & Osborn, M. (2020). Autopsy in suspected COVID-19 cases. Journal of clinical pathology, 73(5), 239-242.
  • Harris, C., Carson, G., Baillie, J. K., Horby, P., & Nair, H. (2020). An evidence-based framework for priority clinical research questions for COVID-19. Journal of global health, 10(1).
  • He, F., Deng, Y., & Li, W. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019: What we know?. Journal of medical virology, 92(7), 719-725.
  • Himoto, Y., Sakata, A., Kirita, M., Hiroi, T., Kobayashi, K. I., Kubo, K., ... & Komiya, N. (2020). Diagnostic performance of chest CT to differentiate COVID-19 pneumonia in non-high-epidemic area in Japan. Japanese Journal of Radiology, 1.
  • Holshue, M. L., DeBolt, C., Lindquist, S., Lofy, K. H., Wiesman, J., Bruce, H., ... & Diaz, G. (2020). First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine.
  • Kamps, B.S. & Hoffmann, C. (2020). COVID Reference. https://amedeo.com/CovidReference04_tr.pdf Erişim tarihi: 27.11.2020.
  • Konrad, R., Eberle, U., Dangel, A., Treis, B., Berger, A., Bengs, K., ... & Sing, A. (2020). Rapid establishment of laboratory diagnostics for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Bavaria, Germany, February 2020. Eurosurveillance, 25(9), 2000173.
  • Li, Z., Yi, Y., Luo, X., Xiong, N., Liu, Y., Li, S., ... & Zhang, Y. (2020). Development and clinical application of a rapid IgM‐IgG combined antibody test for SARS‐CoV‐2 infection diagnosis. Journal of medical virology.
  • Li, K., Fang, Y., Li, W., Pan, C., Qin, P., Zhong, Y., ... & Li, S. (2020a). CT image visual quantitative evaluation and clinical classification of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). European radiology, 1-10.
  • Li, X., Zeng, W., Li, X., Chen, H., Shi, L., Li, X., ... & Wang, J. (2020b). CT imaging changes of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a multi-center study in Southwest China. Journal of translational medicine, 18, 1-8.
  • Liu, R., Han, H., Liu, F., Lv, Z., Wu, K., Liu, Y., ... & Zhu, C. (2020). Positive rate of RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 4880 cases from one hospital in Wuhan, China, from Jan to Feb 2020. Clinica Chimica Acta.
  • Loeffelholz, M. J., & Tang, Y. W. (2020). Laboratory diagnosis of emerging human coronavirus infections–the state of the art. Emerging microbes & infections, 9(1), 747-756.
  • Long, C., Xu, H., Shen, Q., Zhang, X., Fan, B., Wang, C., ... & Li, H. (2020). Diagnosis of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): rRT-PCR or CT?. European journal of radiology, 108961.
  • Lu, R., Wu, X., Wan, Z., Li, Y., Zuo, L., Qin, J., ... & Zhang, C. (2020). Development of a novel reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2. Virologica Sinica, 1.
  • Mardani, R., Vasmehjani, A. A., Zali, F., Gholami, A., Nasab, S. D. M., Kaghazian, H., ... & Ahmadi, N. (2020). Laboratory parameters in detection of COVID-19 patients with positive RT-PCR; a diagnostic accuracy study. Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, 8(1).
  • Ozma, M. A., Maroufi, P., Khodadadi, E., Köse, Ş., Esposito, I., Ganbarov, K., ... & Kafil, H. S. (2020). Clinical manifestation, diagnosis, prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) during the outbreak period. Infez Med, 28(2), 153-165.
  • Patel, R., Babady, E., Theel, E. S., Storch, G. A., Pinsky, B. A., George, K. S., ... & Bertuzzi, S. (2020). Report from the American Society for Microbiology COVID-19 international summit, 23 march 2020: value of diagnostic testing for SARS–CoV-2/COVID-19.
  • Rodrigues, J. C. L., Hare, S. S., Edey, A., Devaraj, A., Jacob, J., Johnstone, A., ... & Robinson, G. (2020). An update on COVID-19 for the radiologist-A British society of Thoracic Imaging statement. Clinical radiology, 75(5), 323-325.
  • Sabino-Silva, R., Jardim, A. C. G., & Siqueira, W. L. (2020). Coronavirus COVID-19 impacts to dentistry and potential salivary diagnosis. Clinical Oral Investigations, 24(4), 1619-1621.
  • Sağlık Bakanlığı. (2020). COVID-19 Erişkin Hasta Tedavisi. https://covid19.saglik.gov.tr/Eklenti/39061/0/covid-19rehberieriskinhastatedavisipdf.pdf Erişim tarihi: 03.11.2020.
  • Shi, H., Han, X., Jiang, N., Cao, Y., Alwalid, O., Gu, J., ... & Zheng, C. (2020). Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
  • Sofia, S., Boccatonda, A., Montanari, M., Spampinato, M., D’ardes, D., Cocco, G., ... & Schiavone, C. (2020). Thoracic ultrasound and SARS-COVID-19: a pictorial essay. Journal of ultrasound, 1-5.
  • Song, F., Shi, N., Shan, F., Zhang, Z., Shen, J., Lu, H., ... & Shi, Y. (2020). Emerging 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia. Radiology, 295(1), 210-217.
  • Tezer, H., & Demirdağ, T. B. (2020). Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50(SI-1), 592-603.
  • Thomas-Rüddel, D., Winning, J., Dickmann, P., Ouart, D., Kortgen, A., Janssens, U., & Bauer, M. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): update for anesthesiologists and intensivists March 2020. Der Anaesthesist, 1-10.
  • Wang, K., Kang, S., Tian, R., Zhang, X., & Wang, Y. (2020). Imaging manifestations and diagnostic value of chest CT of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Xiaogan area. Clinical radiology.
  • Worldometer. (2020). COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/ Erişim tarihi: 18.12.2020.
  • Wu, J., Wu, X., Zeng, W., Guo, D., Fang, Z., Chen, L., ... & Li, C. (2020). Chest CT findings in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and its relationship with clinical features. Investigative radiology, 55(5), 257.
  • Xu, R., Cui, B., Duan, X., Zhang, P., Zhou, X., & Yuan, Q. (2020). Saliva: potential diagnostic value and transmission of 2019-nCoV. International Journal of Oral Science, 12(1), 1-6.
  • Xu, Y. H., Dong, J. H., An, W. M., Lv, X. Y., Yin, X. P., Zhang, J. Z., ... & Gao, B. L. (2020a). Clinical and computed tomographic imaging features of novel coronavirus pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Infection.
  • Yan, Y., Chang, L., & Wang, L. (2020). Laboratory testing of SARS‐CoV, MERS‐CoV, and SARS‐CoV‐2 (2019‐nCoV): Current status, challenges, and countermeasures. Reviews in Medical Virology, 30(3), e2106.
  • Yang, W., Cao, Q., Qin, L., Wang, X., Cheng, Z., Pan, A., ... & Yan, F. (2020). Clinical characteristics and imaging manifestations of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19): A multi-center study in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang, China. Journal of Infection.
  • Ye, Z., Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., Huang, Z., & Song, B. (2020). Chest CT manifestations of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a pictorial review. European radiology, 1-9.
  • Yuan, M., Yin, W., Tao, Z., Tan, W., & Hu, Y. (2020). Association of radiologic findings with mortality of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. PloS one, 15(3), e0230548.
  • Zhang, G., Zhang, J., Wang, B., Zhu, X., Wang, Q., & Qiu, S. (2020). Analysis of clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of 95 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a retrospective analysis. Respiratory research, 21(1), 1-10.
  • Zhang, W., Du, R. H., Li, B., Zheng, X. S., Yang, X. L., Hu, B., ... & Zhou, P. (2020a). Molecular and serological investigation of 2019-nCoV infected patients: implication of multiple shedding routes. Emerging microbes & infections, 9(1), 386-389.
  • Zhou, T. T., & Wei, F. X. (2020). Primary stratification and identification of suspected Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from clinical perspective by a simple scoring proposal. Military Medical Research, 7, 1-4.
  • Zhou, Z., Guo, D., Li, C., Fang, Z., Chen, L., Yang, R., ... & Zeng, W. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019: initial chest CT findings. European Radiology, 1-9.

COVID-19 TANI YÖNTEMLERİNE BAKIŞ: HIZLI SİSTEMATİK İNCELEME

Yıl 2020, Cilt 4, Sayı 2, 10 - 35, 31.12.2020

Öz

COVID-19 teşhisinde viral nükleik asidin gerçek zamanlı ters transkripsiyon polimeraz zincir reaksiyonu (RT-PCR) referans standardı olarak kabul edilmektedir. RT-PCR; nükleik asit amplifikasyon testleri içinde bulunmakta ve virüs RNA’sının özgül dizilerinin saptanması ve gerekli olduğunda nükleik asit dizi analizi yöntemi ile doğrulanması temeline dayanmaktadır. Geniş kullanılabilirliği ve hızlı inceleme süresi nedeniyle COVID-19 pnömonisi olan hastaların erken tespiti için göğüs bilgisayarlı tomografisinin (BT) RT-PCR'a tamamlayıcı rolü giderek artmaktadır. BT incelemesi yalnızca COVID-19 teşhisinde değil aynı zamanda hastalığın ilerlemesinin izlenmesinde ve terapötik etkinliğin değerlendirilmesinde de büyük önem taşımaktadır. COVID-19 teşhisine yönelik bir başka alternatif ise serolojik (antikor) testlerdir. Serolojik testler, akut enfeksiyon tanısında RT-PCR'a alternatif veya tamamlayıcı olarak önemli bir alternatiftir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, COVID-19’a ilişkin teşhis yöntemlerine dair sistematik tarama yapılarak COVID-19 tanısına ilişkin kapsamlı ve tutarlı bir değerlendirme ortaya koymaktır. COVID-19’la mücadelede en önemli hususların, enfekte kişilerin erken teşhis edilmesi, temaslı kişilerin takibi ve gerekli izolasyonun sağlanması olduğu, bu bağlamda her ülkenin kendi içinde belirlediği bir test politikasının olmasının büyük önem taşıdığı sonucuna varılmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Akçay, M. Ş., Özlü, T., & Yilmaz, A. (2020). Radiological approaches to COVID-19 pneumonia. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50(SI-1), 604-610.
  • Bastos, M. L., Tavaziva, G., Abidi, S. K., Campbell, J. R., Haraoui, L. P., Johnston, J. C., ... & Menzies, D. (2020). Diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for covid-19: systematic review and meta-analysis. bmj, 370.
  • Beeching, N. J., Fletcher, T. E., & Beadsworth, M. B. (2020). Covid-19: testing times.
  • Cao, Y., Liu, X., Xiong, L., & Cai, K. (2020). Imaging and clinical features of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Journal of medical virology.
  • Chen, Z. M., Fu, J. F., Shu, Q., Chen, Y. H., Hua, C. Z., Li, F. B., ... & Wang, Y. S. (2020). Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus. World journal of pediatrics, 1-7.
  • Chen, C., Huang, J., Cheng, Z., Wu, J., Chen, S., Zhang, Y., ... & Yin, P. (2020a). Favipiravir versus arbidol for COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. MedRxiv.
  • Chen, W., Lan, Y., Yuan, X., Deng, X., Li, Y., Cai, X., ... & Gao, M. (2020b). Detectable 2019-nCoV viral RNA in blood is a strong indicator for the further clinical severity. Emerging microbes & infections, 9(1), 469-473.
  • Cheng, S. C., Chang, Y. C., Chiang, Y. L. F., Chien, Y. C., Cheng, M., Yang, C. H., ... & Hsu, Y. N. (2020). First case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in Taiwan. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association.
  • Chu, D. K., Pan, Y., Cheng, S. M., Hui, K. P., Krishnan, P., Liu, Y., ... & Peiris, M. (2020). Molecular diagnosis of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causing an outbreak of pneumonia. Clinical chemistry, 66(4), 549-555.
  • Chung, M., Bernheim, A., Mei, X., Zhang, N., Huang, M., Zeng, X., ... & Jacobi, A. (2020). CT imaging features of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Radiology, 295(1), 202-207. Cipriano, M., Ruberti, E., & Giacalone, A. (2020). Gastrointestinal infection could be new focus for coronavirus diagnosis. Cureus, 12(3).
  • Corman, V. M., Landt, O., Kaiser, M., Molenkamp, R., Meijer, A., Chu, D. K., ... & Mulders, D. G. (2020). Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR. Eurosurveillance, 25(3), 2000045.
  • Demirbilek, Y., Pehlivantürk, G., Özgüler, Z. Ö., & MEŞE, E. A. (2020). COVID-19 outbreak control, example of ministry of health of Turkey. Turkish journal of medical sciences, 50(SI-1), 489-494.
  • Duan, Y. N., Zhu, Y. Q., Tang, L. L., & Qin, J. (2020). CT features of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) in children. European Radiology, 1-7.
  • Fomsgaard, A. S., & Rosenstierne, M. W. (2020). An alternative workflow for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2–escape from the NA extraction kit-shortage, Copenhagen, Denmark, March 2020. Eurosurveillance, 25(14), 2000398.
  • Gao, L., & Zhang, J. (2020). Pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of patients with early-stage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hangzhou, China. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 26, e923885-1.
  • Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. (2020). Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. BioScience Trends; 14 (1): 72. doi: 10.5582/bst.2020.01047.
  • Ge, H., Wang, X., Yuan, X., Xiao, G., Wang, C., Deng, T., ... & Xiao, X. (2020). The epidemiology and clinical information about COVID-19. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 1.
  • Han, W., Quan, B., Guo, Y., Zhang, J., Lu, Y., Feng, G., ... & Li, X. (2020). The course of clinical diagnosis and treatment of a case infected with coronavirus disease 2019. Journal of medical virology, 92(5), 461-463.
  • Hanley, B., Lucas, S. B., Youd, E., Swift, B., & Osborn, M. (2020). Autopsy in suspected COVID-19 cases. Journal of clinical pathology, 73(5), 239-242.
  • Harris, C., Carson, G., Baillie, J. K., Horby, P., & Nair, H. (2020). An evidence-based framework for priority clinical research questions for COVID-19. Journal of global health, 10(1).
  • He, F., Deng, Y., & Li, W. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019: What we know?. Journal of medical virology, 92(7), 719-725.
  • Himoto, Y., Sakata, A., Kirita, M., Hiroi, T., Kobayashi, K. I., Kubo, K., ... & Komiya, N. (2020). Diagnostic performance of chest CT to differentiate COVID-19 pneumonia in non-high-epidemic area in Japan. Japanese Journal of Radiology, 1.
  • Holshue, M. L., DeBolt, C., Lindquist, S., Lofy, K. H., Wiesman, J., Bruce, H., ... & Diaz, G. (2020). First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine.
  • Kamps, B.S. & Hoffmann, C. (2020). COVID Reference. https://amedeo.com/CovidReference04_tr.pdf Erişim tarihi: 27.11.2020.
  • Konrad, R., Eberle, U., Dangel, A., Treis, B., Berger, A., Bengs, K., ... & Sing, A. (2020). Rapid establishment of laboratory diagnostics for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Bavaria, Germany, February 2020. Eurosurveillance, 25(9), 2000173.
  • Li, Z., Yi, Y., Luo, X., Xiong, N., Liu, Y., Li, S., ... & Zhang, Y. (2020). Development and clinical application of a rapid IgM‐IgG combined antibody test for SARS‐CoV‐2 infection diagnosis. Journal of medical virology.
  • Li, K., Fang, Y., Li, W., Pan, C., Qin, P., Zhong, Y., ... & Li, S. (2020a). CT image visual quantitative evaluation and clinical classification of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). European radiology, 1-10.
  • Li, X., Zeng, W., Li, X., Chen, H., Shi, L., Li, X., ... & Wang, J. (2020b). CT imaging changes of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a multi-center study in Southwest China. Journal of translational medicine, 18, 1-8.
  • Liu, R., Han, H., Liu, F., Lv, Z., Wu, K., Liu, Y., ... & Zhu, C. (2020). Positive rate of RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 4880 cases from one hospital in Wuhan, China, from Jan to Feb 2020. Clinica Chimica Acta.
  • Loeffelholz, M. J., & Tang, Y. W. (2020). Laboratory diagnosis of emerging human coronavirus infections–the state of the art. Emerging microbes & infections, 9(1), 747-756.
  • Long, C., Xu, H., Shen, Q., Zhang, X., Fan, B., Wang, C., ... & Li, H. (2020). Diagnosis of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): rRT-PCR or CT?. European journal of radiology, 108961.
  • Lu, R., Wu, X., Wan, Z., Li, Y., Zuo, L., Qin, J., ... & Zhang, C. (2020). Development of a novel reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2. Virologica Sinica, 1.
  • Mardani, R., Vasmehjani, A. A., Zali, F., Gholami, A., Nasab, S. D. M., Kaghazian, H., ... & Ahmadi, N. (2020). Laboratory parameters in detection of COVID-19 patients with positive RT-PCR; a diagnostic accuracy study. Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, 8(1).
  • Ozma, M. A., Maroufi, P., Khodadadi, E., Köse, Ş., Esposito, I., Ganbarov, K., ... & Kafil, H. S. (2020). Clinical manifestation, diagnosis, prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) during the outbreak period. Infez Med, 28(2), 153-165.
  • Patel, R., Babady, E., Theel, E. S., Storch, G. A., Pinsky, B. A., George, K. S., ... & Bertuzzi, S. (2020). Report from the American Society for Microbiology COVID-19 international summit, 23 march 2020: value of diagnostic testing for SARS–CoV-2/COVID-19.
  • Rodrigues, J. C. L., Hare, S. S., Edey, A., Devaraj, A., Jacob, J., Johnstone, A., ... & Robinson, G. (2020). An update on COVID-19 for the radiologist-A British society of Thoracic Imaging statement. Clinical radiology, 75(5), 323-325.
  • Sabino-Silva, R., Jardim, A. C. G., & Siqueira, W. L. (2020). Coronavirus COVID-19 impacts to dentistry and potential salivary diagnosis. Clinical Oral Investigations, 24(4), 1619-1621.
  • Sağlık Bakanlığı. (2020). COVID-19 Erişkin Hasta Tedavisi. https://covid19.saglik.gov.tr/Eklenti/39061/0/covid-19rehberieriskinhastatedavisipdf.pdf Erişim tarihi: 03.11.2020.
  • Shi, H., Han, X., Jiang, N., Cao, Y., Alwalid, O., Gu, J., ... & Zheng, C. (2020). Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
  • Sofia, S., Boccatonda, A., Montanari, M., Spampinato, M., D’ardes, D., Cocco, G., ... & Schiavone, C. (2020). Thoracic ultrasound and SARS-COVID-19: a pictorial essay. Journal of ultrasound, 1-5.
  • Song, F., Shi, N., Shan, F., Zhang, Z., Shen, J., Lu, H., ... & Shi, Y. (2020). Emerging 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia. Radiology, 295(1), 210-217.
  • Tezer, H., & Demirdağ, T. B. (2020). Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50(SI-1), 592-603.
  • Thomas-Rüddel, D., Winning, J., Dickmann, P., Ouart, D., Kortgen, A., Janssens, U., & Bauer, M. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): update for anesthesiologists and intensivists March 2020. Der Anaesthesist, 1-10.
  • Wang, K., Kang, S., Tian, R., Zhang, X., & Wang, Y. (2020). Imaging manifestations and diagnostic value of chest CT of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Xiaogan area. Clinical radiology.
  • Worldometer. (2020). COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/ Erişim tarihi: 18.12.2020.
  • Wu, J., Wu, X., Zeng, W., Guo, D., Fang, Z., Chen, L., ... & Li, C. (2020). Chest CT findings in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and its relationship with clinical features. Investigative radiology, 55(5), 257.
  • Xu, R., Cui, B., Duan, X., Zhang, P., Zhou, X., & Yuan, Q. (2020). Saliva: potential diagnostic value and transmission of 2019-nCoV. International Journal of Oral Science, 12(1), 1-6.
  • Xu, Y. H., Dong, J. H., An, W. M., Lv, X. Y., Yin, X. P., Zhang, J. Z., ... & Gao, B. L. (2020a). Clinical and computed tomographic imaging features of novel coronavirus pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Infection.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Selin ÖKÇÜN (Sorumlu Yazar)
Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi
0000-0002-1647-8338
Türkiye


Mustafa KURNAZ
Ankara Üniversitesi
0000-0003-4148-2117
Türkiye


Güvenç KOÇKAYA
Yeditepe Üniversitesi
0000-0003-3996-7975
Türkiye


Adile ACAR
Sağlık Bakanlığı Sağlık Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü Araştırma, Geliştirme ve Sağlık Teknolojisi Değerlendirme Dairesi Başkanlığı
0000-0002-1140-1390
Türkiye


Olgun SENER
Sağlık Bakanlığı Sağlık Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü Araştırma, Geliştirme ve Sağlık Teknolojisi Değerlendirme Dairesi Başkanlığı
0000-0003-3477-3311
Türkiye


Gülcan TECİRLİ
Sağlık Bakanlığı Sağlık Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü Araştırma, Geliştirme ve Sağlık Teknolojisi Değerlendirme Dairesi Başkanlığı
0000-0001-6244-3753
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 4, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Ökçün, S. , Kurnaz, M. , Koçkaya, G. , Acar, A. , Sener, O. & Tecirli, G. (2020). COVID-19 TANI YÖNTEMLERİNE BAKIŞ: HIZLI SİSTEMATİK İNCELEME . Eurasian Journal of Health Technology Assessment , 4 (2) , 10-35 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ehta/issue/59458/850100

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