Araştırma Makalesi
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Uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında zorla indirme: Belarus vakası

Yıl 2021, Cilt 2, Sayı 2, 22 - 27, 31.08.2021

Öz

Sivil Havacılık, başta dünya ticaretinin sürdürülebilirliği olmak üzere insanlar arasında bilgi ve tecrübe paylaşımı açısından da önemli bir alan olarak kabul edilmektedir. Devlet dışı aktörlerin gerçekleştirdiği terör ve suç eylemleri, devletleri bu alanda daha fazla güvenlik önlemi almaya itmiştir. Böylece havacılık güvenliği uluslararası hukukun önemli bir çalışma alanı haline gelmiştir. Ancak devletlerin bu alana yönelik ihlalleri, havacılık güvenliği alanında yeni bir takım tartışmaları ve bazı kavramları ortaya çıkarmıştır. Bu çalışmada Belarus uçak indirme olayı uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında analiz edilmiştir. Devletler tarafından gerçekleşen ihlallerin bir sonucu olarak havacılık jeopolitiği ve potansiyel siyasi kavramlarının ortaya çıktığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Bu çerçevede çalışmanın havacılık güvenliği terminolojisine katkı sağladığı savunulabilir.

Kaynakça

  • Pazarcı, H. 2013, Uluslararası Hukuk, Turhan Kitabevi: Ankara.
  • Abeyratne, R. Lr., 2018. Aviation Security Legal And Regulatory Aspects, London: Routledge.
  • Yoo, K. E. ve Choi, Y. C., 2006. Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach for Identifying Relative Importance of Factors to Improve Passenger Security Checks at Airports, Journal of Air Transport Management, 135-142.
  • Price, J. C. ve Forrest, J. S., 2016. Practical Aviation Security Predicting and Preventing Future Threats, Oxford: Elsevier.
  • Harrison, J., 2008. Aviation Security Practice and Education: 1968 Onward, The Context Of Avıatıon Securıty Management (Edt. Andrew R. Thomas), London: Greenwood Publishing, 9-25.
  • Schiavo, M. F., 2008. Aviation Security and the Legal Environment, The Context Of Avıatıon Securıty Management (Edt. Andrew R. Thomas), London: Greenwood Publishing, 122-142.
  • Dillingham, G. L., 2003. Aviation Security: Progress Since September 11, 2001, And The Challenges Ahead (Ed. Jennifer Zellan) Aviation Security: Current Issues and Developments, New York: Nova Science Publishers, 1-22.
  • Berrick, C. A., 2005. Aviation Security: Federal Action Needed to Strengthen Domestic Air Cargo Security, https://www.gao.gov/assets/gao-06-76.pdf, 20.07.2021.
  • Temasi, G. ve Demichela, M., 2011. Risk Assessment Techniques for Civil Aviation Security, Elsevier, 96, 892-899.
  • Enerstvedt, O. M., 2016. Aviation Security, Privacy, Data Protection and Other Human Rights: Technologies and Legal Principles, Langus: Springer.
  • European Commission, 2021. Aviation Security, https://ec.europa.eu/transport /modes/air/security_en, 20.07.2021.
  • IATA, 2021. Aviation Security, https://www.iata.org/en/programs/security/, 19.07.2021.
  • ICAO, 2006. Revıew Of The Global And Regıonal Avsec Developments And Actıvıtıes, https://www.icao.int/SAM/Documents/GREPECAS/2006/AVSCOMM05/av seccomm05wp03.pdf, 19.07.2021.
  • Aleman, M. A., 2008. The International Civil Aviation Security Program Established by ICAO, Context Of Avıatıon Securıty Management (Edt. Andrew R. Thomas), London: Greenwood Publishing, 65-77.
  • BBC, 2021. Belarus plane: What we know and what we don't, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-57239521, 10.07.2021.
  • Maida, A., 2021. The Ryanair Hijacking Pierced the Delusion of Flight, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2021/05/belarus-ryanair-hijacking/619028/, 10.07.2021.
  • Grove, T., 2021. Belarus Plane Diversion: What Happened to the Ryanair Flight and Who Is Roman Protasevich?, https://www.wsj.com/articles/belarus-ryanair-plane-lukashenko-protasevich-11621874251, 10.07.2021.
  • Wheldon, T. 2021. How Belarus’s 'aviation piracy' broke international law, https://www.france24.com/en/europe/20210524-how-belarus-s-aviation-piracy-broke-international-law, 07.07.2021.
  • ICAO, 1944. Convention On International Civil Aviation, https://www.icao.int/MID/Documents/2019/ACAO-ICAO%20Airworthiness/Session%201%20chicago%20convention%20final.pdf, 25.07.2021.
  • Resmi Gazete, 1970. Sivil Havacılığın Güvenliğine Karşı Kanun Dışı Eylemlerin Önlenmesine İlişkin Sözleşme, https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/15427.pdf, 25.07.2021.
  • ICAO, 1988. Protocol For The Suppression Of Unlawful Acts Of Violence At Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, Supplementary To The Convention For The Suppression Of Unlawful Acts Against The Safety Of Civil Aviation, Done At Montreal On 23 September 1971 Signed At Montreal On 24 February 1988, https://www.icao.int/secretariat/legal/List%20of%20Parties/VIA_EN.pdf, 14.07.2021.
  • Weber, Y., 2021. When Belarus forced down a plane, it may have committed state-sponsored hijacking, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2021/05/23/when-belarus-forced-down-plane-it-may-have-committed-state-sponsored-hijacking/, Erişim: 14.07.2021.
  • Troianovski, A. ve Nechepurenko, I., 2021. Belarus Forces Down Plane to Seize Dissident; Europe Sees ‘State Hijacking’, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/23/world/europe/ryanair-belarus.html, 10.07.2021.
  • NFP, 2021. Poland Condemns Belarus Plane Diversion As “Act Of State Terrorism” And Calls For EU Action, https://notesfrompoland.com/2021/05/24/poland-condemns-belarus-plane-diversion-as-act-of-state-terrorism-and-calls-for-eu-action/, 20.07.2021.
  • BBC, 2020. Belarus 'Diverts Ryanair Flight to Arrest Journalist', Opposition Says, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-57219860, 20.07.2021.
  • DW, 2021. AB’den Belarus’a: Uçak kaçırmanın sonuçları olacak, https://www.dw.com/tr/abden-belarusa-u%C3%A7ak-ka%C3%A7%C4%B1rman%C4%B1n-sonu%C3%A7lar%C4%B1-olacak/a-57639496, 10.07.2021.
  • Seputyte, M. ve Kudrytski, A., 2021. Forced Landing of Ryanair Jet in Belarus Triggers Outrage, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-05-23/belarus-detains-reporter-on-ryanair-flight-forced-down-in-minsk, 10.07.2021.
  • Euronews, 2021. Belarusian airlines banned from flying over EU or using its airports, https://www.euronews.com/2021/06/04/brussels-bans-belarusian-airlines-from-flying-over-eu-s-airspace, 10.07.2021.
  • Akkutay, B. L., 2017. Uluslararası Hukukta Sivil ve Devlet Hava Aracı Ayrımı, TAAD, 8(31), 315-348.
  • Gaudin, A., 2013. Forced Detour of Bolivian President Evo Morales' Plane Causes International Incident, https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article =15160&context=notisur, 14.07.2021.
  • Lally, K. ve Forero, J., 2013. Bolivian president’s plane forced to land in Austria in hunt for Snowden, https://conspiracytech.com/Bolivian%20president%E2%80%99s%20plane%20forced%20to%20land%20in%20Austria%20in%20hunt%20for%20Snowden%20-%20The%20Washington%20Post.pdf, 14.07.2021.
  • DW, 2013. Snowden şüphesi uçak indirdi, https://www.dw.com/tr/snowden-%C5%9F%C3%BCphesi-u%C3%A7ak-indirdi/a-16925775, 14.07.2021.
  • BBC, 2013. Snowden case: Bolivia condemns jet 'aggression', https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-23158242, 14.07.2021.
  • Human Rights Watch, 2021. Iran: Ukraine Airline Victims’ Families Harassed, Abused,https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/05/27/iran-ukraine-airline-victims-families-harassed-abused, 20.07.2021.
  • Amarasinghe, P. ve Jayawardne, E., 2020. International Law and the Downing of Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752, https://besacenter.org/ukraine-international-airlines-iran/, 20.07.2021.

Forced landing in the context of international law and aviation security: The case of Belarus

Yıl 2021, Cilt 2, Sayı 2, 22 - 27, 31.08.2021

Öz

Civil Aviation is considered an important field in terms of sharing of knowledge and experience among people, especially in the sustainability of world trade. The terrorist and criminal acts by non-state actors have pushed states to take more security measures in this area. Thus, aviation security has become an important field of international law studies. However, the violations of the states in this area have revealed a new set of discussions and some concepts in the field of aviation security. In this study, the Belarusian landing case was analyzed in the context of international law and aviation security. It has been concluded that aviation geopolitics and potential political concepts have emerged as a result of violations by States. In this context, it can be argued that the study contributes to aviation security terminology.

Kaynakça

  • Pazarcı, H. 2013, Uluslararası Hukuk, Turhan Kitabevi: Ankara.
  • Abeyratne, R. Lr., 2018. Aviation Security Legal And Regulatory Aspects, London: Routledge.
  • Yoo, K. E. ve Choi, Y. C., 2006. Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach for Identifying Relative Importance of Factors to Improve Passenger Security Checks at Airports, Journal of Air Transport Management, 135-142.
  • Price, J. C. ve Forrest, J. S., 2016. Practical Aviation Security Predicting and Preventing Future Threats, Oxford: Elsevier.
  • Harrison, J., 2008. Aviation Security Practice and Education: 1968 Onward, The Context Of Avıatıon Securıty Management (Edt. Andrew R. Thomas), London: Greenwood Publishing, 9-25.
  • Schiavo, M. F., 2008. Aviation Security and the Legal Environment, The Context Of Avıatıon Securıty Management (Edt. Andrew R. Thomas), London: Greenwood Publishing, 122-142.
  • Dillingham, G. L., 2003. Aviation Security: Progress Since September 11, 2001, And The Challenges Ahead (Ed. Jennifer Zellan) Aviation Security: Current Issues and Developments, New York: Nova Science Publishers, 1-22.
  • Berrick, C. A., 2005. Aviation Security: Federal Action Needed to Strengthen Domestic Air Cargo Security, https://www.gao.gov/assets/gao-06-76.pdf, 20.07.2021.
  • Temasi, G. ve Demichela, M., 2011. Risk Assessment Techniques for Civil Aviation Security, Elsevier, 96, 892-899.
  • Enerstvedt, O. M., 2016. Aviation Security, Privacy, Data Protection and Other Human Rights: Technologies and Legal Principles, Langus: Springer.
  • European Commission, 2021. Aviation Security, https://ec.europa.eu/transport /modes/air/security_en, 20.07.2021.
  • IATA, 2021. Aviation Security, https://www.iata.org/en/programs/security/, 19.07.2021.
  • ICAO, 2006. Revıew Of The Global And Regıonal Avsec Developments And Actıvıtıes, https://www.icao.int/SAM/Documents/GREPECAS/2006/AVSCOMM05/av seccomm05wp03.pdf, 19.07.2021.
  • Aleman, M. A., 2008. The International Civil Aviation Security Program Established by ICAO, Context Of Avıatıon Securıty Management (Edt. Andrew R. Thomas), London: Greenwood Publishing, 65-77.
  • BBC, 2021. Belarus plane: What we know and what we don't, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-57239521, 10.07.2021.
  • Maida, A., 2021. The Ryanair Hijacking Pierced the Delusion of Flight, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2021/05/belarus-ryanair-hijacking/619028/, 10.07.2021.
  • Grove, T., 2021. Belarus Plane Diversion: What Happened to the Ryanair Flight and Who Is Roman Protasevich?, https://www.wsj.com/articles/belarus-ryanair-plane-lukashenko-protasevich-11621874251, 10.07.2021.
  • Wheldon, T. 2021. How Belarus’s 'aviation piracy' broke international law, https://www.france24.com/en/europe/20210524-how-belarus-s-aviation-piracy-broke-international-law, 07.07.2021.
  • ICAO, 1944. Convention On International Civil Aviation, https://www.icao.int/MID/Documents/2019/ACAO-ICAO%20Airworthiness/Session%201%20chicago%20convention%20final.pdf, 25.07.2021.
  • Resmi Gazete, 1970. Sivil Havacılığın Güvenliğine Karşı Kanun Dışı Eylemlerin Önlenmesine İlişkin Sözleşme, https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/15427.pdf, 25.07.2021.
  • ICAO, 1988. Protocol For The Suppression Of Unlawful Acts Of Violence At Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, Supplementary To The Convention For The Suppression Of Unlawful Acts Against The Safety Of Civil Aviation, Done At Montreal On 23 September 1971 Signed At Montreal On 24 February 1988, https://www.icao.int/secretariat/legal/List%20of%20Parties/VIA_EN.pdf, 14.07.2021.
  • Weber, Y., 2021. When Belarus forced down a plane, it may have committed state-sponsored hijacking, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2021/05/23/when-belarus-forced-down-plane-it-may-have-committed-state-sponsored-hijacking/, Erişim: 14.07.2021.
  • Troianovski, A. ve Nechepurenko, I., 2021. Belarus Forces Down Plane to Seize Dissident; Europe Sees ‘State Hijacking’, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/23/world/europe/ryanair-belarus.html, 10.07.2021.
  • NFP, 2021. Poland Condemns Belarus Plane Diversion As “Act Of State Terrorism” And Calls For EU Action, https://notesfrompoland.com/2021/05/24/poland-condemns-belarus-plane-diversion-as-act-of-state-terrorism-and-calls-for-eu-action/, 20.07.2021.
  • BBC, 2020. Belarus 'Diverts Ryanair Flight to Arrest Journalist', Opposition Says, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-57219860, 20.07.2021.
  • DW, 2021. AB’den Belarus’a: Uçak kaçırmanın sonuçları olacak, https://www.dw.com/tr/abden-belarusa-u%C3%A7ak-ka%C3%A7%C4%B1rman%C4%B1n-sonu%C3%A7lar%C4%B1-olacak/a-57639496, 10.07.2021.
  • Seputyte, M. ve Kudrytski, A., 2021. Forced Landing of Ryanair Jet in Belarus Triggers Outrage, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-05-23/belarus-detains-reporter-on-ryanair-flight-forced-down-in-minsk, 10.07.2021.
  • Euronews, 2021. Belarusian airlines banned from flying over EU or using its airports, https://www.euronews.com/2021/06/04/brussels-bans-belarusian-airlines-from-flying-over-eu-s-airspace, 10.07.2021.
  • Akkutay, B. L., 2017. Uluslararası Hukukta Sivil ve Devlet Hava Aracı Ayrımı, TAAD, 8(31), 315-348.
  • Gaudin, A., 2013. Forced Detour of Bolivian President Evo Morales' Plane Causes International Incident, https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article =15160&context=notisur, 14.07.2021.
  • Lally, K. ve Forero, J., 2013. Bolivian president’s plane forced to land in Austria in hunt for Snowden, https://conspiracytech.com/Bolivian%20president%E2%80%99s%20plane%20forced%20to%20land%20in%20Austria%20in%20hunt%20for%20Snowden%20-%20The%20Washington%20Post.pdf, 14.07.2021.
  • DW, 2013. Snowden şüphesi uçak indirdi, https://www.dw.com/tr/snowden-%C5%9F%C3%BCphesi-u%C3%A7ak-indirdi/a-16925775, 14.07.2021.
  • BBC, 2013. Snowden case: Bolivia condemns jet 'aggression', https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-23158242, 14.07.2021.
  • Human Rights Watch, 2021. Iran: Ukraine Airline Victims’ Families Harassed, Abused,https://www.hrw.org/news/2021/05/27/iran-ukraine-airline-victims-families-harassed-abused, 20.07.2021.
  • Amarasinghe, P. ve Jayawardne, E., 2020. International Law and the Downing of Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752, https://besacenter.org/ukraine-international-airlines-iran/, 20.07.2021.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Hukuk
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Ahmet ATEŞ (Sorumlu Yazar)
SELÇUK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-4026-7522
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Ağustos 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 6 Ağustos 2021
Kabul Tarihi 31 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 2, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ijaa979504, journal = {International Journal of Aeronautics and Astronautics}, issn = {}, eissn = {2757-6574}, address = {Akademi Mah. Yeni İstanbul Cad. Sivil Havacılık Yüksekokulu No: 347 Alaeddin Keykubat Kampüsü/Selçuklu/Konya}, publisher = {Selçuk Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {2}, pages = {22 - 27}, doi = {}, title = {Uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında zorla indirme: Belarus vakası}, key = {cite}, author = {Ateş, Ahmet} }
APA Ateş, A. (2021). Uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında zorla indirme: Belarus vakası . International Journal of Aeronautics and Astronautics , 2 (2) , 22-27 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijaa/issue/64751/979504
MLA Ateş, A. "Uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında zorla indirme: Belarus vakası" . International Journal of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 (2021 ): 22-27 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijaa/issue/64751/979504>
Chicago Ateş, A. "Uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında zorla indirme: Belarus vakası". International Journal of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 (2021 ): 22-27
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında zorla indirme: Belarus vakası AU - Ahmet Ateş Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - International Journal of Aeronautics and Astronautics JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 22 EP - 27 VL - 2 IS - 2 SN - -2757-6574 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Aeronautics and Astronautics Uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında zorla indirme: Belarus vakası %A Ahmet Ateş %T Uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında zorla indirme: Belarus vakası %D 2021 %J International Journal of Aeronautics and Astronautics %P -2757-6574 %V 2 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Ateş, Ahmet . "Uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında zorla indirme: Belarus vakası". International Journal of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 / 2 (Ağustos 2021): 22-27 .
AMA Ateş A. Uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında zorla indirme: Belarus vakası. IJAA. 2021; 2(2): 22-27.
Vancouver Ateş A. Uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında zorla indirme: Belarus vakası. International Journal of Aeronautics and Astronautics. 2021; 2(2): 22-27.
IEEE A. Ateş , "Uluslararası hukuk ve havacılık güvenliği bağlamında zorla indirme: Belarus vakası", International Journal of Aeronautics and Astronautics, c. 2, sayı. 2, ss. 22-27, Ağu. 2021