Derleme
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

Javelin Throw Technique and Its Evaluation in Biomechanical Terms

Yıl 2021, Cilt 26, Sayı 4, 439 - 452, 27.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.53434/gbesbd.878826

Öz

This review has been prepared to evaluate the javelin throw technique in terms of biomechanics. Javelin is a field sport is made to achieve the longest shot. For the javelin throw, the vechile, the body of which is made of metal or a different homogeneous material and whose tip is sharpened, is used. Javelin throwing techniques usually consists of five components. The javelin is carried parallel to the ground over the shoulder. In order to reach maximum speed, the athlete performs a speed-up run before taking the throwing motion. Towards the end of the 10-15 step acceleration, the athlete begins to pull the javelin back. The second part is taken in diagonal steps. Immediately after the crossover steps, the transition step that takes the athlete to the shooting stage is taken. Then the transmission phase is passed. The delivery phase starts with the touch of the left foot for the right-handed athlete and ends with the javelin releasing from the hand. Unlike mainly rotational techniques such as discus throwing, hammer throwing and shot put, javelin throwing is a predominantly linear event. The fact that the javelin throw’s acceleration path is linear distinguishes it from other throwing sports. Height and arm length and shoulder width can be shown as parameters that affect the performance of the javelin throw. The heavy weight of the javelin can increase the risk of injury. In throwing sports, serious stresses are placed on the shoulders and elbows, and acute and overuse injuries of these areas are common.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Abd-El Ga, H. ve Hassan, N. (2016). The effect of weighted finger exercises on the grip strength and the level record for students of the Faculty of Physical Education, Minia University in the javelin throw competition. Assiut Journal of Sport Science and Arts, 316(3), 203-214.
  • 2. Aguinaldo, A. L., Buttermore, J. ve Chambers, H. (2007). Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various levels. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 23(1), 42-51.
  • 3. Aguinaldo, A. L. ve Chambers, H. (2009). Correlation of throwing mechanics with elbow valgus load in adult baseball pitchers. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(10), 2043-2048.
  • 4. Andrews, J. R., Carson, W. G. ve Mcleod, W. D. (1985). Glenoid labrum tears related to the long head of the biceps. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 13(5), 337-341.
  • 5. Andrews,J. R. ve Fleisig, G. S. (1998). Preventing throwing injuries. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 27(3), 187-188.
  • 6. Antti, M., Komi, P. V., Korjus, T., Navarro, E. ve Gregor, R. (1994). Body segment contributions to javelin throwing during final thrust phases. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 10(2), 166-177.
  • 7. Auriemma, M. ve De Luigi, A. J. (2018). Adaptive throwing sports: discus, javelin, shot put, and boccia. A. De Luigi (Ed.), Adaptive sports medicine (S.301-312). Cham: Springer.
  • 8. Athletics Direct: Throwing weight rules per age group (2016, 7 Temmuz). Erişim adresi: https://www.athleticsdirect.co.uk/throwing-weight-rules-1/.
  • 9. Bartlett, R. (1983). Cinematographical analysis of an international javelin thrower. Athletics Coach, 17, 10-19.
  • 10. Bartlett, R. M. ve Best, R. J. (1988). The biomechanics of javelin throwing: a review. Journal of Sports Sciences, 6(1), 1-38.
  • 11. Bechler, J. R. ve Jobe, F. W. (1994). Impingement and instability in the throwing athlete. Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine, 2(2), 106-110.
  • 12. Best, R. ve Bartlett, R. (1986). Javelin release variables and their importance to the performer and coach with special reference to the 1986 new rules javelins. Proceedings of the Sports Biomechanics Study Group, 11.
  • 13. Best, R. ve Bartlett, R. (1988). Computer flight simulation of the men’s new rules javelin. Biomechanics XI-B, 588-594.
  • 14. Campos, J., Brizuela, G. ve Ramón, V. (2004). Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of elite javelin throwers at the 1999 IAAF world championships in athletics. New Studies in Athletics, 19(21), 47-57.
  • 15. Carr, G. ve Carr, G. A. (1997). Mechanics of sport: a practitioner's guide. London: Human Kinetics Publishers.
  • 16. Chen, Y., Chou, Y. C., Lo, T. Y., Chang, W. H. ve Chang, J. H. (2020). Kinematics differences between personal best and worst throws in actual javelin competition. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 20(1), 10-18.
  • 17. Chow, J. W., Kuenster, A. F. ve Lim, Y. T. (2003). Kinematic analysis of javelin throw performed by wheelchair athletes of different functional classes. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 2(2), 36.
  • 18. Dai, B., Mao, M., Garrett, W. E. ve Yu, B. (2015). Biomechanical characteristics of an anterior cruciate ligament injury in javelin throwing. Journal of Sport and Health Scienc, 4(4), 333-340.
  • 19. Demirci, A. (2003). Atletizm öğretimi atmalar. Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
  • 20. Dillman, C. J. (1991). Valgus extension overload in baseball pitching. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 153.
  • 21. Fleisig, G. S., Andrews, J. R., Dillman, C. J. ve Escamilla, R. F. (1995). Kinetics of baseball pitching with implications about injury mechanisms. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(2), 233-239.
  • 22. Fleisig, G. S. ve Escamilla, R. F. (1996). Biomechanics of the elbow in the throwing athlete. Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine, 4(2), 62-68.
  • 23. Ganse, B. ve Degens, H. (2018). Accelerated decline in javelin throwing performance in master athletes 70 years and older–do changes in technique play a role. Sports Medicine International Open, 2(3), 79.
  • 24. Hubbard, M. (1984). Optimal javelin trajectories. Journal of Biomechanics, 17(10), 777-787.
  • 25. İşler, M. (1997). Atletizm (koşular-atlamalar-atmalar), teknik, metod, antrenman. Ankara: TUTİBAY.
  • 26. Jalalabadi, Y., Mohammadi, S. ve Amiri, F. N. (2019). Analyzing, investigating and calculating the optimum mode of the parameters affecting the record of the javelin throw including the initial velocity, initial angle, and initial height of throw. Turkish Journal of Kinesiology, 5(1), 1-14.
  • 27. Kale, G. (2006). Atletizm'in atma branşlarında bazı antropometrik parametrelerle performansın ilişkilendirilmesi (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Ankara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • 28. Kim, H., Lee, Y., Shin, I., Kim, K. ve Moon, J. (2014). Effects of 8 weeks’ specific physical training on the rotator cuff muscle strength and technique of javelin throwers. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(10), 1553-1556.
  • 29. Kunz, H. ve Kaufman, D. (1980). Essentials of the javelin throw: a biomechanical analysis. Track and Field Quarterly Review, 80(18-20).
  • 30. Leigh, S. (2012). The influence of technique on throwing performance and injury risk in javelin throwers (Doktora Tezi). Kuzey Karolina Üniversitesi, NC.
  • 31. Lin, W. H., Cheng, J. H., Hung, W. H. ve Lee, A. J. (2016, Temmuz). A Comparison of Balance Control Between Javelin Throwers And Baseball Pitchers. 34. International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports, Taw Japan.
  • 32. Liu, H., Leigh, S. ve Yu, B. (2010). Sequences of upper and lower extremity motions in javelin throwing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(13), 1459-1467.
  • 33. Liu, H., Leigh, S. ve Yu, B. (2014). Comparison of sequence of trunk and arm motions between short and long official distance groups in javelin throwing. Sports Biomechanics, 13(1), 17-32.
  • 34. Looijen, T. (2020, 20 Agustos). The design of the PRODON data javelin: Providing performance feedback for indoor javelin throwing. Erişim Adresi: https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid%3A52eac21e-6c97-4e91-8a23-9cbd47fecc84.
  • 35. Meron, A. ve Saint-Phard, D. (2017). Track and field throwing sports: injuries and prevention. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 16(6), 391-396.
  • 36. Miller, D. ve Munro, C. (1983). Javelin position and velocity patterns during final foot plant preceding release. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 9(1), 1-20.
  • 37. Morriss, C. ve Bartlett, R. (1996). Biomechanical factors critical for performance in the men’s javelin throw. Sports Medicine, 21(6), 438-446.
  • 38. Murakami, M., Tanabe, S., Ishikawa, M. ve Ito, A. (2017). The relationship between approach run kinematics and javelin throwing performance. Asian Journal of Coaching Science, 1(1), 1-14.
  • 39. Pavlovic, R., Idrizovic, K., Savic, V., Vrcic, M., Radulovic, N. ve Simeonov, A. (2020). The differences of kinematic parameters javelin throw between male and female finalists world championship (Berlin, 2009-Daegu, 2011). American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8(1), 8-15.
  • 40. Rich, R., Whiting, W., McCoy, R., Gregor, R. ve Ward, P. (1985). Analysis of release parameters in elite javelin throwers. Track Technique, 92, 2932-2934.
  • 41. Stander, R. (2015, 24 Ocak). Athletics Omnibus-Javelin Throw. Erişim Adresi: https://fliphtml5.com/eobp/hrpn/basic.
  • 42. Tekil, N. (1984). Adam Atletizm. İstanbul: Adam Yayıncılık.
  • 43. Waris, W. (1946). Elbow injuries of javelin-throwers. Acta Chirurgica Scandinavica, 93, 563-575.
  • 44. Whiting, W. C., Gregor, R. J. ve Halushka, M. (1991). Body segment and release parameter contributions to new-rules javelin throwing. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 7(2), 111-124.
  • 45. World Athletics (2020a, 16 Agustos). World athletics constitution & book of rules. Erişim Adresi: https://www.worldathletics.org/about-iaaf/documents/book-of-rules.
  • 46. World Athletics (2020b, 17 Temmuz). Javelin throw. records by event. Erişim Adresi: https://www.worldathletics.org/records/by-discipline/throws/javelin-throw/outdoor/men.
  • 47. Young, M. (2001). Developing event-specific strength for the javelin throw. Track Coach, 13(154), 4921.
  • 48. Young, M. (2007, 30 0cak). Preparing for the specific neuromuscular and biomechanical demands of the javelin throw. Erişim Adresi: https://elitetrack.com/article_files/youngjavelin.pdf.

Cirit Atma Tekniği ve Biyomekaniksel Açıdan Değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 26, Sayı 4, 439 - 452, 27.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.53434/gbesbd.878826

Öz

Bu derleme, cirit atma tekniğinin biyomekaniksel açıdan değerlendirilmesi amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Cirit atma teknikleri genellikle beş bileşenden oluşur. Cirit omzun üzerinde yere paralel taşınır. Sporcu maksimum hıza ulaşmak için, fırlatma hareketine geçmeden önce bir hız kazanma koşusu yapar. 10-15 adımlık hızlanmanın sonuna doğru sporcu ciridi geri çekmeye başlar. Koşunun ikinci bölümü çapraz adımlarla alınır. Çapraz adımlardan hemen sonra sporcuyu atış aşamasına geçiren geçiş adımı atılır. Ardından iletim fazına geçilir. İletim fazı sağ el ile atış yapan sporcu için sol ayak dokunuşu ile başlar ve ciridin elden serbest kalmasıyla sona erer. Disk atma, çekiç atma ve gülle atma gibi esas olarak rotasyonel tekniklerin aksine, cirit atma ağırlıklı olarak doğrusal bir olaydır. Cirit atışının hızlanma yolunun doğrusal olması, onu diğer atma sporlarından ayırmaktadır. Cirit atışının performansını etkileyen parametreler olarak, boy ve kol uzunluğu ile omuz genişliği gösterilebilir. Ciridin ağırlığının fazla olması yaralanma riskini arttırabilmektedir. Fırlatma sporlarında özellikle omuz ve dirsek üzerine ciddi stresler binmekte olup bu bölgelerin akut ve aşırı kullanım yaralanmalarına sık rastlanılmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • 1. Abd-El Ga, H. ve Hassan, N. (2016). The effect of weighted finger exercises on the grip strength and the level record for students of the Faculty of Physical Education, Minia University in the javelin throw competition. Assiut Journal of Sport Science and Arts, 316(3), 203-214.
  • 2. Aguinaldo, A. L., Buttermore, J. ve Chambers, H. (2007). Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various levels. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 23(1), 42-51.
  • 3. Aguinaldo, A. L. ve Chambers, H. (2009). Correlation of throwing mechanics with elbow valgus load in adult baseball pitchers. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(10), 2043-2048.
  • 4. Andrews, J. R., Carson, W. G. ve Mcleod, W. D. (1985). Glenoid labrum tears related to the long head of the biceps. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 13(5), 337-341.
  • 5. Andrews,J. R. ve Fleisig, G. S. (1998). Preventing throwing injuries. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 27(3), 187-188.
  • 6. Antti, M., Komi, P. V., Korjus, T., Navarro, E. ve Gregor, R. (1994). Body segment contributions to javelin throwing during final thrust phases. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 10(2), 166-177.
  • 7. Auriemma, M. ve De Luigi, A. J. (2018). Adaptive throwing sports: discus, javelin, shot put, and boccia. A. De Luigi (Ed.), Adaptive sports medicine (S.301-312). Cham: Springer.
  • 8. Athletics Direct: Throwing weight rules per age group (2016, 7 Temmuz). Erişim adresi: https://www.athleticsdirect.co.uk/throwing-weight-rules-1/.
  • 9. Bartlett, R. (1983). Cinematographical analysis of an international javelin thrower. Athletics Coach, 17, 10-19.
  • 10. Bartlett, R. M. ve Best, R. J. (1988). The biomechanics of javelin throwing: a review. Journal of Sports Sciences, 6(1), 1-38.
  • 11. Bechler, J. R. ve Jobe, F. W. (1994). Impingement and instability in the throwing athlete. Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine, 2(2), 106-110.
  • 12. Best, R. ve Bartlett, R. (1986). Javelin release variables and their importance to the performer and coach with special reference to the 1986 new rules javelins. Proceedings of the Sports Biomechanics Study Group, 11.
  • 13. Best, R. ve Bartlett, R. (1988). Computer flight simulation of the men’s new rules javelin. Biomechanics XI-B, 588-594.
  • 14. Campos, J., Brizuela, G. ve Ramón, V. (2004). Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of elite javelin throwers at the 1999 IAAF world championships in athletics. New Studies in Athletics, 19(21), 47-57.
  • 15. Carr, G. ve Carr, G. A. (1997). Mechanics of sport: a practitioner's guide. London: Human Kinetics Publishers.
  • 16. Chen, Y., Chou, Y. C., Lo, T. Y., Chang, W. H. ve Chang, J. H. (2020). Kinematics differences between personal best and worst throws in actual javelin competition. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 20(1), 10-18.
  • 17. Chow, J. W., Kuenster, A. F. ve Lim, Y. T. (2003). Kinematic analysis of javelin throw performed by wheelchair athletes of different functional classes. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 2(2), 36.
  • 18. Dai, B., Mao, M., Garrett, W. E. ve Yu, B. (2015). Biomechanical characteristics of an anterior cruciate ligament injury in javelin throwing. Journal of Sport and Health Scienc, 4(4), 333-340.
  • 19. Demirci, A. (2003). Atletizm öğretimi atmalar. Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
  • 20. Dillman, C. J. (1991). Valgus extension overload in baseball pitching. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 153.
  • 21. Fleisig, G. S., Andrews, J. R., Dillman, C. J. ve Escamilla, R. F. (1995). Kinetics of baseball pitching with implications about injury mechanisms. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(2), 233-239.
  • 22. Fleisig, G. S. ve Escamilla, R. F. (1996). Biomechanics of the elbow in the throwing athlete. Operative Techniques in Sports Medicine, 4(2), 62-68.
  • 23. Ganse, B. ve Degens, H. (2018). Accelerated decline in javelin throwing performance in master athletes 70 years and older–do changes in technique play a role. Sports Medicine International Open, 2(3), 79.
  • 24. Hubbard, M. (1984). Optimal javelin trajectories. Journal of Biomechanics, 17(10), 777-787.
  • 25. İşler, M. (1997). Atletizm (koşular-atlamalar-atmalar), teknik, metod, antrenman. Ankara: TUTİBAY.
  • 26. Jalalabadi, Y., Mohammadi, S. ve Amiri, F. N. (2019). Analyzing, investigating and calculating the optimum mode of the parameters affecting the record of the javelin throw including the initial velocity, initial angle, and initial height of throw. Turkish Journal of Kinesiology, 5(1), 1-14.
  • 27. Kale, G. (2006). Atletizm'in atma branşlarında bazı antropometrik parametrelerle performansın ilişkilendirilmesi (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Ankara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • 28. Kim, H., Lee, Y., Shin, I., Kim, K. ve Moon, J. (2014). Effects of 8 weeks’ specific physical training on the rotator cuff muscle strength and technique of javelin throwers. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(10), 1553-1556.
  • 29. Kunz, H. ve Kaufman, D. (1980). Essentials of the javelin throw: a biomechanical analysis. Track and Field Quarterly Review, 80(18-20).
  • 30. Leigh, S. (2012). The influence of technique on throwing performance and injury risk in javelin throwers (Doktora Tezi). Kuzey Karolina Üniversitesi, NC.
  • 31. Lin, W. H., Cheng, J. H., Hung, W. H. ve Lee, A. J. (2016, Temmuz). A Comparison of Balance Control Between Javelin Throwers And Baseball Pitchers. 34. International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports, Taw Japan.
  • 32. Liu, H., Leigh, S. ve Yu, B. (2010). Sequences of upper and lower extremity motions in javelin throwing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(13), 1459-1467.
  • 33. Liu, H., Leigh, S. ve Yu, B. (2014). Comparison of sequence of trunk and arm motions between short and long official distance groups in javelin throwing. Sports Biomechanics, 13(1), 17-32.
  • 34. Looijen, T. (2020, 20 Agustos). The design of the PRODON data javelin: Providing performance feedback for indoor javelin throwing. Erişim Adresi: https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid%3A52eac21e-6c97-4e91-8a23-9cbd47fecc84.
  • 35. Meron, A. ve Saint-Phard, D. (2017). Track and field throwing sports: injuries and prevention. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 16(6), 391-396.
  • 36. Miller, D. ve Munro, C. (1983). Javelin position and velocity patterns during final foot plant preceding release. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 9(1), 1-20.
  • 37. Morriss, C. ve Bartlett, R. (1996). Biomechanical factors critical for performance in the men’s javelin throw. Sports Medicine, 21(6), 438-446.
  • 38. Murakami, M., Tanabe, S., Ishikawa, M. ve Ito, A. (2017). The relationship between approach run kinematics and javelin throwing performance. Asian Journal of Coaching Science, 1(1), 1-14.
  • 39. Pavlovic, R., Idrizovic, K., Savic, V., Vrcic, M., Radulovic, N. ve Simeonov, A. (2020). The differences of kinematic parameters javelin throw between male and female finalists world championship (Berlin, 2009-Daegu, 2011). American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8(1), 8-15.
  • 40. Rich, R., Whiting, W., McCoy, R., Gregor, R. ve Ward, P. (1985). Analysis of release parameters in elite javelin throwers. Track Technique, 92, 2932-2934.
  • 41. Stander, R. (2015, 24 Ocak). Athletics Omnibus-Javelin Throw. Erişim Adresi: https://fliphtml5.com/eobp/hrpn/basic.
  • 42. Tekil, N. (1984). Adam Atletizm. İstanbul: Adam Yayıncılık.
  • 43. Waris, W. (1946). Elbow injuries of javelin-throwers. Acta Chirurgica Scandinavica, 93, 563-575.
  • 44. Whiting, W. C., Gregor, R. J. ve Halushka, M. (1991). Body segment and release parameter contributions to new-rules javelin throwing. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 7(2), 111-124.
  • 45. World Athletics (2020a, 16 Agustos). World athletics constitution & book of rules. Erişim Adresi: https://www.worldathletics.org/about-iaaf/documents/book-of-rules.
  • 46. World Athletics (2020b, 17 Temmuz). Javelin throw. records by event. Erişim Adresi: https://www.worldathletics.org/records/by-discipline/throws/javelin-throw/outdoor/men.
  • 47. Young, M. (2001). Developing event-specific strength for the javelin throw. Track Coach, 13(154), 4921.
  • 48. Young, M. (2007, 30 0cak). Preparing for the specific neuromuscular and biomechanical demands of the javelin throw. Erişim Adresi: https://elitetrack.com/article_files/youngjavelin.pdf.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Spor Bilimleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Sena ÇARIKCI (Sorumlu Yazar)
ANKARA YILDIRIM BEYAZIT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ, FİZYOTERAPİ VE REHABİLİTASYON (DR)
0000-0003-0660-377X
Türkiye


Kübra TUZ
ONDOKUZ MAYIS ÜNİVERSİTESİ, HAVZA MESLEK YÜKSEKOKULU, TERAPİ VE RAHABİLİTASYON BÖLÜMÜ, FİZYOTERAPİ PR.
0000-0003-0180-5735
Türkiye


Bahar ANAFOROĞLU KÜLÜNKOĞLU
ANKARA YILDIRIM BEYAZIT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, FİZYOTERAPİ VE REHABİLİTASYON BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-2148-0379
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Ekim 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 15 Şubat 2021
Kabul Tarihi 1 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 26, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

APA Çarıkcı, S. , Tuz, K. & Anaforoğlu Külünkoğlu, B. (2021). Cirit Atma Tekniği ve Biyomekaniksel Açıdan Değerlendirilmesi . Gazi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 26 (4) , 439-452 . DOI: 10.53434/gbesbd.878826

Gazi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi yılda dört kez yayımlanan bilimsel ve hakemli bir dergidir.


Gazi Journal of Physical Education and Sports Sciences is a scientific and peer-reviewed journal published quarterly.