Yıl 2019, Cilt 15 , Sayı 3, Sayfalar 81 - 94 2019-12-30

Geospatial Analysis by Python and R: Geomorphology of the Philippine Trench, Pacific Ocean

Polina LEMENKOVA [1]


The study area is focused on the Philippine Trench, a hadal trench located in the axe of the collision of the Philippine Sea Plate and Sunda Plate, west Pacific Ocean. The research is aimed at the analysis of the trench geomorphology by correlation between changes in slope steepness and environmental variables. The methodology consists in modelling data by statistical libraries of Python and R programming languages. The results revealed that variations in the slope steepness correlate with the sediment thickness across the Philippine Trench. Variations in the landform are caused by a combination of various factors that include geology, tectonic slab dynamics and increasing depths in bathymetry. Algorithms of the advanced machine learning and graph-based analysis applied for the marine geological data set demonstrated in this research enabled to gain insights into the seafloor geomorphology that can only be accessible by remote sensing methods and modelling. Application of the statistical methods of the data analysis by Python and R packages has a broad applicability to similar research aimed at modelling landform variations in the submarine geomorphology of the hadal trenches.

Philippine Trench, Python, R, computing, programming, Philippines, Pacific Ocean, geomorphology, geospatial analysis, statistical analysis, data modelling, oceanology
  • Journel, A. and Huijbregts, Ch. (1978). Mining geostatistics. Chapter 5. Academic Press. 600 pp.
  • Swan, A. R. H. & M. Sandilands (1995). Introduction to Geological Data Analysis. Blackwell Science.
  • Lemenkova, P. (2019). “Numerical Data Modelling and Classification in Marine Geology by the SPSS Statistics”. International Journal of Engineering Technologies, vol. 5(2) pp. 90–99. doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.8796941
  • Milliman, J. D. & Syvitski, J. P. M. (1992). Geomorphic/tectonic control of sediment discharge to the ocean: The importance of small mountainous rivers. The Journal of Geology 100, 525-544.
  • Seekings, L.C., Teng, T.-L., 1977. Lateral variations in the structure of the Philippine Sea Plate. Journal of Geophysical Research 82, 317–324.
  • Lemenkova, P. (2018). “R scripting libraries for comparative analysis of the correlation methods to identify factors affecting Mariana Trench formation”. Journal of Marine Technology and Environment, vol. 2, pp. 35-42, doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.7434167
  • Gorini, M. A. V., 2009. Physiographic classification of the ocean floor: a multi-scale geomorphometric approach. In: Purves, R., Gruber, S., Straumann, R., Hengl, T. (Eds.), Proceedings Geomorphometry 2009. Geomorphometry 2009. University of Zurich, Zurich, pp. 98–105.
  • Seno, T., Maruyama, S., 1984. Paleogeographic reconstruction and origin of the Philippine Sea. Tectonophysics 102, 53–84.
  • Yoshida, M. (2017). “Trench dynamics: Effects of dynamically migrating trench on subducting slab morphology and characteristics of subduction zones systems”. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 268, 35–53.
  • Yu, G.-K., Chang, W.Y. (1991). Lateral variations in the upper mantle structure of the Philippine Sea basin. Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic 2, 281–296.
  • Yu, G.-K., Tsai, M.-T., Hwang, R.-D. (2000). Velocity dispersion and amplitude attenuation of Rayleigh waves across the Philippine Sea. Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic 11, 515–524.
  • Pollnac, R. B., Crawford, B. R., & Gorospe, M. L. (2001). Discovering factors that influence the success of community-based marine protected areas in the Visayas, Philippines. Ocean & Coastal Management, 44(11), 683- 710.
  • Lemenkova, P. (2018). “Factor Analysis by R Programming to Assess Variability Among Environmental Determinants of the Mariana Trench”, Turkish Journal of Maritime and Marine Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 146–155, doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.7358207
  • Wright, J., Rothery, D. A. (1998). The Ocean Basins: Their Structure and Evolution, 2nd ed. Elsevier.
  • Lemenkova, P. (2019) “Testing Linear Regressions by StatsModel Library of Python for Oceanological Data Interpretation”, Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, vol. 34, pp. 51–60, doi: 10.26650/ASE2019547010
  • Lemenkova, P. (2019). “An Empirical Study of R Applications for Data Analysis in Marine Geology”. Marine Science and Technology Bulletin, vol. 8(1), pp. 1-9. ISSN: 2147-9666. doi: 10.33714/masteb.486678
  • Menard, H. W. (1955). Deep-sea channels, topography, and sedimentation. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 39, 236-255.
  • Macdonald, K. C. (2001). Mid-ocean ridge tectonics, volcanism and geomorphology. Encyclopedia of Ocean SciencesElsevier 1798–1813.
  • Nelson, C. H. & Kulm, L. D. (1973). Submarine fans and channels. In: Turbidites and Deep Water Sedimentation, eds. G. V. Middleton & A. H. Bouma, Tulsa, OK: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 39-70.
  • Divins, D., 2003. Total Sediment Thickness of the World's Oceans and Marginal Seas. NOAA National Geophysical Data Center.
  • Chang, W.-Y., Yu, G.-K., Hwang, R.-D., Chiu, J.-K., 2007. “Lateral Variations of Rayleigh-wave Dispersions in the Philippine Sea region”. Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic 18, 859–878.
  • Fujioka, K., Okino, K., Kanamatsu, T., Ohara, Y., Ishizuka, O., Haraguchi, S., Ishii, T., 1999. “Enigmatic extinct spreading center in the West Philippine backarc basin unveiled”. Geology 27, 1135–1138.
  • Hall, R., Ali, J. R., Anderson, C. D., Baker, S. J., 1995. “Origin and motion history of the Philippine Sea Plate”. Tectonophysics 251, 229–250.
  • Lemenkova, P. (2019). “Processing oceanographic data by Python libraries NumPy, SciPy and Pandas”, Aquatic Research, vol. 2, pp. 73-91, doi: 10.3153/AR19009
  • Dolotov, Y. S. (2010). “Processes of Relief Formation and Sedimentation on the Tidal Coasts of the World Ocean”. In Russian. Ed. by Safyanov, G.A. Moscow: Scientific World. ISBN: 978-5- 91522-235-8.
  • Gille, S.T., Metzger, E.J., Tokmakian, R. (2004). “Seafloor topography and ocean circulation”. Oceanography 17, 47–54.
  • Harris P. T., Macmillan-Lawler M., Rupp J., Baker, E. K. (2014). “Geomorphology of the oceans”. Marine Geology 352 4–24.
  • Harris, P. T., Whiteway, T., 2011. “Global distribution of large submarine canyons: geomorphic differences between active and passive continental margins”. Marine Geology 285, 69–86.
  • Covault, J. A. (2011). Submarine fans and canyon–channel systems: a review of processes, products, and models. Nature Education Knowledge 3 (10), 4.
  • Lemenkova, P. (2019). “Scatterplot Matrices of the Geomorphic Structure of the Mariana Trench at Four Tectonic Plates (Pacific, Philippine, Mariana and Caroline): a Geostatistical Analysis by R”. In: Problems of Tectonics of Continents and Oceans. Proceedings of the 51st Tectonics Meeting, Ed. by Degtyarev, K. E. Vol. 1. Russian Academy of Science Institute of Geology. Moscow, Russia: GEOS, pp. 347–352. ISBN: 978-5-89118-. doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.7699787.v1
  • Lemenkova, P. (2018). “Hierarchical Cluster Analysis by R language for Pattern Recognition in the Bathymetric Data Frame: a Case Study of the Mariana Trench, Pacific Ocean”. In: Virtual Simulation, Prototyping and Industrial Design. Proceedings of the 5th Int’l Sci.-Pract. Conference, Vol. 2. Issue 5, Ed. by M. N. Krasnyansky. Tambov, Russia: TSTU Press, pp. 147–152. doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.7531550
  • Sdrolias, M., Roset, W.R., Muller, R.D. (2004). “An expression of Philippine Sea Plate rotation: the Parece Vela and Shikoku Basins”. Tectonophysics 394, 69–86.
  • Otsuki, K. (1990). “Westward migration of the Izu-Bonin Trench, northward motion of the Philippine Sea Plate, and their relationships to the Cenozoic tectonics of Japanese island arcs”. Tectonophysics. 180 (204), 351– 367. doi: 10.1016/0040-1951(90)90318-3
  • Nakakuki, T., Hamada, C., Tagawa, M. (2008). “Generation and driving forces of plate- like motion and asymmetric subduction in dynamical models of an integrated mantle–lithosphere system”. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 166 (3–4), 128–146. doi: 10.1016/j.pepi.2007.12.004
  • Hilde, T. W. C., Lee, C.S. (1984). “Origin and evolution of the West Philippine Basin: a new interpretation”. Tectonophysics 102, 85–104.
  • Karig, D.E., 1983. “Accreted terranes in the northern part of the Philippine archipelago”. Tectonics 2, 211– 236.
  • Hirano, S., Nakata, T., Sangawa, A., 1986. “Fault topography and quaternary faulting along the Philippine Fault zone, Central Luzon, the Philippines”. Journal of Geography 95, 1–23.
  • Yu, G.-K., 1982. “Surface wave study of the Philippine Sea Plate.” Proceedings of the National Science Council, Republic of China. Part A 6, 281–296.
  • Yeh, Y. -L., Kao, H., Wen, S., Chang, W.-Y., Chen, Ch.-H. (2013). “Surface wave tomography and azimuthal anisotropy of the Philippine Sea Plate”. Tectonophysics 592, 94–112.
  • Salah, M.K., Seno, T., Iidaka, T. (2009). “Seismic anisotropy in the wedge above the Philippine Sea slab beneath Kanto and southwest Japan derived from shear wave splitting”. Journal of Asian Sciences 34, 61–75.
  • Kato, M., Jordan, T.H., 1999. Seismic structure of the upper mantle beneath the western Philippine Sea. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 110, 263–283.
  • Isse, T., Shiobara, H., Montagner, J.-P., Sugioka, H., Ito, A., Shito, A., Kanazawa, T., Yoshizawa, K., 2010. Anisotropic structures of the upper mantle beneath the northern Philippine Sea region from Rayleigh and Love wave tomography. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 183, 33–43.
  • David, H. A. and Nagaraja, H. N. (2003), Order Statistics, New York: Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics.
  • Borradaile, G.J. (2003). Statistics of Earth Science Data. Springer.
  • Lemenkova, P. (2019). “Regression Models by Gretl and R Statistical Packages for Data Analysis in Marine Geology”. International Journal of Environmental Trends, vol. 3(1), pp. 39–59, doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.8313362.v1
  • Cielen D., Meysman A. D. B., Ali M. (2016). Introducing Data Science. Big Data, Machine Learning and More, Using Python Tools. Manning. Shelter Island. 322 p.
  • Ciaccio, A. Di, Coli, M., and Angulo Ibanez, J. M. (2012). Advanced Statistical Methods for the Anaysis of Large Data Sets. Studies in Theoretical and Applied Statistics Selected Papers of the Statistical Societies. Springer, ISBN 978-3-642-21036-5, pp.464. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-21037-2
  • R Development Core Team (2011), R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, ISBN 3-900051-07-0.
  • Cameron, A. C. and P. K. Trivedi (2013) Regression Analysis of Count Data, Cambridge University Press.
  • Hoaglin, D. C. (1983), Letter values: A set of selected order statistics, chap. 2, in Hoaglin et al. (1983), pp. 33–57.
  • Davis, J.C. (2002). Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology. Wiley.
  • Hoffmann, H., Kafadar, K., Wickham, H. (2011). Letter-value plots: Boxplots for large data.
  • Hoaglin, D. C., Mosteller, F., and Tukey, J. W. (eds.) (1983), Understanding Robust and Exploratory Data Analysis, New York: Wiley.
  • McGill, R., Tukey, J. W., and Larson, W. (1978), “Variations of box plots,” The American Statistician, 32, 12–16.
  • Golub, G. H. and C. F. Van Loan (1996) Matrix Computations, Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press, third edn.
  • Hunter J., Dale D., Firing, E., Droettboom, M. (2018). Matplotlib Release 2.2.2.
  • Hessler, R. R., Ingram, C. L., Aristides Yayanos, A., Burnett, B.R., 1978. Scavenging amphipods from the floor of the Philippine Trench. Deep Sea Res. 25, 1029–1047.
  • Daly, R. A. Origin of submarine "canyons." American Journal of Science 31, 401-420 (1936).
  • Heezen, B. C. The floors of the oceans. I. The North Atlantic. Geological Society of America Special Paper 65, 1-122 (1959).
  • Shepard, F. P., 1963. Submarine Geology. Harper & Row, New York.
  • Heezen, B. C., Tharp, M., 1977. World Ocean Floor Panorama, New York, pp. In full color, painted by H. Berann, Mercator Projection, scale 1:23,230,300, 1168×1930 mm.
  • Agapova, G.V., Budanova, L.Y., Zenkevich, N.L., Larina, N.I., Litvin, V.M., Marova, N.A., Rudenko, M.V., Turko, N.N., 1979. Geomorphology of the Ocean Floor, Geofizika okeana. Geofizika okeanskogo dna, Neprochnov, Izd. Nauka, Moscow, pp. 150–205.
  • Kennett, J., 1982. Marine Geology. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.
  • Becker, J.J., Sandwell, D.T., Smith, W.H.F., Braud, J., Binder, B., Depner, J., Fabre, D., Factor, J., Ingalls, S., Kim, S.H., Ladner, R., Marks, K., Nelson, S., Pharaoh, A., Trimmer, R., Von Rosenberg, J., Wallace, G., Weatherall, P., 2009. Global bathymetry and elevation data at 30 arc seconds resolution: SRTM30_PLUS. Marine Geodesy 32, 355–371.
  • Carron M. J, Vogt P. R. and Jung W.-Y. 2013. GOMaP (Global Ocean Mapping Program): A Proposed International Long-Term Project to Systematically Map the World’s Ocean Floors From Beach to Trench.
  • IHO-IOC, 2012. GEBCO Gazetteer of Undersea Feature Names, October 2012 version.
  • Lanier, A., C. Romsos, and C. Goldfinger. 2007. Seafloor habitat mapping on the Oregon continental margin: A spatially nested GIS approach to mapping scale, mapping methods, and accuracy quantification. Marine Geodesy 30:51–76.
  • Normark, W. R. & Carlson, P. R. Giant submarine canyons: Is size any clue to their importance in the rock record? Geological Society of America Special Paper 370, 175-190 (2003).
Birincil Dil en
Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0002-5759-1089
Yazar: Polina LEMENKOVA (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Ocean University of China
Ülke: China


Destekleyen Kurum China Scholarship Council (CSC)
Proje Numarası 2016SOA002
Teşekkür This research was funded by the China Scholarship Council (CSC), State Oceanic Administration (SOA), Marine Scholarship of China, Grant Nr. 2016SOA002, Beijing, China (P.R.C.)
Tarihler

Başvuru Tarihi : 10 Ağustos 2019
Kabul Tarihi : 24 Aralık 2019
Yayımlanma Tarihi : 30 Aralık 2019

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { else604976, journal = {Electronic Letters on Science and Engineering}, issn = {1305-8614}, address = {Bozok University, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Erdoğan Akdag Kampus, 66200, Yozgat, TURKEY.}, publisher = {Fevzullah TEMURTAŞ}, year = {2019}, volume = {15}, pages = {81 - 94}, doi = {}, title = {Geospatial Analysis by Python and R: Geomorphology of the Philippine Trench, Pacific Ocean}, key = {cite}, author = {Lemenkova, Polina} }
APA Lemenkova, P . (2019). Geospatial Analysis by Python and R: Geomorphology of the Philippine Trench, Pacific Ocean . Electronic Letters on Science and Engineering , 15 (3) , 81-94 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/else/issue/50887/604976
MLA Lemenkova, P . "Geospatial Analysis by Python and R: Geomorphology of the Philippine Trench, Pacific Ocean" . Electronic Letters on Science and Engineering 15 (2019 ): 81-94 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/else/issue/50887/604976>
Chicago Lemenkova, P . "Geospatial Analysis by Python and R: Geomorphology of the Philippine Trench, Pacific Ocean". Electronic Letters on Science and Engineering 15 (2019 ): 81-94
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Geospatial Analysis by Python and R: Geomorphology of the Philippine Trench, Pacific Ocean AU - Polina Lemenkova Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - DO - T2 - Electronic Letters on Science and Engineering JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 81 EP - 94 VL - 15 IS - 3 SN - 1305-8614- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Electronic Letters on Science and Engineering Geospatial Analysis by Python and R: Geomorphology of the Philippine Trench, Pacific Ocean %A Polina Lemenkova %T Geospatial Analysis by Python and R: Geomorphology of the Philippine Trench, Pacific Ocean %D 2019 %J Electronic Letters on Science and Engineering %P 1305-8614- %V 15 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Lemenkova, Polina . "Geospatial Analysis by Python and R: Geomorphology of the Philippine Trench, Pacific Ocean". Electronic Letters on Science and Engineering 15 / 3 (Aralık 2020): 81-94 .
AMA Lemenkova P . Geospatial Analysis by Python and R: Geomorphology of the Philippine Trench, Pacific Ocean. Electronic Letters on Science and Engineering. 2019; 15(3): 81-94.
Vancouver Lemenkova P . Geospatial Analysis by Python and R: Geomorphology of the Philippine Trench, Pacific Ocean. Electronic Letters on Science and Engineering. 2019; 15(3): 81-94.