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IS GOVERNANCE EFFECTIVE IN ECONOMIC GROWTH? EVIDENCE FROM MSCI COUNTRIES

Yıl 2021, Cilt 14, Sayı 1, 41 - 55, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.17218/hititsbd.926999

Öz

The main objective of the research is to study the relationship between governance and economic development in emerging economies. We used MSCI countries as a sample due to their increasing importance. Our research is based on the World Bank data for Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) of observed countries from 2002 to 2018. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) were applied to identify the relationship between the GDP index as a dependent variable and the WGI as an independent variable and other control variables. The experimental results showed that there was no significant relationship between governance and economic development. On the basis of these findings, it is emphasized that the countries in the sample should give more importance to governance.

Kaynakça

  • REFERENCES Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. (2010). The Role of Institutions in Growth and Development. Review of Economics and Institutions, 1(2).
  • Adli, I., & Shakbkb, I. (2016, December 05). Good governance and economic growth: an attempt to model the relationship -case of Algeria. Journal of Economic and Financial Research, 3(2), pp. 281-294. Retrieved from https://www.asjp.cerist.dz/en/article/4734
  • Agbloyor, E., Gyeke-Dako, A., Kuipo, R., & Abor, J. (2016, February). Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth in SSA : The Role of Institutions. Thunderbird International Business Review. doi:10.1002/tie.21791
  • Aizpún, F., Krueger, F., & Puttaiah, M. (2019, January 10). Emerging markets: the silver lining amid a challenging outlook. (D. B. Rogers, Dü.) Swiss Re sigma, 1. https://www.swissre.com/institute/research/sigma-research/ adresinden alındı
  • Alam, M., Kitenge, E., & Bedane, B. (2017, Jan 26). Government Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Economics Bulletin, 37(1), s. 222-227.
  • AlBassam, B. A. (2013). The Relationship Between Governance and Economic Growth During Times of Crisis. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 2(4), s. 1-18.
  • Arellano , M., & Bond, S. (1991, Apr). Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations. The Review of Economic Studies, 58(2), 277-297. doi:https://doi.org/10.2307/2297968
  • Arellano, Manuel ; Bover, Olympia. (1995, July). Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models. Journal of Econometrics, 68(1), 29-51. doi:/10.1016/0304-4076(94)01642-D
  • Blundell, R., & Bond, S. (1998). Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models. Journal of Econometrics, 87(1), 115-143.
  • Chibba, M. (2009, January). Governance and Development "The current role of theory, policy and practice". 1-31. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/46547326 adresinden alındı
  • Emara, N., & Chui, I.-M. (2016). The Impact of Governance on Economic Growth: The Case of Middle Eastern and North African Countries. Topics in Middle Eastern and North African Economies, 18. Retrieved from http://www.luc.edu/orgs/meea/
  • Emara, N., & Jhonsa, E. (2014, September). Governance and Economic Growth: Interpretations for MENA Countries. Topics in Middle Eastern and African Economies, 16(2). https://ecommons.luc.edu/meea adresinden alındı
  • Epaphra, M., & Kombe, A. (2018, Feb). Institutions and economic growth in Africa: Evidence from panel estimation. s. 2-29. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323228951 adresinden alındı
  • European Central Bank. (2010, October). THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OF EMERGING ECONOMIES. MONTHLY BULLETIN.
  • Fukuyama, F. (2013). What Is Governance? Washington: Center for Global Development. http://www.cgdev.org/content/publications/detail/1426906 adresinden alındı
  • Grosse, R., & Meyer, K. (2018). Introduction to Managing in Emerging Markets. R. G. Meyer içinde, Oxford Handbook of Managing in Emerging Markets (s. 2-38). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324919342 adresinden alındı
  • Ha, J., Kose, M., & Ohnsorge, F. (2019). Understanding Inflation in Emerging and Developing Economies. Istanbul: KOÇ UNIVERSITY-TÜSİAD ECONOMIC RESEARCH FORUM.
  • Hall, R., & Jones, C. (1999, Feb). Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker Than Others? The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(1), s. 83-116. 10 10, 2017 tarihinde http://www.jstor.org/stable/2586948 adresinden alındı
  • Han, X., Khan, H., & Zhuang, J. (2014). Do Governance Indicators Explain Development Performance? A Cross-Country Analysis. ADB Economics Working Paper Series, 417. http://hdl.handle.net/11540/4213 adresinden alındı
  • Hansen, L. (1982, Jul). Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators. Econometrica, 50(4), 1029-1054. doi:https://doi.org/10.2307/1912775
  • IMF. (2020, Dec). International Monetary Fund: https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/PCPIPCH@WEO/OEMDC/BRA/VEN/SMQ/ARG?year=2020 adresinden alındı
  • Kara, S., & Balid, R. (2019). ACHIEVING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ACCORDING TO THE NEW INSTITUTIONAL THEORY. Revue d'économie et de statistique appliquée, 14(1). Retrieved from https://www.asjp.cerist.dz/en/article/36925
  • Kaufmann. (2008). Governance matters VII: Governance indicators for 1996–2007. World Bank Policy Research Paper.
  • Kaufmann, D. (2005, September). 10 Myths About Governance and Corruption. Finance and Development: A quarterly magazine of the IMF, 42(3), 41-43.
  • Kaufmann, Daniel ; Kraay, Aart ; Mastruzzi, Massimo. (2010). The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues. Policy Research Working Paper, World Bank, September.
  • Khan, M. H. (2007, Aug). Governance, Economic Growth and Development since the 1960s. Economic & Social Affairs(54), s. 1-24.
  • Khasheeb, J. (2014). Economic growth: concepts and theories.
  • Knack, S. K. (1995). “Institutions and economic performance: Cross-country tests using alternative institutional measures”. Economics and Politics., 7(3), 207-227.
  • Kraay, D. K. (2007). Governance Indicators: Where Are We, Where Should We Be Going? World Bank Institute, Development Research Group. The World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-4370 adresinden alındı
  • Kraay, Daniel Kaufmann and Aart. (2003, February). Governance and Growth: Causality which way? Evidence for the World, in brief.
  • Kraipornsak, P. (2018). GOOD GOVERNANCE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN INVESTIGATION OF THAILAND AND SELECTED ASIAN COUNTRIES. EURASIAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE, 6(1), s. 93-106. doi:10.15604/ejef.2018.06.01.009
  • Kurtz, M., & Schrank, A. (2007, May). Growth and Governance: Models, Measures, and Mechanisms. Journal of Politics, 69(2), s. 538-554. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2508.2007.00549.x
  • Lee, Y., Haji Yahya, M., Habibullah, M., & Mohd Ashhari, Z. (2019, June). Non-Performing Loans in European Union: Country Governance Dimensions. Journal of Financial Economic Policy, 12(2), 209-226. doi:10.1108/JFEP-01-2019-0027
  • Masoud Rashid Mohamed, Shivee Ranjanee Kaliappan. (2014). Impact of Foreign Aid and Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth:Evidence from Sub-Saharan African Countries. Jurnal Ekonomi Malaysia, 1, s. 63-73.
  • Mehanna, R. Y. (2010). “Governance and Economic Development in MENA Countries: Does Oil Affect the Presence of a Virtuous Circle?”. Journal of Transnational Management, 15(2), s. 117-150.
  • Mimicopoulos, M., Kyj, L., & Sormani, N. (2007). Public Governance Indicators: a Literature Review. New York: United Nations publications.
  • Mira, R., & Hammadache, A. (2017). Good Governance and Economic Growth: A Contribution to the Institutional Debate about State Failure in Middle East and North Africa. Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 11(3), s. 107-120. doi:10.1080/25765949.2017.12023313
  • MSCI. (2019, June). MSCI COUNTRY CLASSIFICATION STANDARD. MSCI: https://www.msci.com/documents/1296102/1330218/MSCI-Country-Classification-Standard-cfs-en.pdf/959ca805-4e33-95a4-1aad-b953688db19d?t=1562142713120 adresinden alındı
  • MSCI. (2020, June). MSCI GLOBAL MARKET ACCESSIBILITY REVIEW. Retrieved from MSCI: https://www.msci.com/documents/1296102/1330218/MSCI_2020_Global_Market_Accessibility_Review_Report.pdf/78a73a91-af3d-cf21-94e8-1cc2c159d2ce
  • Muller, D. (2018). Emerging Markets – Powerhouse of global growth. MARKET COMMENTARY, May.
  • Mustafa, A., & Saneea, A. (2014). Studies in economic development. Beirut: Hasan modern library.
  • OECD. (2020, Dec 3). OECD Data. doi:10.1787/d339918b-en
  • Pere, E. (2015, June). The impact of good governance in the economic development of Western Balkan countries. European Journal of Government and Economics, 4(1), 25-45.
  • Robinson, D. A. (2010). The Role of Institutions in Growth and Development. Review of Economics and Institutions, 1(2). doi:10.5202/rei.v1i2.1
  • Romer, P. M. (1989). Human Capital and Growth: Theory and Evidence. NBER Working Paper No. 3173.
  • Salawu , M., Yusuff , A., Salman , K., Ogunniyi , A., & Rufa, A. (2018). Does Governance Influence Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa? Global Journal of HUMAN-SOCIAL SCIENCE: Economics, 18(1).
  • Santiso, C. (2001). Good Governance and Aid Effectiveness: The World Bank and Conditionality. The Georgetown Public Policy Review, 7(1), s. 1-22.
  • Sen, K. (2014). Governance and development outcomes in Asia.
  • Siddiqui, D., & Ahmed, Q. (2009). Institutions and Economic Growth: A Cross country Evidence. MPRA. January 8, 2010 tarihinde https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/19747/ adresinden alındı
  • Siyakiya, P. (2017, 09 07). The Impact of Institutional Quality on Economic Performance: An Empirical Study of European Union 28 and Prospective Member Countries. World Journal of Applied Economics, 2, s. 3-24. doi:10.22440/wjae.3.2.1
  • Techo, V. (2018). Introduction to International Emerging Markets. Paris: Horizons University. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.18491.72482
  • The World Bank. (2019). Data, Population. The World Bank: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL adresinden alındı
  • United Nations. (2007). Good Governance Practices for the Protection of Human Rights. New York: United Nations Press.
  • Williams, C. a. (2012). Emerging Economies After the Global Financial Crisis: the Case of Brazil. Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, 33(1), s. 81-119. http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/njilb/vol33/iss1/2 adresinden alındı
  • Winkler, A. (1998). Financial Development, Economic Growth and Corporate Governance. Working Paper Series: Finance & Accounting,. 12. Frankfurt am Main: Univ., Fachbereich Wirtschaftswiss. Retrieved 10 11, 2005, from http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:hebis:30-18582
  • Worldbank. (2020, Dec). World Development Indicators. The World Bank: https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators adresinden alındı
  • Xu, D., & Meyer, K. (2012, February). LINKING THEORY AND CONTEXT:“STRATEGY RESEARCH IN EMERGING ECONOMIES” after Wright et al. (2005). Journal of Management Studies, 50(7).
  • Yokoyama, D. S. (2011, 3). The Role of good governance in the knowledge-based economic growth of East Asia - A study on Japan, Newly Industrialized Economies, Malaysia and China. Social Systems Studies, s. 23-49.
  • Yousef, T. M. (2004). Development, Growth and Policy Reform in the Middle East and North Africa since 1950. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(3), s. 91–116.
  • Zainal, N., Kamarudin, F., Hook, L., Bakri, M., Sufian, F., & Nassir, A. (2020). Regulation, Supervision and Social and Financial Efficiency of. Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies, 57(2), s. 253–273.
  • Žák, M., & Vymětal, P. (2005). Evolution of institutions and economic performance. University of Economics and Management, Centre for Economic Studies.

EKONOMİK BÜYÜMEDE YÖNETİŞİM ETKİLİ Mİ? MSCI ÜLKELERİNDEN KANITLAR

Yıl 2021, Cilt 14, Sayı 1, 41 - 55, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.17218/hititsbd.926999

Öz

Gelişmekte olan ülkeler yıllık büyümede önemli bir gelişme kaydetmekte ve bugünkü dünya ekonomisinin önemli bir bölümünü oluşturmaktadır (dünya GSYİH'sinin yaklaşık%60'ı). Bu ülkeler dünya nüfusunun%85'ini temsil ediyor. İlgili nedenlerden dolayı bu ülkelerin ekonomilerinin incelenmesi çok önemli bir konudur. Araştırmanın temel amacı, gelişmekte olan ekonomilerde yönetişim ile ekonomik kalkınma arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektir. Araştırmamız, 2002'den 2018'e kadar gelişen ekonomilerin Dünya Çapında Yönetişim Göstergeleri (WGI) için Dünya Bankası verilerine dayanmaktadır. Temel Bileşen Analizi (PCA) ve Genelleştirilmiş Momentler Yöntemi (GMM); (GSYH) bir bağımlı değişken, WGI bağımsız bir değişken olarak ve FDI, INF ve WPA göstergeleri birer kontrol değişkenleri olarak uygulanmıştır. Deneysel sonuçlar, yönetişim ve ekonomik kalkınma arasında önemli bir ilişki olmadığını gösterdi. Bu bulgulardan hareketle örneklemdeki ülkelerin yönetişime daha fazla önem vermesi gerektiği vurgulanmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • REFERENCES Acemoglu, D., & Robinson, J. (2010). The Role of Institutions in Growth and Development. Review of Economics and Institutions, 1(2).
  • Adli, I., & Shakbkb, I. (2016, December 05). Good governance and economic growth: an attempt to model the relationship -case of Algeria. Journal of Economic and Financial Research, 3(2), pp. 281-294. Retrieved from https://www.asjp.cerist.dz/en/article/4734
  • Agbloyor, E., Gyeke-Dako, A., Kuipo, R., & Abor, J. (2016, February). Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth in SSA : The Role of Institutions. Thunderbird International Business Review. doi:10.1002/tie.21791
  • Aizpún, F., Krueger, F., & Puttaiah, M. (2019, January 10). Emerging markets: the silver lining amid a challenging outlook. (D. B. Rogers, Dü.) Swiss Re sigma, 1. https://www.swissre.com/institute/research/sigma-research/ adresinden alındı
  • Alam, M., Kitenge, E., & Bedane, B. (2017, Jan 26). Government Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Economics Bulletin, 37(1), s. 222-227.
  • AlBassam, B. A. (2013). The Relationship Between Governance and Economic Growth During Times of Crisis. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 2(4), s. 1-18.
  • Arellano , M., & Bond, S. (1991, Apr). Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations. The Review of Economic Studies, 58(2), 277-297. doi:https://doi.org/10.2307/2297968
  • Arellano, Manuel ; Bover, Olympia. (1995, July). Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models. Journal of Econometrics, 68(1), 29-51. doi:/10.1016/0304-4076(94)01642-D
  • Blundell, R., & Bond, S. (1998). Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models. Journal of Econometrics, 87(1), 115-143.
  • Chibba, M. (2009, January). Governance and Development "The current role of theory, policy and practice". 1-31. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/46547326 adresinden alındı
  • Emara, N., & Chui, I.-M. (2016). The Impact of Governance on Economic Growth: The Case of Middle Eastern and North African Countries. Topics in Middle Eastern and North African Economies, 18. Retrieved from http://www.luc.edu/orgs/meea/
  • Emara, N., & Jhonsa, E. (2014, September). Governance and Economic Growth: Interpretations for MENA Countries. Topics in Middle Eastern and African Economies, 16(2). https://ecommons.luc.edu/meea adresinden alındı
  • Epaphra, M., & Kombe, A. (2018, Feb). Institutions and economic growth in Africa: Evidence from panel estimation. s. 2-29. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323228951 adresinden alındı
  • European Central Bank. (2010, October). THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OF EMERGING ECONOMIES. MONTHLY BULLETIN.
  • Fukuyama, F. (2013). What Is Governance? Washington: Center for Global Development. http://www.cgdev.org/content/publications/detail/1426906 adresinden alındı
  • Grosse, R., & Meyer, K. (2018). Introduction to Managing in Emerging Markets. R. G. Meyer içinde, Oxford Handbook of Managing in Emerging Markets (s. 2-38). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324919342 adresinden alındı
  • Ha, J., Kose, M., & Ohnsorge, F. (2019). Understanding Inflation in Emerging and Developing Economies. Istanbul: KOÇ UNIVERSITY-TÜSİAD ECONOMIC RESEARCH FORUM.
  • Hall, R., & Jones, C. (1999, Feb). Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker Than Others? The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(1), s. 83-116. 10 10, 2017 tarihinde http://www.jstor.org/stable/2586948 adresinden alındı
  • Han, X., Khan, H., & Zhuang, J. (2014). Do Governance Indicators Explain Development Performance? A Cross-Country Analysis. ADB Economics Working Paper Series, 417. http://hdl.handle.net/11540/4213 adresinden alındı
  • Hansen, L. (1982, Jul). Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators. Econometrica, 50(4), 1029-1054. doi:https://doi.org/10.2307/1912775
  • IMF. (2020, Dec). International Monetary Fund: https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/PCPIPCH@WEO/OEMDC/BRA/VEN/SMQ/ARG?year=2020 adresinden alındı
  • Kara, S., & Balid, R. (2019). ACHIEVING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ACCORDING TO THE NEW INSTITUTIONAL THEORY. Revue d'économie et de statistique appliquée, 14(1). Retrieved from https://www.asjp.cerist.dz/en/article/36925
  • Kaufmann. (2008). Governance matters VII: Governance indicators for 1996–2007. World Bank Policy Research Paper.
  • Kaufmann, D. (2005, September). 10 Myths About Governance and Corruption. Finance and Development: A quarterly magazine of the IMF, 42(3), 41-43.
  • Kaufmann, Daniel ; Kraay, Aart ; Mastruzzi, Massimo. (2010). The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues. Policy Research Working Paper, World Bank, September.
  • Khan, M. H. (2007, Aug). Governance, Economic Growth and Development since the 1960s. Economic & Social Affairs(54), s. 1-24.
  • Khasheeb, J. (2014). Economic growth: concepts and theories.
  • Knack, S. K. (1995). “Institutions and economic performance: Cross-country tests using alternative institutional measures”. Economics and Politics., 7(3), 207-227.
  • Kraay, D. K. (2007). Governance Indicators: Where Are We, Where Should We Be Going? World Bank Institute, Development Research Group. The World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-4370 adresinden alındı
  • Kraay, Daniel Kaufmann and Aart. (2003, February). Governance and Growth: Causality which way? Evidence for the World, in brief.
  • Kraipornsak, P. (2018). GOOD GOVERNANCE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN INVESTIGATION OF THAILAND AND SELECTED ASIAN COUNTRIES. EURASIAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE, 6(1), s. 93-106. doi:10.15604/ejef.2018.06.01.009
  • Kurtz, M., & Schrank, A. (2007, May). Growth and Governance: Models, Measures, and Mechanisms. Journal of Politics, 69(2), s. 538-554. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2508.2007.00549.x
  • Lee, Y., Haji Yahya, M., Habibullah, M., & Mohd Ashhari, Z. (2019, June). Non-Performing Loans in European Union: Country Governance Dimensions. Journal of Financial Economic Policy, 12(2), 209-226. doi:10.1108/JFEP-01-2019-0027
  • Masoud Rashid Mohamed, Shivee Ranjanee Kaliappan. (2014). Impact of Foreign Aid and Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth:Evidence from Sub-Saharan African Countries. Jurnal Ekonomi Malaysia, 1, s. 63-73.
  • Mehanna, R. Y. (2010). “Governance and Economic Development in MENA Countries: Does Oil Affect the Presence of a Virtuous Circle?”. Journal of Transnational Management, 15(2), s. 117-150.
  • Mimicopoulos, M., Kyj, L., & Sormani, N. (2007). Public Governance Indicators: a Literature Review. New York: United Nations publications.
  • Mira, R., & Hammadache, A. (2017). Good Governance and Economic Growth: A Contribution to the Institutional Debate about State Failure in Middle East and North Africa. Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 11(3), s. 107-120. doi:10.1080/25765949.2017.12023313
  • MSCI. (2019, June). MSCI COUNTRY CLASSIFICATION STANDARD. MSCI: https://www.msci.com/documents/1296102/1330218/MSCI-Country-Classification-Standard-cfs-en.pdf/959ca805-4e33-95a4-1aad-b953688db19d?t=1562142713120 adresinden alındı
  • MSCI. (2020, June). MSCI GLOBAL MARKET ACCESSIBILITY REVIEW. Retrieved from MSCI: https://www.msci.com/documents/1296102/1330218/MSCI_2020_Global_Market_Accessibility_Review_Report.pdf/78a73a91-af3d-cf21-94e8-1cc2c159d2ce
  • Muller, D. (2018). Emerging Markets – Powerhouse of global growth. MARKET COMMENTARY, May.
  • Mustafa, A., & Saneea, A. (2014). Studies in economic development. Beirut: Hasan modern library.
  • OECD. (2020, Dec 3). OECD Data. doi:10.1787/d339918b-en
  • Pere, E. (2015, June). The impact of good governance in the economic development of Western Balkan countries. European Journal of Government and Economics, 4(1), 25-45.
  • Robinson, D. A. (2010). The Role of Institutions in Growth and Development. Review of Economics and Institutions, 1(2). doi:10.5202/rei.v1i2.1
  • Romer, P. M. (1989). Human Capital and Growth: Theory and Evidence. NBER Working Paper No. 3173.
  • Salawu , M., Yusuff , A., Salman , K., Ogunniyi , A., & Rufa, A. (2018). Does Governance Influence Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa? Global Journal of HUMAN-SOCIAL SCIENCE: Economics, 18(1).
  • Santiso, C. (2001). Good Governance and Aid Effectiveness: The World Bank and Conditionality. The Georgetown Public Policy Review, 7(1), s. 1-22.
  • Sen, K. (2014). Governance and development outcomes in Asia.
  • Siddiqui, D., & Ahmed, Q. (2009). Institutions and Economic Growth: A Cross country Evidence. MPRA. January 8, 2010 tarihinde https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/19747/ adresinden alındı
  • Siyakiya, P. (2017, 09 07). The Impact of Institutional Quality on Economic Performance: An Empirical Study of European Union 28 and Prospective Member Countries. World Journal of Applied Economics, 2, s. 3-24. doi:10.22440/wjae.3.2.1
  • Techo, V. (2018). Introduction to International Emerging Markets. Paris: Horizons University. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.18491.72482
  • The World Bank. (2019). Data, Population. The World Bank: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL adresinden alındı
  • United Nations. (2007). Good Governance Practices for the Protection of Human Rights. New York: United Nations Press.
  • Williams, C. a. (2012). Emerging Economies After the Global Financial Crisis: the Case of Brazil. Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, 33(1), s. 81-119. http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/njilb/vol33/iss1/2 adresinden alındı
  • Winkler, A. (1998). Financial Development, Economic Growth and Corporate Governance. Working Paper Series: Finance & Accounting,. 12. Frankfurt am Main: Univ., Fachbereich Wirtschaftswiss. Retrieved 10 11, 2005, from http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:hebis:30-18582
  • Worldbank. (2020, Dec). World Development Indicators. The World Bank: https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators adresinden alındı
  • Xu, D., & Meyer, K. (2012, February). LINKING THEORY AND CONTEXT:“STRATEGY RESEARCH IN EMERGING ECONOMIES” after Wright et al. (2005). Journal of Management Studies, 50(7).
  • Yokoyama, D. S. (2011, 3). The Role of good governance in the knowledge-based economic growth of East Asia - A study on Japan, Newly Industrialized Economies, Malaysia and China. Social Systems Studies, s. 23-49.
  • Yousef, T. M. (2004). Development, Growth and Policy Reform in the Middle East and North Africa since 1950. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(3), s. 91–116.
  • Zainal, N., Kamarudin, F., Hook, L., Bakri, M., Sufian, F., & Nassir, A. (2020). Regulation, Supervision and Social and Financial Efficiency of. Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies, 57(2), s. 253–273.
  • Žák, M., & Vymětal, P. (2005). Evolution of institutions and economic performance. University of Economics and Management, Centre for Economic Studies.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Hasan ALMOHAMMED (Sorumlu Yazar)
GAZIANTEP UNIVERSITY, INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MASTER) (WITH THESIS)
0000-0003-1591-1256
Türkiye


İbrahim EKŞİ
GAZIANTEP UNIVERSITY, INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (DR)
0000-0002-0239-3253
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 14, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Almohammed, H. & Ekşi, İ. (2021). IS GOVERNANCE EFFECTIVE IN ECONOMIC GROWTH? EVIDENCE FROM MSCI COUNTRIES . Hitit Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 14 (1) , 41-55 . DOI: 10.17218/hititsbd.926999

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