Araştırma Makalesi
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Yıl 2017, Cilt 4, Sayı 3, 227 - 239, 01.11.2017
https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.348826

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Algan, O., Gazioğlu, C., Çağatay, N., Yücel, Z.Y. (1999). Sediment and water influxes into the Black Sea by Anatolien rivers, Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, 43, 61-80.
  • Algan, O., Yalçın, M. N., Özdoğan, M., Yılmaz, Y., Sarı, E., Kırcı-Elmas, E., Yılmaz, İ., Bulkan, Ö., Ongan, D., Gazioğlu, C., Nazik, A. Polat, MA., Meriç, E. (2011). Holocene coastal change in the ancient harbor of Yenikapı–Istanbul and its impact on cultural history, Quaternary Research, 76(1), 30-45.
  • Arslan, N., Tokatlı, C., Çiçek, A., Köse, E. (2011). Determination of some metal concentrations in water and sediment samples in Yedigöller Region (Kütahya), Review of Hydrobiology, 4(1), 17-28.
  • Atalay, İ. (1979). Geomorphology of the Lake Tortum and its Immediate Surroundings (NE Turkey), Review of the Geographical Institute of the University of Istanbul, 17, 49-65.
  • Atalay, İ. (1982). Türkiye jeomorfolojisine giriş. Ege Üniversitesi Ege Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Fakültesi Yayınları.
  • Bai, J., Cui, B., Chen, B., Zhang, K., Deng, W., Gao, H., et al., (2011). Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from a typical plateau lake wetland, China, Ecological Modelling, 222(2), 301-306.
  • Barlas, N., Akbulut, N., Aydoğan, M. (2005). Assessment of heavy metal residues in the sediment and water samples of Uluabat Lake, Turkey. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 74(2), 286-293.
  • Bódog, I., Polyák, K., Hlavay, J. (1997). Determination of Heavy Metals in Lake and River Sediments by Selective Leaching, International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 66(2),79-94, doi:10.1080/03067319708028353.
  • Cai, L., Xu, Z., Ren, M., Guo, Q., Hu, X., Hu, G., et al., (2012). Source identification of eight hazardous heavy metals in agricultural soils of Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 78, 2-8, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.07.004.
  • Cooke, J., Andrews, S., Johnson, M. (1990). Lead, zinc, cadmium and fluoride in small mammals from contaminated grassland established on fluorspar tailings, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 51(1), 43-54.
  • Duman, T.Y. (2009). The largest landslide dam in Turkey: Tortum landslide, Engineering Geology, 104, 66-79.
  • Duman, F., Aksoy, A., Demirezen, D. (2007). Seasonal variability of heavy metals in surface sediment of Lake Sapanca, Turkey, Environmental monitoring and assessment, 133(1-3), 277-283.
  • Dural, M., Göksu, M. L. (2006). Variations of heavy metal levels of seston benthos and sediment seasonally in Çamlik Lagoon (Karataş, Adana), E.U. Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 23, 65-69.
  • Gaudette, H. E., Flight, W. R., Toner, L., Folger, D.W. (1974). An inexpensive titration method for the determination of organic carbon in recent sediments, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 44(1).
  • Guo, W., Liu, X., Liu, Z., Li, G. (2010). Pollution and potential ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals in the sediments around Dongjiang Harbor, Tianjin, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2, 729-736.
  • Hakanson, L. (1980). An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach, Water Research, 14(8), 975-1001, doi:10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8.
  • Hou, D., He, J., Lü, C., Ren, L., Fan, Q., Wang, J., Xie, Z .(2013). Distribution characteristics and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd) in water and sediments from Lake Dalinouer, China, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 93, 135-144.
  • Kähkönen, M. A., Pantsar-Kallio, M., Manninen, P. K. G. (1997). Analysing heavy metal concentrations in the different parts of Elodea canadensis and surface sediment with pca in two boreal lakes in Southern Finland. Chemosphere, 35(11), 2645-2656, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(97)00337-8.
  • Kankılıç, G. B., Tüzün, İ., Kadıoğlu, Y. K. (2013). Assessment of heavy metal levels in sediment samples of Kapulukaya Dam Lake (Kirikkale) and lower catchment area, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(8), 6739-6750.
  • Karadede, H., Ünlü, E. (2000). Concentrations of some heavy metals in water, sediment and fish species from the Atatürk Dam Lake (Euphrates), Turkey, Chemosphere, 41(9), 1371-1376.
  • Kır, İ., Tekin-Özan, S., Tuncay, Y. (2007). Kovada Gölü’nün su ve sedimentindeki bazı ağır metallerin mevsimsel değişimi, Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 24(1-2), 155-158.
  • Kishe, M., Machiwa, J. (2003). Distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Tanzania, Environment International, 28(7), 619-625.
  • Kopar, İ., Çakır, Ç. (2012). Badlands Topography and Fairy Chimneys on the Coastal Zone of Lake Tortum (Uzundere-Erzurum) (1st National Geography Symposium Proceedings). Erzurum: Mega offset.
  • Kopar, İ., Sevindi, C. (2013). Tortum Gölü’nün (Uzundere-Erzurum) güneybatısında aktüel sedimantasyon ve siltasyona bağlı alan-kıyı çizgisi değişimleri, Türk Coğrafya Dergisi (60), 49-66.
  • Kükrer, S., Erginal, A. E., Şeker, S., Karabıyıkoğlu, M. (2015). Distribution and environmental risk evaluation of heavy metal in core sediments from Lake Çıldır (NE Turkey). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(7), 453.
  • Kükrer, S. (2016). Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Accumulation in Surface Sediment of Lake Tortum Based on Ecological Indices (In Turkish). Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science And Technology, 4(12), 1185-1191
  • Kükrer, S. (2017). Pollution, source, and ecological risk assessment of trace elements in surface sediments of Lake Aktaş, NE Turkey. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 23:7, 1629-1644, DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2017.1332953.
  • Li, F., Huang, J., Zeng, G., Yuan, X., Li, X., Liang, J., Wang, X., Tang, X., Bai, B. (2013). Spatial risk assessment and sources identification of heavy metals in surface sediments from the Dongting Lake, Middle China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 132, 75-83.
  • Li, S., Zhang, Q. (2010). Risk assessment and seasonal variations of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Upper Han River, China, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 181(1–3), 1051-1058, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.05.120.
  • Liu, E., Shen, J., Yang, L., Zhang, E., Meng, X., Wang, J. (2010). Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the sediments of Nansihu Lake Catchment, China, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 161(1-4), 217-227. Mackay, D. (2001). Multimedia environmental models: the fugacity approach: CRC press.
  • Matthiesen, H. (1998). Phosphate Release from Marine Sediments: By Diffusion, Advection and Resuspection. Kemisk Institut, Aarhus Universitet.
  • Micó, C., Recatalá, L., Peris, M., Sánchez, J. (2006). Assessing heavy metal sources in agricultural soils of an European Mediterranean area by multivariate analysis, Chemosphere, 65(5), 863-872,doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.03.016.
  • Ochieng, E., Lalah, J., Wandiga, S. (2007). Analysis of heavy metals in water and surface sediment in five rift valley lakes in Kenya for assessment of recent increase in anthropogenic activities, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 79(5), 570-576.
  • Özkan, E. Y. (2012). A new assessment of heavy metal contaminations in an eutrophicated bay (Inner Izmir Bay, Turkey), Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 12(1), 135-147.
  • Özmen, H., Külahcı, F., Çukurovalı, A., Doğru, M. (2004). Concentrations of heavy metal and radioactivity in surface water and sediment of Hazar Lake (Elazığ, Turkey), Chemosphere, 55(3), 401-408.
  • Rodríguez Martín, J. A., Arias, M. L., Grau Corbí, J. M. (2006). Heavy metals contents in agricultural topsoils in the Ebro basin (Spain). Application of the multivariate geoestatistical methods to study spatial variations, Environmental Pollution, 144(3), 1001-1012, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2006.01.045.
  • Rosales-Hoz, L., Carranza-Edwards, A., Lopez-Hernandez, M. (2000). Heavy metals in sediments of a large, turbid tropical lake affected by anthropogenic discharges, Environmental Geology, 39(3-4), 378-383.
  • Siegel, B. Z., Siegel, S. M. (1987). Hawaiian volcanoes and the biogeology of mercury, Volcanism in Hawaii, 1, 882-839.
  • Sundaray, S. K., Nayak, B. B., Lin, S., Bhatta, D. (2011). Geochemical speciation and risk assessment of heavy metals in the river estuarine sediments—A case study: Mahanadi basin, India, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186(2–3), 1837-1846, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.12.081.
  • Suresh, G., Ramasamy, V., Meenakshisundaram, V., Venkatachalapathy, R., Ponnusamy, V. (2011). Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 69(10), 1466-1474.
  • Suresh, G., Sutharsan, P., Ramasamy, V., Venkatachalapathy, R. (2012). Assessment of spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of the heavy metals in relation to granulometric contents of Veeranam lake sediments, India, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 84, 117-124.
  • Sutherland, R. (2000). Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii, Environmental Geology, 39(6), 611-627.
  • Symonds, R. B., Rose, W. I., Reed, M. H., Lichte, F. E., Finnegan, D. L. (1987). Volatilization, transport and sublimation of metallic and non-metallic elements in high temperature gases at Merapi Volcano, Indonesia, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51(8), 2083-2101.
  • Tekin-Özan, S., Kir, İ. (2008). Seasonal variations of heavy metals in some organs of carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) from Beyşehir Lake (Turkey), Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 138(1), 201-206.
  • Varol, M., Şen, B. (2012). Assessment of nutrient and heavy metal contamination in surface water and sediments of the upper Tigris River, Turkey, Catena, 92, 1-10, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2011.11.011.
  • Vrhovnik, P., Šmuc, N. R., Dolenec, T., Serafimovski, T., Dolenec, M. (2013). An evaluation of trace metal distribution and environmental risk in sediments from the Lake Kalimanci (FYR Macedonia), Environmental Earth Sciences, 70(2), 761-775.
  • Wang, Y., Hu, J., Xiong, K., Huang, X., Duan, S. (2012). Distribution of heavy metals in core sediments from Baihua Lake, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 16, 51-58.
  • Wang, Y., Yang, L., Kong, L., Liu, E., Wang, L., Zhu, J. (2015). Spatial distribution, ecological risk assessment and source identification for heavy metals in surface sediments from Dongping Lake, Shandong, East China, Catena, 125, 200-205, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.023.
  • Zeng, G., Liang, J., Guo, S., Shi, L., Xiang, L., Li, X., Du, C. (2009). Spatial analysis of human health risk associated with ingesting manganese in Huangxing Town, Middle China, Chemosphere, 77(3), 368-375.
  • Zhang, L., Ye, X., Feng, H., Jing, Y., Ouyang, T., Yu, X., liang, R., Gao, C., Chen, W. (2007). Heavy metal contamination in western Xiamen Bay sediments and its vicinity, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54(7), 974-982.

Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey) using environmental indices

Yıl 2017, Cilt 4, Sayı 3, 227 - 239, 01.11.2017
https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.348826

Öz

This study aimed to determine the vertical distribution of heavy metals in a 72 cm-long core sample from Lake Tortum in order to shed light on the implications of potential ecological risks. Analysis was based on the use of environmental indices such as the Integrated Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PER). Results reveal that, except for Pb, Mn and Hg, the lowest concentrations of heavy metals occur at a core depth of between 2 cm and 20 cm for Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, As, Cd, Cr and Al. The highest concentration was found at sampling intervals of 36 cm and 50 cm, with the exception of Pb, Mn, Hg and Ni. The PLI values from bottom to top are less than 1 while the level with the nearest value to the background value lies at a depth between 24 cm and 26 cm. The PER index results suggest a low ecological risk level for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Cr, and Al; however, Cd and Hg constitute an ecological threat to the lake ecosystem.

Kaynakça

  • Algan, O., Gazioğlu, C., Çağatay, N., Yücel, Z.Y. (1999). Sediment and water influxes into the Black Sea by Anatolien rivers, Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, 43, 61-80.
  • Algan, O., Yalçın, M. N., Özdoğan, M., Yılmaz, Y., Sarı, E., Kırcı-Elmas, E., Yılmaz, İ., Bulkan, Ö., Ongan, D., Gazioğlu, C., Nazik, A. Polat, MA., Meriç, E. (2011). Holocene coastal change in the ancient harbor of Yenikapı–Istanbul and its impact on cultural history, Quaternary Research, 76(1), 30-45.
  • Arslan, N., Tokatlı, C., Çiçek, A., Köse, E. (2011). Determination of some metal concentrations in water and sediment samples in Yedigöller Region (Kütahya), Review of Hydrobiology, 4(1), 17-28.
  • Atalay, İ. (1979). Geomorphology of the Lake Tortum and its Immediate Surroundings (NE Turkey), Review of the Geographical Institute of the University of Istanbul, 17, 49-65.
  • Atalay, İ. (1982). Türkiye jeomorfolojisine giriş. Ege Üniversitesi Ege Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Fakültesi Yayınları.
  • Bai, J., Cui, B., Chen, B., Zhang, K., Deng, W., Gao, H., et al., (2011). Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from a typical plateau lake wetland, China, Ecological Modelling, 222(2), 301-306.
  • Barlas, N., Akbulut, N., Aydoğan, M. (2005). Assessment of heavy metal residues in the sediment and water samples of Uluabat Lake, Turkey. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 74(2), 286-293.
  • Bódog, I., Polyák, K., Hlavay, J. (1997). Determination of Heavy Metals in Lake and River Sediments by Selective Leaching, International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 66(2),79-94, doi:10.1080/03067319708028353.
  • Cai, L., Xu, Z., Ren, M., Guo, Q., Hu, X., Hu, G., et al., (2012). Source identification of eight hazardous heavy metals in agricultural soils of Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 78, 2-8, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.07.004.
  • Cooke, J., Andrews, S., Johnson, M. (1990). Lead, zinc, cadmium and fluoride in small mammals from contaminated grassland established on fluorspar tailings, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 51(1), 43-54.
  • Duman, T.Y. (2009). The largest landslide dam in Turkey: Tortum landslide, Engineering Geology, 104, 66-79.
  • Duman, F., Aksoy, A., Demirezen, D. (2007). Seasonal variability of heavy metals in surface sediment of Lake Sapanca, Turkey, Environmental monitoring and assessment, 133(1-3), 277-283.
  • Dural, M., Göksu, M. L. (2006). Variations of heavy metal levels of seston benthos and sediment seasonally in Çamlik Lagoon (Karataş, Adana), E.U. Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 23, 65-69.
  • Gaudette, H. E., Flight, W. R., Toner, L., Folger, D.W. (1974). An inexpensive titration method for the determination of organic carbon in recent sediments, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 44(1).
  • Guo, W., Liu, X., Liu, Z., Li, G. (2010). Pollution and potential ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals in the sediments around Dongjiang Harbor, Tianjin, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2, 729-736.
  • Hakanson, L. (1980). An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach, Water Research, 14(8), 975-1001, doi:10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8.
  • Hou, D., He, J., Lü, C., Ren, L., Fan, Q., Wang, J., Xie, Z .(2013). Distribution characteristics and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd) in water and sediments from Lake Dalinouer, China, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 93, 135-144.
  • Kähkönen, M. A., Pantsar-Kallio, M., Manninen, P. K. G. (1997). Analysing heavy metal concentrations in the different parts of Elodea canadensis and surface sediment with pca in two boreal lakes in Southern Finland. Chemosphere, 35(11), 2645-2656, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(97)00337-8.
  • Kankılıç, G. B., Tüzün, İ., Kadıoğlu, Y. K. (2013). Assessment of heavy metal levels in sediment samples of Kapulukaya Dam Lake (Kirikkale) and lower catchment area, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(8), 6739-6750.
  • Karadede, H., Ünlü, E. (2000). Concentrations of some heavy metals in water, sediment and fish species from the Atatürk Dam Lake (Euphrates), Turkey, Chemosphere, 41(9), 1371-1376.
  • Kır, İ., Tekin-Özan, S., Tuncay, Y. (2007). Kovada Gölü’nün su ve sedimentindeki bazı ağır metallerin mevsimsel değişimi, Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Dergisi, 24(1-2), 155-158.
  • Kishe, M., Machiwa, J. (2003). Distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Tanzania, Environment International, 28(7), 619-625.
  • Kopar, İ., Çakır, Ç. (2012). Badlands Topography and Fairy Chimneys on the Coastal Zone of Lake Tortum (Uzundere-Erzurum) (1st National Geography Symposium Proceedings). Erzurum: Mega offset.
  • Kopar, İ., Sevindi, C. (2013). Tortum Gölü’nün (Uzundere-Erzurum) güneybatısında aktüel sedimantasyon ve siltasyona bağlı alan-kıyı çizgisi değişimleri, Türk Coğrafya Dergisi (60), 49-66.
  • Kükrer, S., Erginal, A. E., Şeker, S., Karabıyıkoğlu, M. (2015). Distribution and environmental risk evaluation of heavy metal in core sediments from Lake Çıldır (NE Turkey). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(7), 453.
  • Kükrer, S. (2016). Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Accumulation in Surface Sediment of Lake Tortum Based on Ecological Indices (In Turkish). Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science And Technology, 4(12), 1185-1191
  • Kükrer, S. (2017). Pollution, source, and ecological risk assessment of trace elements in surface sediments of Lake Aktaş, NE Turkey. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 23:7, 1629-1644, DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2017.1332953.
  • Li, F., Huang, J., Zeng, G., Yuan, X., Li, X., Liang, J., Wang, X., Tang, X., Bai, B. (2013). Spatial risk assessment and sources identification of heavy metals in surface sediments from the Dongting Lake, Middle China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 132, 75-83.
  • Li, S., Zhang, Q. (2010). Risk assessment and seasonal variations of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Upper Han River, China, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 181(1–3), 1051-1058, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.05.120.
  • Liu, E., Shen, J., Yang, L., Zhang, E., Meng, X., Wang, J. (2010). Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the sediments of Nansihu Lake Catchment, China, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 161(1-4), 217-227. Mackay, D. (2001). Multimedia environmental models: the fugacity approach: CRC press.
  • Matthiesen, H. (1998). Phosphate Release from Marine Sediments: By Diffusion, Advection and Resuspection. Kemisk Institut, Aarhus Universitet.
  • Micó, C., Recatalá, L., Peris, M., Sánchez, J. (2006). Assessing heavy metal sources in agricultural soils of an European Mediterranean area by multivariate analysis, Chemosphere, 65(5), 863-872,doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.03.016.
  • Ochieng, E., Lalah, J., Wandiga, S. (2007). Analysis of heavy metals in water and surface sediment in five rift valley lakes in Kenya for assessment of recent increase in anthropogenic activities, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 79(5), 570-576.
  • Özkan, E. Y. (2012). A new assessment of heavy metal contaminations in an eutrophicated bay (Inner Izmir Bay, Turkey), Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 12(1), 135-147.
  • Özmen, H., Külahcı, F., Çukurovalı, A., Doğru, M. (2004). Concentrations of heavy metal and radioactivity in surface water and sediment of Hazar Lake (Elazığ, Turkey), Chemosphere, 55(3), 401-408.
  • Rodríguez Martín, J. A., Arias, M. L., Grau Corbí, J. M. (2006). Heavy metals contents in agricultural topsoils in the Ebro basin (Spain). Application of the multivariate geoestatistical methods to study spatial variations, Environmental Pollution, 144(3), 1001-1012, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2006.01.045.
  • Rosales-Hoz, L., Carranza-Edwards, A., Lopez-Hernandez, M. (2000). Heavy metals in sediments of a large, turbid tropical lake affected by anthropogenic discharges, Environmental Geology, 39(3-4), 378-383.
  • Siegel, B. Z., Siegel, S. M. (1987). Hawaiian volcanoes and the biogeology of mercury, Volcanism in Hawaii, 1, 882-839.
  • Sundaray, S. K., Nayak, B. B., Lin, S., Bhatta, D. (2011). Geochemical speciation and risk assessment of heavy metals in the river estuarine sediments—A case study: Mahanadi basin, India, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186(2–3), 1837-1846, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.12.081.
  • Suresh, G., Ramasamy, V., Meenakshisundaram, V., Venkatachalapathy, R., Ponnusamy, V. (2011). Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 69(10), 1466-1474.
  • Suresh, G., Sutharsan, P., Ramasamy, V., Venkatachalapathy, R. (2012). Assessment of spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of the heavy metals in relation to granulometric contents of Veeranam lake sediments, India, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 84, 117-124.
  • Sutherland, R. (2000). Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii, Environmental Geology, 39(6), 611-627.
  • Symonds, R. B., Rose, W. I., Reed, M. H., Lichte, F. E., Finnegan, D. L. (1987). Volatilization, transport and sublimation of metallic and non-metallic elements in high temperature gases at Merapi Volcano, Indonesia, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51(8), 2083-2101.
  • Tekin-Özan, S., Kir, İ. (2008). Seasonal variations of heavy metals in some organs of carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) from Beyşehir Lake (Turkey), Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 138(1), 201-206.
  • Varol, M., Şen, B. (2012). Assessment of nutrient and heavy metal contamination in surface water and sediments of the upper Tigris River, Turkey, Catena, 92, 1-10, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2011.11.011.
  • Vrhovnik, P., Šmuc, N. R., Dolenec, T., Serafimovski, T., Dolenec, M. (2013). An evaluation of trace metal distribution and environmental risk in sediments from the Lake Kalimanci (FYR Macedonia), Environmental Earth Sciences, 70(2), 761-775.
  • Wang, Y., Hu, J., Xiong, K., Huang, X., Duan, S. (2012). Distribution of heavy metals in core sediments from Baihua Lake, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 16, 51-58.
  • Wang, Y., Yang, L., Kong, L., Liu, E., Wang, L., Zhu, J. (2015). Spatial distribution, ecological risk assessment and source identification for heavy metals in surface sediments from Dongping Lake, Shandong, East China, Catena, 125, 200-205, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.023.
  • Zeng, G., Liang, J., Guo, S., Shi, L., Xiang, L., Li, X., Du, C. (2009). Spatial analysis of human health risk associated with ingesting manganese in Huangxing Town, Middle China, Chemosphere, 77(3), 368-375.
  • Zhang, L., Ye, X., Feng, H., Jing, Y., Ouyang, T., Yu, X., liang, R., Gao, C., Chen, W. (2007). Heavy metal contamination in western Xiamen Bay sediments and its vicinity, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54(7), 974-982.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Mühendislik
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Hakan KAYA>
Beylikdüzü Municipatily, Istanbul, Turkey
Türkiye


Gülsen ERGİNAL Bu kişi benim
Ardahan University, Çıldır Vocational High School
Türkiye


Çağlar ÇAKIR>
Akdeniz University, Department of Geography
0000-0002-1090-7146
Türkiye


Cem GAZİOĞLU>
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management
0000-0002-2083-4008
Türkiye


Ahmet Evren ERGİNAL>
Ardahan University, Department of Geography
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Kasım 2017
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 4, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ijegeo348826, journal = {International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics}, eissn = {2148-9173}, address = {}, publisher = {Cem GAZİOĞLU}, year = {2017}, volume = {4}, number = {3}, pages = {227 - 239}, doi = {10.30897/ijegeo.348826}, title = {Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey) using environmental indices}, key = {cite}, author = {Kaya, Hakan and Erginal, Gülsen and Çakır, Çağlar and Gazioğlu, Cem and Erginal, Ahmet Evren} }
APA Kaya, H. , Erginal, G. , Çakır, Ç. , Gazioğlu, C. & Erginal, A. E. (2017). Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey) using environmental indices . International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics , 4 (3) , 227-239 . DOI: 10.30897/ijegeo.348826
MLA Kaya, H. , Erginal, G. , Çakır, Ç. , Gazioğlu, C. , Erginal, A. E. "Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey) using environmental indices" . International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 4 (2017 ): 227-239 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijegeo/issue/31803/348826>
Chicago Kaya, H. , Erginal, G. , Çakır, Ç. , Gazioğlu, C. , Erginal, A. E. "Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey) using environmental indices". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 4 (2017 ): 227-239
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey) using environmental indices AU - HakanKaya, GülsenErginal, ÇağlarÇakır, CemGazioğlu, Ahmet EvrenErginal Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.348826 DO - 10.30897/ijegeo.348826 T2 - International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 227 EP - 239 VL - 4 IS - 3 SN - -2148-9173 M3 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.348826 UR - https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.348826 Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey) using environmental indices %A Hakan Kaya , Gülsen Erginal , Çağlar Çakır , Cem Gazioğlu , Ahmet Evren Erginal %T Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey) using environmental indices %D 2017 %J International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics %P -2148-9173 %V 4 %N 3 %R doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.348826 %U 10.30897/ijegeo.348826
ISNAD Kaya, Hakan , Erginal, Gülsen , Çakır, Çağlar , Gazioğlu, Cem , Erginal, Ahmet Evren . "Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey) using environmental indices". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 4 / 3 (Kasım 2017): 227-239 . https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.348826
AMA Kaya H. , Erginal G. , Çakır Ç. , Gazioğlu C. , Erginal A. E. Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey) using environmental indices. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2017; 4(3): 227-239.
Vancouver Kaya H. , Erginal G. , Çakır Ç. , Gazioğlu C. , Erginal A. E. Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey) using environmental indices. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2017; 4(3): 227-239.
IEEE H. Kaya , G. Erginal , Ç. Çakır , C. Gazioğlu ve A. E. Erginal , "Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey) using environmental indices", International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics, c. 4, sayı. 3, ss. 227-239, Kas. 2017, doi:10.30897/ijegeo.348826