Araştırma Makalesi
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Larval Morphological Development and Seasonal Variation of the Mediterranean Sand Eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) in the Shallow Waters of Gökçeada Island, North Aegean Sea

Yıl 2020, Cilt 3, Sayı 2, 95 - 101, 21.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.46384/jmsf.794629

Öz

Mediterranean sand eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) is a demersal subtropical fish species belonging to the family Ammodytidae. In this study, the morphological development and temporal variations of Mediterranean sand eel larvae were studied. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected between September 2015 and April 2016 in the shallow waters of the Gökçeada Island, northern Aegean Sea. Samples were collected with horizontal tows, using a WP-2 plankton net (57 cm frame diameter equipped with a 500 µm mesh, 3 m total length). Early life stages were photographed and morphological features of individuals between 2.73–7.91 mm in standard length were described comprehensively. It was determined that spawning occurred between November and February and peaked in December. Larval abundance ranged between 6.36 and 69.96 individuals/1000 m3. In this study, the abundance and distribution of the species in the Mediterranean was revealed for the first time.

Kaynakça

  • Bat L., Erdem Y., Ustaoğlu S., Yardım Ö. & Satılmış H. H., 2005. A Study on the Fishes of the Central Black Sea Coast of Turkey. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 11: 281 –296.
  • Bauchot M. L. 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In: Fischer W., Bauchot M.L. and Schneider M. (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37(II). Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome.
  • Bengston V. L., Schaie K.W., 1999. Handbook of theories of aging Springer, New York.
  • Caragitsou E., Siapatis A., Papaconstantinou C., 1998. Vertical Distribution and Migration of Fish Larvae During the Night in the N.W. Aegean Sea. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Médit., 35.
  • Chatain B., 1994. Abnormal swimbladder development and lordosis in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) Aquaculture, 119 pp. 371-379
  • Çoker, T. 2003. The morphology and ecology of the pelagic eggs and larvae of teleost fishes in İzmir Bay (In Turkish). E.Ü. Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, 539 s.
  • Çoker T., Mater S., 2006. İzmir Körfezi İhtiyoplanktonu (1974-2005) Türleri. E.U. Journal of Fisheries& Aquatic Sciences, 23: (3-4), 463–472 pp. (in Turkish).
  • Daunt F., Wanless S., Greenstreet S. P. R., Jensen H., Hamer K. C., Harris, M. P., 2008. The impact of the sandeel fishery closure on seabird food consumption, distribution and productivity in the northwestern North Sea. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 65: 362–381.
  • Dekhnik T. V., 1973. Black Sea ichthyoplankton (Ikhtioplankton chernogo moria). Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 236 p. [in Russian].
  • Devedjian K., 1915. Balik ve balikçilik [Fish and fisheries]. Istanbul, 440 pp. [in Ottoman].
  • Ellacuría I. Á., 2015. Multiscale Environmental – Ichthyoplankton Assemblages Relationships in the Balearic Sea. PhD Thesis, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 248 pp.
  • Erazi R. A. R., 1942. Marine fishes found in the Sea of Marmara and in the Bosphorus. Revue de la Faculte des Sciences de L'universite D'Istanbul, 7(1/2), 103-114.
  • Greenstreet S. P. R., McMillan J. A., Armstrong F., 1998. Seasonal variation in the importance of pelagic fish in the diet of piscivorous fish in the Moray Firth, NE Scotland: a response to variation in prey abundance? ICES Journal of Marine Science, 55: 121–133.
  • Granata A., Cubeta A., Minutoli R., Bergamasco A., Guglielmo L., 2010. Distribution and abundance of fish larvae in the northern Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). Helgoland Marine Research, Springer Verlag, 65 (3), pp.381-398.
  • IUCN, 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 05 June 2020.
  • Keskin C., 2007. Temporal variation of fish assemblages in different shallow-water habitats in Erdek Bay, Marmara Sea, Turkey. J. Black Sea/Mediterr. Environ. 13,215-234.
  • Koumoundouros G., Kiriakos Z., Divanach P., Kentouri M., 1994. Morphometricrelationships as criteria for the evaluation of culture conditions of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) at the larval stage Kestemont P., Muir J., Sevila F., Williot P. (Eds.), Measures for Success, CEMAGREF, Bordeaux (1994), pp. 199-205.
  • Koumoundouros G., Divanach P., Kentouri M., 1999. Osteological development of the vertebral column and of the caudal complex in Dentex dentex J. Fish Biol., 54, pp. 424-436
  • Koutrakis E. T., Kallianiotis A. A., Tsikliras A. C. 2004. Temporal patterns of larval fish distribution and abundance in a coastal area of northern Greece. Sci. Mar. 68(4):585-595.
  • Lleonart J, Demestre M, Martín P, Rodón J, Sainz‐Trápaga S, Sánchez P, Segarra I, Tudela S., 2014. The co‐management of the sand eel fishery of Catalonia (NW Mediterranean): the story of a process. Scientia Marina 78 S1: 87– 93.
  • Lynam C. P., Halliday N. C., Hoffle H., Wright P. J., van Damme C. J. G., Edwards M., Pitois S.G., 2013. Spatial patterns and trends in abundance of larval sandeels in the North Sea: 1950–2005. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70(3), 540 –553. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fst006.
  • Mavruk, S., Ak Orek, Y., 2017. A Synthesis of Ichthyoplankton Studies in Turkish Part of the Black Sea, in: Sezgin, M., Bat, L., Ürkmez, D., Arıcı, E., Öztürk, B. (Eds.), Black Sea Marine Environment : The Turkish Shelf. Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Istanbul, pp. 567–587.
  • Nelson J. S., 2006. Fishes of the World. Wiley & Sons Inc. 4th edition, 601 pp.
  • Olivar M. P., Quilez G., Emelianov M., 2003. Spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of European hake, Merluccius merluccius, eggs and larvae in the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean). Fisheries Research 60, 321–331.
  • Padoa E., 1956. In uova, larve e stadi giovanili di Teleostei. Fauna Flora Golfo di Napoli, Monogr. 38, (3/2), 687-774.
  • Reay P. J., 1970. Synopsis of biological data on North Atlantic sandeels of the genus Ammodytes (A. tobianus, A. dubius, A. americenus and A. marinus) FAO Fish. Synops. (82): 48 pp.
  • Reay P. J., 1986. Ammodytidae. p. 945-950. In: Whitehead P. J. P., Bauchot M. L., Hureau J. C., Nielsen J., Tortonese E. (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
  • Russell F. S., 1976. The eggs and planktonic stages of British marine fishes. Academic Press, New York.
  • Sabatés A., Zabala M., García-Rubies A., 2003. Larval fish communities in the Medes Islands Marine Reserve (North-west Mediterranean). Journal of Plankton Research, 25(9): 1035-1046.
  • Thompson P., Ingram S., Lonergan M., Northridge S., 2007. Climate change causing starvation in harbour porpoises? Biology Letters, 3: 533–534.
  • Quéro J. C. 1990. Ammodytidae. p. 920. In: Quéro J. C., Hureau J. C., Karrer C. Post A., Saldanha L. (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
  • Slastenenko E. (1955-1956) Karadeniz havzasi baliklari [Fishes of Black Sea basin]. Et ve Balik Kurumu Yayinlari, Istanbul, 711 pp. [in Turkish].
  • Yüksek A., Okuş E., Yılmaz I. N., Aslan Yılmaz A., Taş S., 2006. Changes in biodiversity of the extremely polluted Golden Horn Estuary following the improvements in water quality. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52: 1209–1218.
  • Wheeler A., 1979. Ammodytidae. In: Hureau J.C. and Monod Th. (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and of the Mediterranean (CLOFNAM). UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. p. 446-448.

Gökçeada Kıyı Sularında Bulunan Kum Yılan Balığı, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810)’nın Larval Morfolojik Gelişimi ve Mevsimsel Değişimi

Yıl 2020, Cilt 3, Sayı 2, 95 - 101, 21.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.46384/jmsf.794629

Öz

Kum yılan balığı, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810), Ammodytidae familyasına ait olan demersal ve subtropical bir türdür. Bu çalışmada kum yılan balığı larvalarının morfolojik gelişimi ve zamansal değişimi çalışılmıştır. İhtiyoplankton örnekleri Gökçeada kıyı sularından Eylül 2015 ile Nisan 2016 tarihleri arasında toplanmıştır. Örneklemeler horizontal çekimler ile WP-2 tip plankton kepçesi (500 µm netle donatılmış 57 cm çember çapına ve 3 m toplam net uzunluğuna sahip) ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Erken yaşam evreleri fotoğraflanmış ve 2.73–7.91 mm standart boy aralığındaki bireylerin morfolojik değişimler kapsamlı olarak tanımlanmıştır. Üreme sezonunun Kasım ile Şubat arasında olduğu, üremenin Aralık ayında pik yaptığı tespit edilmiştir. Larval bolluk değeri birim alanda 6.36 ile 69.96 n/1000 m3 arasında değişmiştir. Bu çalışmada ilk kez türün Akdeniz’deki larval bolluk ve dağılımı ortaya konmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • Bat L., Erdem Y., Ustaoğlu S., Yardım Ö. & Satılmış H. H., 2005. A Study on the Fishes of the Central Black Sea Coast of Turkey. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 11: 281 –296.
  • Bauchot M. L. 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In: Fischer W., Bauchot M.L. and Schneider M. (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37(II). Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome.
  • Bengston V. L., Schaie K.W., 1999. Handbook of theories of aging Springer, New York.
  • Caragitsou E., Siapatis A., Papaconstantinou C., 1998. Vertical Distribution and Migration of Fish Larvae During the Night in the N.W. Aegean Sea. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Médit., 35.
  • Chatain B., 1994. Abnormal swimbladder development and lordosis in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) Aquaculture, 119 pp. 371-379
  • Çoker, T. 2003. The morphology and ecology of the pelagic eggs and larvae of teleost fishes in İzmir Bay (In Turkish). E.Ü. Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, 539 s.
  • Çoker T., Mater S., 2006. İzmir Körfezi İhtiyoplanktonu (1974-2005) Türleri. E.U. Journal of Fisheries& Aquatic Sciences, 23: (3-4), 463–472 pp. (in Turkish).
  • Daunt F., Wanless S., Greenstreet S. P. R., Jensen H., Hamer K. C., Harris, M. P., 2008. The impact of the sandeel fishery closure on seabird food consumption, distribution and productivity in the northwestern North Sea. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 65: 362–381.
  • Dekhnik T. V., 1973. Black Sea ichthyoplankton (Ikhtioplankton chernogo moria). Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 236 p. [in Russian].
  • Devedjian K., 1915. Balik ve balikçilik [Fish and fisheries]. Istanbul, 440 pp. [in Ottoman].
  • Ellacuría I. Á., 2015. Multiscale Environmental – Ichthyoplankton Assemblages Relationships in the Balearic Sea. PhD Thesis, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 248 pp.
  • Erazi R. A. R., 1942. Marine fishes found in the Sea of Marmara and in the Bosphorus. Revue de la Faculte des Sciences de L'universite D'Istanbul, 7(1/2), 103-114.
  • Greenstreet S. P. R., McMillan J. A., Armstrong F., 1998. Seasonal variation in the importance of pelagic fish in the diet of piscivorous fish in the Moray Firth, NE Scotland: a response to variation in prey abundance? ICES Journal of Marine Science, 55: 121–133.
  • Granata A., Cubeta A., Minutoli R., Bergamasco A., Guglielmo L., 2010. Distribution and abundance of fish larvae in the northern Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). Helgoland Marine Research, Springer Verlag, 65 (3), pp.381-398.
  • IUCN, 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 05 June 2020.
  • Keskin C., 2007. Temporal variation of fish assemblages in different shallow-water habitats in Erdek Bay, Marmara Sea, Turkey. J. Black Sea/Mediterr. Environ. 13,215-234.
  • Koumoundouros G., Kiriakos Z., Divanach P., Kentouri M., 1994. Morphometricrelationships as criteria for the evaluation of culture conditions of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) at the larval stage Kestemont P., Muir J., Sevila F., Williot P. (Eds.), Measures for Success, CEMAGREF, Bordeaux (1994), pp. 199-205.
  • Koumoundouros G., Divanach P., Kentouri M., 1999. Osteological development of the vertebral column and of the caudal complex in Dentex dentex J. Fish Biol., 54, pp. 424-436
  • Koutrakis E. T., Kallianiotis A. A., Tsikliras A. C. 2004. Temporal patterns of larval fish distribution and abundance in a coastal area of northern Greece. Sci. Mar. 68(4):585-595.
  • Lleonart J, Demestre M, Martín P, Rodón J, Sainz‐Trápaga S, Sánchez P, Segarra I, Tudela S., 2014. The co‐management of the sand eel fishery of Catalonia (NW Mediterranean): the story of a process. Scientia Marina 78 S1: 87– 93.
  • Lynam C. P., Halliday N. C., Hoffle H., Wright P. J., van Damme C. J. G., Edwards M., Pitois S.G., 2013. Spatial patterns and trends in abundance of larval sandeels in the North Sea: 1950–2005. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70(3), 540 –553. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fst006.
  • Mavruk, S., Ak Orek, Y., 2017. A Synthesis of Ichthyoplankton Studies in Turkish Part of the Black Sea, in: Sezgin, M., Bat, L., Ürkmez, D., Arıcı, E., Öztürk, B. (Eds.), Black Sea Marine Environment : The Turkish Shelf. Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Istanbul, pp. 567–587.
  • Nelson J. S., 2006. Fishes of the World. Wiley & Sons Inc. 4th edition, 601 pp.
  • Olivar M. P., Quilez G., Emelianov M., 2003. Spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of European hake, Merluccius merluccius, eggs and larvae in the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean). Fisheries Research 60, 321–331.
  • Padoa E., 1956. In uova, larve e stadi giovanili di Teleostei. Fauna Flora Golfo di Napoli, Monogr. 38, (3/2), 687-774.
  • Reay P. J., 1970. Synopsis of biological data on North Atlantic sandeels of the genus Ammodytes (A. tobianus, A. dubius, A. americenus and A. marinus) FAO Fish. Synops. (82): 48 pp.
  • Reay P. J., 1986. Ammodytidae. p. 945-950. In: Whitehead P. J. P., Bauchot M. L., Hureau J. C., Nielsen J., Tortonese E. (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
  • Russell F. S., 1976. The eggs and planktonic stages of British marine fishes. Academic Press, New York.
  • Sabatés A., Zabala M., García-Rubies A., 2003. Larval fish communities in the Medes Islands Marine Reserve (North-west Mediterranean). Journal of Plankton Research, 25(9): 1035-1046.
  • Thompson P., Ingram S., Lonergan M., Northridge S., 2007. Climate change causing starvation in harbour porpoises? Biology Letters, 3: 533–534.
  • Quéro J. C. 1990. Ammodytidae. p. 920. In: Quéro J. C., Hureau J. C., Karrer C. Post A., Saldanha L. (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.
  • Slastenenko E. (1955-1956) Karadeniz havzasi baliklari [Fishes of Black Sea basin]. Et ve Balik Kurumu Yayinlari, Istanbul, 711 pp. [in Turkish].
  • Yüksek A., Okuş E., Yılmaz I. N., Aslan Yılmaz A., Taş S., 2006. Changes in biodiversity of the extremely polluted Golden Horn Estuary following the improvements in water quality. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52: 1209–1218.
  • Wheeler A., 1979. Ammodytidae. In: Hureau J.C. and Monod Th. (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and of the Mediterranean (CLOFNAM). UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. p. 446-448.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Deniz ve Tatlı Su Biyolojisi
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

İsmail Burak DABAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
CANAKKALE ONSEKIZ MART UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF MARITIME SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF MARINE SCIENCES
0000-0002-2973-5698
Türkiye


Ali İŞMEN
ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ, DENİZ BİLİMLERİ VE TEKNOLOJİSİ FAKÜLTESİ, DENİZ BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-2456-0232
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum yok
Proje Numarası yok
Teşekkür The data of this study is obtained from PhD study of İsmail Burak Daban. The authors would like to thank Assist. Prof. Dr. Ahsen Yüksek for valuable contributions in identifying fish larvae. Thanks are extended to Kamil Çakır and Captain Yılmaz Tokoğlu who helped with the field samplings.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 21 Aralık 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 14 Eylül 2020
Kabul Tarihi 17 Kasım 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 3, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { jmsf794629, journal = {Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries}, eissn = {2651-5326}, address = {Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Deniz Bilimleri ve Teknolojisi Fakültesi, Terzioğlu Kampüsü, 17100, Merkez/Çanakkale}, publisher = {Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi}, year = {2020}, volume = {3}, number = {2}, pages = {95 - 101}, doi = {10.46384/jmsf.794629}, title = {Larval Morphological Development and Seasonal Variation of the Mediterranean Sand Eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) in the Shallow Waters of Gökçeada Island, North Aegean Sea}, key = {cite}, author = {Daban, İsmail Burak and İşmen, Ali} }
APA Daban, İ. B. & İşmen, A. (2020). Larval Morphological Development and Seasonal Variation of the Mediterranean Sand Eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) in the Shallow Waters of Gökçeada Island, North Aegean Sea . Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries , 3 (2) , 95-101 . DOI: 10.46384/jmsf.794629
MLA Daban, İ. B. , İşmen, A. "Larval Morphological Development and Seasonal Variation of the Mediterranean Sand Eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) in the Shallow Waters of Gökçeada Island, North Aegean Sea" . Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries 3 (2020 ): 95-101 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jmsf/issue/58356/794629>
Chicago Daban, İ. B. , İşmen, A. "Larval Morphological Development and Seasonal Variation of the Mediterranean Sand Eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) in the Shallow Waters of Gökçeada Island, North Aegean Sea". Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries 3 (2020 ): 95-101
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Larval Morphological Development and Seasonal Variation of the Mediterranean Sand Eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) in the Shallow Waters of Gökçeada Island, North Aegean Sea AU - İsmail Burak Daban , Ali İşmen Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.46384/jmsf.794629 DO - 10.46384/jmsf.794629 T2 - Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 95 EP - 101 VL - 3 IS - 2 SN - -2651-5326 M3 - doi: 10.46384/jmsf.794629 UR - https://doi.org/10.46384/jmsf.794629 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries Larval Morphological Development and Seasonal Variation of the Mediterranean Sand Eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) in the Shallow Waters of Gökçeada Island, North Aegean Sea %A İsmail Burak Daban , Ali İşmen %T Larval Morphological Development and Seasonal Variation of the Mediterranean Sand Eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) in the Shallow Waters of Gökçeada Island, North Aegean Sea %D 2020 %J Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries %P -2651-5326 %V 3 %N 2 %R doi: 10.46384/jmsf.794629 %U 10.46384/jmsf.794629
ISNAD Daban, İsmail Burak , İşmen, Ali . "Larval Morphological Development and Seasonal Variation of the Mediterranean Sand Eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) in the Shallow Waters of Gökçeada Island, North Aegean Sea". Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries 3 / 2 (Aralık 2020): 95-101 . https://doi.org/10.46384/jmsf.794629
AMA Daban İ. B. , İşmen A. Larval Morphological Development and Seasonal Variation of the Mediterranean Sand Eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) in the Shallow Waters of Gökçeada Island, North Aegean Sea. JMSF. 2020; 3(2): 95-101.
Vancouver Daban İ. B. , İşmen A. Larval Morphological Development and Seasonal Variation of the Mediterranean Sand Eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) in the Shallow Waters of Gökçeada Island, North Aegean Sea. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries. 2020; 3(2): 95-101.
IEEE İ. B. Daban ve A. İşmen , "Larval Morphological Development and Seasonal Variation of the Mediterranean Sand Eel, Gymnammodytes cicerelus (Rafinesque, 1810) in the Shallow Waters of Gökçeada Island, North Aegean Sea", Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, c. 3, sayı. 2, ss. 95-101, Ara. 2020, doi:10.46384/jmsf.794629