Yıl 2020, Cilt 6 , Sayı 3, Sayfalar 193 - 199 2020-05-04

The relation between preschool children’s language development and their mothers’ depression and anxiety symptoms: a cross-sectional study

Zeynep GÖKER [1] , Havva ESER [2] , Arzu YILMAZ [3]


Objectives: In this study, the relationship between preschool age group children’s language development and depression/anxiety symptoms of their mothers was investigated.

Methods: Children aged 13-75 months and their mothers were included. Denver-II test and Beck Depression and anxiety scales were utilized. SPSS 17.0 program was used and p < 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: Of the 58 patients, 74.1% were male, with the mean age of 53.3 months. The mean maternal age was 31.5 years. The mean education level was 8.3 years for mothers. According to the Denver-II of language development, 53.4% of the cases were found to be "delayed" whereas 46.6% of all were “normal”, with significantly lower in “delayed” children (47.4 vs. 60 months; t (56) = -3.431, p = 0.001). Delayed language was significantly associated with lower mothers’ education level (7.4 vs. 9.3 years; t (56) = -2.466, p = 0.017). The median score of depression scale was significantly higher in the delayed language (18 vs. 13; z = -2.218, p = 0.027). Positive correlation was found between the mothers’ education and the language development (r = .324, p = 0.013). The anxiety symptom levels of the mothers were not associated with language development (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: The level of education of mother seems to affect language development. There is a relationship between the depressive symptoms of the mother and the delay in language development. It seems important that the mothers of the cases whose children had language development to be directed to psychiatric evaluation. 

language development, child, mother’s depression, mother’s anxiety
  • 1. Tümkaya S. [Language development]. In: Deniz ME, ed., [Development in early childhood]. 8th ed., Pegem Akademi: Ankara, 2017: pp.28-52. [Article in Turkish]
  • 2. McMurray B. Defusing the childhood vocabulary explosion. Science 2007;317:631.
  • 3. Ekerim M, Selcuk B. Longitudinal predictors of vocabulary knowledge in Turkish children: the role of sensitive parenting and executive functions. Early Educ Dev 2018;29:324-41.
  • 4. Garcia D, Bagner DM, Pruden SM, Nichols-Lopez K. Language production in children with and at risk for delay: mediating role of parenting skills. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2015;44:814-25.
  • 5. Stein A, Malmberg LE, Sylva K, Barnes J, Leach P; FCCC team. The influence of maternal depression, care giving, and socioeconomic status in the post-natal year on children’s language development. Child Care Health Dev 2008;34:603-12.
  • 6. Pan BA, Rowe ML, Singer JD, Snow CE. Maternal correlates of growth in toddler vocabulary production in low-income families. Child Dev 2005;76:763-82.
  • 7. Koutra K, Chatzi L, Bagkeris M, Vassilaki M, Bitsios P, Kogevinas M. Antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health as determinants of infant neurodevelopment at 18th months of age in a mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2013;48:1335-45.
  • 8. Keim SA, Daniels JL, Dole N, Herring AH, Siega-Riz AM, Scheidt PC. A prospective study of maternal anxiety, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms in relation to infant cognitive development. Early Hum Dev 2011;87:373-80.
  • 9. Frankenburg WK, Dodds J, Archer P, Shapiro H, Bresnick B. The Denver II: a major revision and restandardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Pediatrics 1992;89:91-7.
  • 10. Anlar B, Yalaz K. [Denver II Developmental Screening Test. Adaptation and standardization to Turkish children]. Hacettepe Çocuk Nörolojisi Gelişimsel Tıp Araştırmaları Grubu Yayını, Ankara. 1996. [Article in Turkish]
  • 11. Anlar B, Bayoğlu B, Yalaz K. [Denver II test handbook adapted to Turkish children]. 2007. [Article in Turkish]
  • 12. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961;4:561-71.
  • 13. Hisli N. [A study on the validity of the Beck depression inventory]. Psikoloji Dergisi 1988;6:118-126. [Article in Turkish]
  • 14. Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, Steer RA. An Inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol 1998;56:893-7.
  • 15. Ulusoy M, Şahin N, Erkman H. Turkish version of the Beck anxiety inventory: psychometric properties. J Cogn Psychother 1998;12:163-72.
  • 16. Günes N. [Investigation of the relationship between the developmental level of children aged 0-6 and their family functions and life satisfaction]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Çocuk Gelişimi ve Eğitimi Programı Yüksek Lisans Tezi (Thesis). Ankara. 2017. [Article in Turkish]
  • 17. Madan R, Tekin D. “Developmental follow-up of 0-6 age group children’’ programs (PS007). Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Science Journal 2015;1(Suppl 2):641-50. [Article in Turkish]
  • 18. Güven F, Say A, Sarı İ, Sarı E, Değirmenci S, Uygur Külcü N. [The effect of socio-economic level on Denver II test]. Zeynep Kamil Tıp Bülteni 2012;43:108-13. [Article in Turkish]
  • 19. Bayoğlu B, Bakar E, Kutlu M, Karabulut E, Anlar B. Can preschool developmental screening identify children at risk for school problems? Early Hum Dev 2007;83:613-7.
  • 20. Durmazlar N, Ozturk C, Ural B, Karaagaoglu E, Anlar B. Turkish children’s performance on Denver II: effects of sex and mother’s education. Dev Med Child Neurol 1998;40:411-6.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Nörolojik Bilimler, Psikiyatri
Bölüm Original Article
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0002-6489-3800
Yazar: Zeynep GÖKER (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Department of Child Psychiatry, University of Health Sciences, Ankara Child Health and Diseases Hematology and Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
Ülke: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0003-1823-0050
Yazar: Havva ESER
Kurum: Department of Child Development and Education, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
Ülke: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0003-2550-9324
Yazar: Arzu YILMAZ
Kurum: Department of Child Neurology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 4 Mayıs 2020

EndNote %0 The European Research Journal The relation between preschool children’s language development and their mothers’ depression and anxiety symptoms: a cross-sectional study %A Zeynep GÖKER , Havva ESER , Arzu YILMAZ %T The relation between preschool children’s language development and their mothers’ depression and anxiety symptoms: a cross-sectional study %D 2020 %J The European Research Journal %P -2149-3189 %V 6 %N 3 %R doi: 10.18621/eurj.475930 %U 10.18621/eurj.475930