Araştırma Makalesi
PDF Mendeley EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

Determining destination risk perceptions, their effects on satisfaction, revisit and recommendation intentions: Evidence from Sanliurfa/Turkey

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 81 - 96, 30.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2022-7-1-81

Öz

Visitors’ risk perception plays a vital role in their destination choice, intention to return, satisfaction and recommendations to others. At the same time, perceived risks affect destination image, which in turn causes increased or decreased demand for attractions of destinations. The aim of this study is to determine risk dimensions and their effects on recommendation and revisit intentions. Scale is most widely used in tourism research. This scale consists of six dimensions, namely, physical, time, social, performance, financial, and psychological risks, which consist of 28 items. A total of 471 respondents were collected via convenience sampling method among domestic tourists who visited Sanliurfa from May to June 2021. The results of the study indicated a weak inverse and significant relationship between the performance, social, physical, psychological, financial, and time risk perception of the participants and general satisfaction levels. Meanwhile, there is a moderately strong, inverse and significant relationship between all dimensions of risk perception among the participants and their recommendation and revisit intention. Thus, perceptions of risk dimensions have a strong negative influence on overall satisfaction, recommendation, and revisit intentions. By employing three regression models, the present study reported that time and psychological risks highly affect all dependent variables. Furthermore, overall satisfaction is significantly affected by the physical and performance dimensions. Recommendation intention is affected by the financial dimension beyond the aforementioned dimensions. The overall satisfaction levels of the participants were highly correlated with their recommendation levels and revisit intention. At the same time, their recommendation intention was highly correlated with their level of revisit intention. It might be said that visitors may change their future behaviors according to travel risk perceptions. Finally, the study revealed that understanding of customers risk perception is essential to all tourism and hospitality stakeholders.


 

Kaynakça

  • Aliperti, G., Sandholz, S., Hagenlocher, M., Rizzi, F., Frey, M., & Garschagen, M. (2019). Tourism, crisis, disaster: an interdisciplinary approach. Annals of Tourism Research, 79, 102808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.102808
  • Alrawadieh, Z., Alrawadieh, Z., & Kozak, M. (2019). Exploring the impact of tourist harassment on destination image, tourist expenditure, and destination loyalty. Tourism Management, 73(January), 13–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.01.015
  • Alrawadieh, Z., Prayag, G., Alrawadieh, Z., & Alsalameen, M. (2019). Self-identification with a heritage tourism site, visitors’ engagement and destination loyalty: the mediating effects of overall satisfaction. Service Industries Journal, 2069. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069.2018.1564284
  • An, M., Lee, C., & Noh, Y. (2010). Risk factors at the travel destination: their impact on air travel satisfaction and repurchase intention. Service Business, 4(2), 155–166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11628-010-0094-2
  • Artuğer, S. (2015). The Effect of Risk Perceptions on Tourists ’ Revisit Intentions. European Journal of Business and Management, 7(2), 36–43.
  • Artuğer, S., & Kendir, H. (2014). Yerli Turistlerin Destinasyon Risk Algılamaları: Afyonkarahisar İli Örneği. In 1. International Congress of Tourism and Management Researches.
  • Ateşoğlu, İ., & Türker, A. (2013). Türkiye’de tatil yapan turistlerin algıladıkları risk türleri. Seyahat ve Otel İşletmeciliği Dergis, 10(3), 24–44.
  • Baker, D. A., & Crompton, J. L. (2000). Quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 785–804. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00108-5
  • Baumert, T., de Obesso, M. M., & Valbuena, E. (2020). How does the terrorist experience alter consumer behaviour? An analysis of the Spanish case. Journal of Business Research, 115(June), 357–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.11.085
  • Bayraktaroğlu, E., Gürsoy, S., Günay, F., & Karakuş, Y. (2021). Geopolitical Risks and International Tourist Arrivals to Turkey: a Causality Study. Anais Brasileiros De Estudos Turísticos - ABET, 11. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5771032
  • Beneke, J., Flynn, R., Greig, T., & Mukaiwa, M. (2013). The influence of perceived product quality, relative price and risk on customer value and willingness to buy: a study of private label merchandise. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 22(3), 218–228
  • Bettman, J. R. (1973). Perceived Risk and Its Components: A Model and Empirical Test. Journal of Marketing Research, 10(2), 184. https://doi.org/10.2307/3149824
  • Caber, M., González-Rodríguez, M. R., Albayrak, T., & Simonetti, B. (2020). Does perceived risk really matter in travel behaviour? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 26(3), 334–353. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766720927762
  • Carballo, R. R., León, C. J., & Carballo, M. M. (2017). The perception of risk by international travellers. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 9(5), 534–542. https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-07-2017-0032
  • Casidy, R., & Wymer, W. (2016). A risk worth taking: Perceived risk as moderator of satisfaction, loyalty, and willingness-to-pay premium price. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 32, 189–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2016.06.014
  • Cetinkaya, O., Ozer, Y., & Altuner, G. (2020). Evaluation of touristic travel risk perception and hygiene-safety perception in the Covid-19 process. Tourism and Recreation, 2(2), 78–83.
  • Çetinsöz, B. C. (2011). Uluslararası Seyahatlerde Turistlerin Çekim Yerinde Algıladıkları Risklerin Tekrar Ziyaret Etme Niyetlerine Etkileri. Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Turizm İşletmeciliği Anabilim Dalı.
  • Cetinsoz, B. C., & Ege, Z. (2013). Impacts of perceived risks on tourists’ revisit intentions. Anatolia An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 24(2), 173–187. https://doi.org/10.1080/13032917.2012.743921
  • Çetinsöz, B. C., & Ege, Z. (2012). Turistlerin Demografik Özelliklerine Göre Risk Azaltma Stratejileri: Alanya Örneği. Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 23(2), 159–172. https://doi.org/10.17123/atad.77865
  • Chen, C. F., & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions?. Tourism management, 28(4), 1115-1122.
  • Chen, X., Cheng, Z. F., & Kim, G. B. (2020). Make it memorable: Tourism experience, fun, recommendation and revisit intentions of Chinese outbound tourists. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(5), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051904
  • Chew, E. Y. T., & Jahari, S. A. (2014). Destination image as a mediator between perceived risks and revisit intention: A case of post-disaster Japan. Tourism Management, 40, 382–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2013.07.008
  • Chien, P. M., Sharifpour, M., Ritchie, B. W., & Watson, B. (2017). Travelers’ health risk perceptions and protective behavior: A psychological approach. Journal of Travel Research, 56(6), 744-759.
  • Choo, H. K., Choo, Y. (Clara), & Kang, H. M. (2016). Do sport tourists’ perceived risks affect their involvement and intention to (re)visit? An empirical study for risk-reduction strategies. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 17(1), 19–36. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-02-2016-002
  • Clayton, A., Mustelier, L., & Korstanje, M. E. (2014). Understanding Perceptions and Attitudes to Risk in the Tourism Industry. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 2(1), 2014. Retrieved from https://arrow.dit.ie/ijrtp/vol2/iss1/8
  • Cohen, S. A., Prayag, G., & Moital, M. (2014). Consumer behaviour in tourism: Concepts, influences and opportunities. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(10), 872–909. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2013.850064
  • Cong, L. C. (2021). Perceived risk and destination knowledge in the satisfaction-loyalty intention relationship: An empirical study of european tourists in vietnam. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 33(October 2020), 100343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2020.100343
  • Cui, F., Liu, Y., Chang, Y., Duan, J., & Li, J. (2016). An overview of tourism risk perception. Natural Hazards, 82(1), 643–658. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2208-1
  • Dedeoglu, B. B., Bilgihan, A., Ye, B. H., Buonincontri, P., & Okumus, F. (2018). The impact of servicescape on hedonic value and behavioral intentions: The importance of previous experience. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 72(April 2017), 10–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2017.12.007
  • Dedeoğlu, B. B., & Boğan, E. (2021). The motivations of visiting upscale restaurants during the Covid-19 pandemic: The role of risk perception and trust in government. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 95(February). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2021.102905
  • Deng, R., & Ritchie, B. W. (2018). International university students’ travel risk perceptions: An exploratory study. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(4). https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2016.1142939
  • Eid, R. (2015). Integrating Muslim Customer Perceived Value, Satisfaction, Loyalty and Retention in the Tourism Industry: An empirical study. International Journal of Tourism Research, 17(3), 249–260. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.1982
  • Emami, A., & Ranjbarian, B. (2019). The Perceived Risk of Iran as a Tourism Destination (A Mixed Method Approach). Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 12(1), 45–67. https://doi.org/10.22059/ijms.2018.245946.672909
  • Floyd, M. F., & Pennington-Gray, L. (2004). Profiling risk perceptions of tourists. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 1051–1054. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2004.03.011
  • Fuchs, G., & Reichel, A. (2006). Tourist destination risk perception: The case of Israel. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 14(2), 83–108. https://doi.org/10.1300/J150v14n02_06
  • Fourie, J., Rosselló-Nadal, J., & Santana-Gallego, M. (2020). Fatal attraction: How security threats hurt tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 59(2), 209-219.
  • Soleimani, G. A., & Einolahzadeh, H. (2018). The influence of service quality on revisit intention: The mediating role of WOM and satisfaction (Case study: Guilan travel agencies). Cogent Social Sciences, 4(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2018.1560651
  • Gong, X., & Liang, M. (2019). Study on Risk Perception of Domestic Cruise Tourists. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 252(4), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/252/4/042032
  • González-Reverté, F., Díaz-Luque, P., Gomis-López, J. M., & Morales-Pérez, S. (2018). Tourists’ risk perception and the use of mobile devices in beach tourism destinations. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020413
  • Guliling, H. H., & Aziz, Y. A. (2018). Historical Service Quality Assessment of Malaysia’s World Heritage Site. Journal of International Business, Economics and Entrepreneurship, 3(2), 12–22. Retrieved from https://jibe.uitm.edu.my/images/dec2018/Hasnawatifull.pdf
  • Gujarati, D. (2004). Basic Economecrics. Fourth Edition. The McGraw−Hil: New York.
  • Güvenek, B., & Alptekin, V. (2015). Turistlere Yönelik Terör Saldırılarının Turizme Etkisi : Türkiye Üzerine Ampirik Bir Çalışma. Selçuk Üniversitesi / Sosyal Bilimler Meslek Yüksekokulu Dergisi, 17(1), 21–38.
  • Hasan, M. K., Ismail, A. R., & Islam, M. F. (2017). Tourist risk perceptions and revisit intention: A critical review of literature. Cogent Business and Management, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2017.1412874
  • Hashim, N. A. A. N., Noor, M. A. M., Awang, Z., Che Aziz, R., & Yusoff, A. M. (2018). The Influence of Tourist The Influence of Tourist Perceived Risk towards Travel Intention : A Conceptual Paper. International Journal of Academic Research in Business & Social Sciences, 8(16), 92–102. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i16/5120
  • Hosany, S., Prayag, G., Deesilatham, S., Cauševic, S., & Odeh, K. (2015). Measuring Tourists’ Emotional Experiences. Journal of Travel Research, 54(4), 482–495. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287514522878
  • Huang, X., Dai, S., & Xu, H. (2020). Predicting tourists’ health risk preventative behaviour and travelling satisfaction in Tibet: Combining the theory of planned behaviour and health belief model. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2019.100589
  • Huo, Y., & Miller, D. (2007). Satisfaction Measurement of Small Tourism Sector (Museum): Samoa. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 12(2), 103–117. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941660701243331
  • Jacoby, J., & Kaplan, L. B. (1972). The components of perceived risk. ACR special volumes.
  • Jin, N., Line, N. D., & Merkebu, J. (2016). The Impact of Brand Prestige on Trust, Perceived Risk, Satisfaction, and Loyalty in Upscale Restaurants. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 25(5), 523–546. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2015.1063469
  • Karamustafa, K., Fuchs, G., & Reichel, A. (2013). Risk Perceptions of a Mixed-Image Destination: The Case of Turkey’s First-Time Versus Repeat Leisure Visitors. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 22(3), 243–268. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2011.641709
  • Karl, M., Muskat, B., & Ritchie, B. W. (2020). Which travel risks are more salient for destination choice? An examination of the tourist’s decision-making process. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 18(January), 100487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2020.100487
  • Khan, M. J., Khan, F., Amin, S., & Chelliah, S. (2020). Perceived risks, travel constraints, and destination perception: A study on sub-saharan African medical travellers. Sustainability, 12(7), 2807.
  • Kim, L. H., Kim, D. J., & Leong, J. K. (2005). The effect of perceived risk on purchase intention in purchasing airline tickets online. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 13(2), 33–53. https://doi.org/10.1300/J150v13n02_04
  • Kırlar, B., & Ozgen, I. (2020). Turistlerin Terör Riski Algısı ve Riskle Başa Çıkma Davranışları. Anatolia: Tourism Research Journal, 31(2), 125–137. https://doi.org/10.17123/atad.777512
  • Koc, E., & Villi, B. (2021). Transformation of tourism and hospitality customers’ perception of risk and customers’ needs for control. Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Tourism, 6(2), 117–125. https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2021-6-2-117
  • Koçoğlu, C. M. (2016). Risk algısının yeniden satın alma davranışı üzerindeki etkisi: Havayolu sektöründe bir araştırma. Akademik Bakış Dergisi, Eylül-Ekim(57), 246–263.
  • Korstanje, M. (2009). Re-visitng risk perception theory in the context of travel. E-Review of Tourism Research, 7(4), 68–81. Retrieved from http://ertr.tamu.edu
  • Kovačić, S., Jovanović, T., Miljković, D., Lukić, T., Marković, S. B., Vasiljević, D. A., … Ivkov, M. (2019). Are Serbian tourists worried? The effect of psychological factors on tourists’ behavior based on the perceived risk. Open Geosciences, 11(1), 273–287. https://doi.org/10.1515/geo-2019-0022
  • Kozak, M., Crotts, J. C., & Law, R. (2007). The impact of the perception of risk on international travellers. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9(4), 233–242. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.607
  • Larsen, S., Doran, R., & Wolff, K. (2017). How psychology can stimulate tourist experience studies. Visitor experience design, 5, 13-29.
  • Li, Z., Sha, Y., Song, X., Yang, K., ZHao, K., Jiang, Z., & Zhang, Q. (2020). Impact of risk perception on customer purchase behavior: a meta-analysis. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 35(1), 76–96. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBIM-12-2018-0381
  • Lu, H. Y. (2021). An Investigation of Factors Influencing the Risk Perception and Revisit Willingness of Seniors. Asia Pacific Management Review, (xxxx). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmrv.2021.01.002
  • Lv, X., Li, C., & McCabe, S. (2020). Expanding theory of tourists’ destination loyalty: The role of sensory impressions. Tourism Management, 77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.104026
  • Mansfeld, Y., Jonas, A., & Cahaner, L. (2016). Between Tourists’ Faith and Perceptions of Travel Risk. Journal of Travel Research, 55(3), 395–413. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287514550099
  • Maria Gstaettner, A., Rodger, K., & Lee, D. (2017). Visitor perspectives of risk management in a natural tourism setting: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 19(October 2016), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2017.04.001
  • Matiza, T. (2020). Post-Covid-19 crisis travel behaviour: towards mitigating the effects of perceived risk. Journal of Tourism Futures, 2012(April). https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-04-2020-0063
  • Mawby, R. I., Ozascilar, M., & Ziyalar, N. (2021). Risk, safety and security among visitors to Istanbul. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 21(1), 61–72. https://doi.org/10.1177/1467358420948918
  • Nazir, M. U., Yasin, I., & Tat, H. H. (2021). Destination image’s mediating role between perceived risks, perceived constraints, and behavioral intention. Heliyon. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07613
  • Nguyen Viet, B., Dang, H. P., & Nguyen, H. H. (2020). Revisit intention and satisfaction: The role of destination image, perceived risk, and cultural contact. Cogent Business and Management, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2020.1796249
  • Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence Consumer Loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63(1999), 33. https://doi.org/10.2307/1252099
  • Osland, G. E., Mackoy, R., & McCormick, M. (2017). Perceptions of personal risk in tourists’ destination choices: nature tours in Mexico. European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation, 8(1), 38–50. https://doi.org/10.1515/ejthr-2017-0002
  • Ozascilar, M., Mawby, R. I., & Ziyalar, N. (2019). Perceptions of risk on vacation among visitors to Istanbul. Safer Communities, 18(1), 16–29. https://doi.org/10.1108/SC-06-2018-0017
  • Park, S., & Tussyadiah, I. P. (2017). Multidimensional Facets of Perceived Risk in Mobile Travel Booking. Journal of Travel Research, 56(7), 854–867. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287516675062
  • Pelaez, A., Chen, C. W., & Chen, Y. X. (2019). Effects of Perceived Risk on Intention to Purchase: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 59(1), 73–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/08874417.2017.1300514
  • Perić, G., Dramićanin, S., & Conić, M. (2021). The impact of serbian tourists’ risk perception on their travel intentions during the Covid-19 pandemic. European Journal of Tourism Research, 27(1), 1–22.
  • Quintal, V. A., Lee, J. A., & Soutar, G. N. (2010). Risk, uncertainty and the theory of planned behavior: A tourism example. Tourism Management, 31(6), 797–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.08.006
  • Rahmafitria, F., Suryadi, K., Oktadiana, H., Putro, H. P. H., & Rosyidie, A. (2021). Applying knowledge, social concern and perceived risk in planned behavior theory for tourism in the Covid-19 pandemic. Tourism Review, 76(4), 809–828. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-11-2020-0542
  • Rahman, M. K., Gazi, M. A. I., Bhuiyan, M. A., & Rahaman, M. A. (2021). Effect of Covid-19 pandemic on tourist travel risk and management perceptions. Plos One, 16(9), e0256486. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256486
  • Reisinger, Y., & Mavondo, F. (2005). Travel anxiety and intentions to travel internationally: Implications of travel risk perception. Journal of Travel Research, 43(3), 212–225. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287504272017
  • Reisinger, Y., & Mavondo, F. T. (2006). Cultural differences in travel risk perception. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 20(1), 13–31. https://doi.org/10.1300/J073v20n01_02
  • Ritchie, B. W., & Jiang, Y. (2019). A review of research on tourism risk, crisis and disaster management: Launching the annals of tourism research curated collection on tourism risk, crisis and disaster management. Annals of Tourism Research, 79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.102812
  • Ruan, W. Q., Li, Y. Q., & Liu, C. H. S. (2017). Measuring tourism risk impacts on destination image. Sustainability (Switzerland), 9(9), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9091501
  • Savascı, U. (2020). Destinasyon İmajı ve Algılanan riskin, Davranışsal Niyete Etkisi: Bodrum Örneği. Canakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, Seyahat İşletmeciliği ve Turizm Rehberliği Anabilimdalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  • Savaşçı, U., & Yıldırım, H. M. (2021). Destinasyon İmajı ve Algılanan Riskin, Davranışsal Niyete Etkisi: Bodrum Örneği. GSI Journals Serie A: Advancements in Tourism Recreation and Sports Sciences, 4(2), 17–36. https://doi.org/10.53353/atrss.887811
  • Seçilmiş, C., Özdemir, C., & Kılıç, İ. (2021). How travel influencers affect visit intention? The roles of cognitive response, trust, Covid-19 fear and confidence in vaccine. Current Issues in Tourism, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2021.1994528
  • Şen Küpeli, T., & Özer, L. (2020). Assessing perceived risk and perceived value in the hotel industry: an integrated approach. Anatolia An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 31(1), 111–130. https://doi.org/10.1080/13032917.2020.1711785
  • Sert, A. N. (2019). The Impact of Tourist Safety on Risk Reduction Behavior, Recommendation and Revisit Intention: A Case Study on Iranian Tourists in Istanbul. Anemon Journal of Social Sciences of Mus Alp. University, 7(5), 71–82.
  • Sharifpour, M., Walters, G., Ritchie, B. W., & Winter, C. (2014). Investigating the Role of Prior Knowledge in Tourist Decision Making: A Structural Equation Model of Risk Perceptions and Information Search. Journal of Travel Research, 53(3), 307–322. Link
  • Simpson, P. M., & Siguaw, J. A. (2008). Perceived travel risks: The traveller perspective and manageability. International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(4), 315-327.
  • Sofiichuk, K. (2018). Risks of the Tourism Industry in Ukraine. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism. Link
  • Sohn, H. K., Lee, T. J., & Yoon, Y. S. (2016). Relationship between Perceived Risk, Evaluation, Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intention: A Case of Local-Festival Visitors. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 33(1), 28–45. Link
  • Sönmez, S. F., & Graefe, A. R. (1998). Influence of terrorism risk on foreign tourism decisions. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(1), 112–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0160-7383(97)00072-8
  • Supani, I. D., & Abd Hamid, Z. (2020). Risk perception towards international travellers’ destination choice: A case of Sabah. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality & Culinary Arts, 12(1), 1–13.
  • Tavitiyaman, P., & Qu, H. (2013). Destination Image and Behavior Intention of Travelers to Thailand: The Moderating Effect of Perceived Risk. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 30(3), 169–185. Link
  • Teeroovengadum, V., Seetanah, B., Bindah, E., Pooloo, A., & Veerasawmy, I. (2021). Minimising perceived travel risk in the aftermath of the Covid-19 pandemic to boost travel and tourism. Tourism Review, 76(4), 910–928. Link
  • Tiwari, A. K., Das, D., & Dutta, A. (2019). Geopolitical risk, economic policy uncertainty and tourist arrivals: Evidence from a developing country. Tourism Management, 75(May), 323–327. Link
  • Tosun, C., Dedeoğlu, B. B., & Fyall, A. (2015). Destination service quality, affective image and revisit intention: The moderating role of past experience. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 4(4), 222–234. Link
  • Tse, D. K., & Wilton, P. C. (1988). Models of Consumer Satisfaction Formation: An Extension. Journal of Marketing Research, 25(2), 204. Link
  • Turkmendag, T., & Uygur, S. (2020). An Investigation of the Effect of Perceived Risk on Repurchase Intention in Online Vacation Purchases. Tourism Academic Journal, 7(2), 255–266.
  • Ulker-Demirel, E., & Ciftci, G. (2020). A systematic literature review of the theory of planned behavior in tourism, leisure and hospitality management research. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 43(April), 209–219. Link
  • Ünal, A. (2020). Yerli Turistlerin Algıladıkları Seyahat Risklerinin Destinasyo n Satın Alma Süreçlerine Etkilerinin Belirlenmesine Yönelik Bir Araştırma. Iğdır Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergis, (24), 403–424.
  • Vada, S., Prentice, C., Scott, N., & Hsiao, A. (2020). Positive psychology and tourist well-being: A systematic literature review. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33, 100631. Link
  • Wen, J., Kozak, M., Yang, S., & Liu, F. (2021). Covid-19: potential effects on Chinese citizens’ lifestyle and travel. Tourism Review, 76(1), 74–87. Link
  • Wolff, K., Larsen, S., & Øgaard, T. (2019). How to define and measure risk perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 79. Link
  • Xie, C., Zhang, J., & Morrison, A. M. (2021). Developing a Scale to Measure Tourist Perceived Safety. Journal of Travel Research, 60(6), 1232–1251. Link
  • Yamane, T. (2006). Elementary Sampling Theory. New Jersey, United States: Prentice Hall.
  • Yang, C. L., & Nair, V. (2014). Risk Perception Study in Tourism: Are we Really Measuring Perceived Risk? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 144(2006), 322–327. Link
  • Yazid, A. S., Yusof, M. Y. M., Rashid, N., Ghazali, P. L., Salleh, F., Mahmod, M. S., & Mahmood, S. (2018). A Mediating Effect of Risk Perception on Factors Influencing Tourist Intention to Travel: A Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(11), 1246–1255. Link
  • Zhan, L., Zeng, X., Morrison, A. M., Liang, H., & Coca-Stefaniak, J. A. (2020). A risk perception scale for travel to a crisis epicentre: visiting Wuhan after Covid-19. Current Issues in Tourism. Link

Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 81 - 96, 30.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2022-7-1-81

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Aliperti, G., Sandholz, S., Hagenlocher, M., Rizzi, F., Frey, M., & Garschagen, M. (2019). Tourism, crisis, disaster: an interdisciplinary approach. Annals of Tourism Research, 79, 102808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.102808
  • Alrawadieh, Z., Alrawadieh, Z., & Kozak, M. (2019). Exploring the impact of tourist harassment on destination image, tourist expenditure, and destination loyalty. Tourism Management, 73(January), 13–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.01.015
  • Alrawadieh, Z., Prayag, G., Alrawadieh, Z., & Alsalameen, M. (2019). Self-identification with a heritage tourism site, visitors’ engagement and destination loyalty: the mediating effects of overall satisfaction. Service Industries Journal, 2069. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069.2018.1564284
  • An, M., Lee, C., & Noh, Y. (2010). Risk factors at the travel destination: their impact on air travel satisfaction and repurchase intention. Service Business, 4(2), 155–166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11628-010-0094-2
  • Artuğer, S. (2015). The Effect of Risk Perceptions on Tourists ’ Revisit Intentions. European Journal of Business and Management, 7(2), 36–43.
  • Artuğer, S., & Kendir, H. (2014). Yerli Turistlerin Destinasyon Risk Algılamaları: Afyonkarahisar İli Örneği. In 1. International Congress of Tourism and Management Researches.
  • Ateşoğlu, İ., & Türker, A. (2013). Türkiye’de tatil yapan turistlerin algıladıkları risk türleri. Seyahat ve Otel İşletmeciliği Dergis, 10(3), 24–44.
  • Baker, D. A., & Crompton, J. L. (2000). Quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 785–804. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00108-5
  • Baumert, T., de Obesso, M. M., & Valbuena, E. (2020). How does the terrorist experience alter consumer behaviour? An analysis of the Spanish case. Journal of Business Research, 115(June), 357–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.11.085
  • Bayraktaroğlu, E., Gürsoy, S., Günay, F., & Karakuş, Y. (2021). Geopolitical Risks and International Tourist Arrivals to Turkey: a Causality Study. Anais Brasileiros De Estudos Turísticos - ABET, 11. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5771032
  • Beneke, J., Flynn, R., Greig, T., & Mukaiwa, M. (2013). The influence of perceived product quality, relative price and risk on customer value and willingness to buy: a study of private label merchandise. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 22(3), 218–228
  • Bettman, J. R. (1973). Perceived Risk and Its Components: A Model and Empirical Test. Journal of Marketing Research, 10(2), 184. https://doi.org/10.2307/3149824
  • Caber, M., González-Rodríguez, M. R., Albayrak, T., & Simonetti, B. (2020). Does perceived risk really matter in travel behaviour? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 26(3), 334–353. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766720927762
  • Carballo, R. R., León, C. J., & Carballo, M. M. (2017). The perception of risk by international travellers. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 9(5), 534–542. https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-07-2017-0032
  • Casidy, R., & Wymer, W. (2016). A risk worth taking: Perceived risk as moderator of satisfaction, loyalty, and willingness-to-pay premium price. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 32, 189–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2016.06.014
  • Cetinkaya, O., Ozer, Y., & Altuner, G. (2020). Evaluation of touristic travel risk perception and hygiene-safety perception in the Covid-19 process. Tourism and Recreation, 2(2), 78–83.
  • Çetinsöz, B. C. (2011). Uluslararası Seyahatlerde Turistlerin Çekim Yerinde Algıladıkları Risklerin Tekrar Ziyaret Etme Niyetlerine Etkileri. Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Turizm İşletmeciliği Anabilim Dalı.
  • Cetinsoz, B. C., & Ege, Z. (2013). Impacts of perceived risks on tourists’ revisit intentions. Anatolia An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 24(2), 173–187. https://doi.org/10.1080/13032917.2012.743921
  • Çetinsöz, B. C., & Ege, Z. (2012). Turistlerin Demografik Özelliklerine Göre Risk Azaltma Stratejileri: Alanya Örneği. Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 23(2), 159–172. https://doi.org/10.17123/atad.77865
  • Chen, C. F., & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions?. Tourism management, 28(4), 1115-1122.
  • Chen, X., Cheng, Z. F., & Kim, G. B. (2020). Make it memorable: Tourism experience, fun, recommendation and revisit intentions of Chinese outbound tourists. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(5), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051904
  • Chew, E. Y. T., & Jahari, S. A. (2014). Destination image as a mediator between perceived risks and revisit intention: A case of post-disaster Japan. Tourism Management, 40, 382–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2013.07.008
  • Chien, P. M., Sharifpour, M., Ritchie, B. W., & Watson, B. (2017). Travelers’ health risk perceptions and protective behavior: A psychological approach. Journal of Travel Research, 56(6), 744-759.
  • Choo, H. K., Choo, Y. (Clara), & Kang, H. M. (2016). Do sport tourists’ perceived risks affect their involvement and intention to (re)visit? An empirical study for risk-reduction strategies. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 17(1), 19–36. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-02-2016-002
  • Clayton, A., Mustelier, L., & Korstanje, M. E. (2014). Understanding Perceptions and Attitudes to Risk in the Tourism Industry. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 2(1), 2014. Retrieved from https://arrow.dit.ie/ijrtp/vol2/iss1/8
  • Cohen, S. A., Prayag, G., & Moital, M. (2014). Consumer behaviour in tourism: Concepts, influences and opportunities. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(10), 872–909. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2013.850064
  • Cong, L. C. (2021). Perceived risk and destination knowledge in the satisfaction-loyalty intention relationship: An empirical study of european tourists in vietnam. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 33(October 2020), 100343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2020.100343
  • Cui, F., Liu, Y., Chang, Y., Duan, J., & Li, J. (2016). An overview of tourism risk perception. Natural Hazards, 82(1), 643–658. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2208-1
  • Dedeoglu, B. B., Bilgihan, A., Ye, B. H., Buonincontri, P., & Okumus, F. (2018). The impact of servicescape on hedonic value and behavioral intentions: The importance of previous experience. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 72(April 2017), 10–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2017.12.007
  • Dedeoğlu, B. B., & Boğan, E. (2021). The motivations of visiting upscale restaurants during the Covid-19 pandemic: The role of risk perception and trust in government. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 95(February). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2021.102905
  • Deng, R., & Ritchie, B. W. (2018). International university students’ travel risk perceptions: An exploratory study. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(4). https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2016.1142939
  • Eid, R. (2015). Integrating Muslim Customer Perceived Value, Satisfaction, Loyalty and Retention in the Tourism Industry: An empirical study. International Journal of Tourism Research, 17(3), 249–260. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.1982
  • Emami, A., & Ranjbarian, B. (2019). The Perceived Risk of Iran as a Tourism Destination (A Mixed Method Approach). Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 12(1), 45–67. https://doi.org/10.22059/ijms.2018.245946.672909
  • Floyd, M. F., & Pennington-Gray, L. (2004). Profiling risk perceptions of tourists. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 1051–1054. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2004.03.011
  • Fuchs, G., & Reichel, A. (2006). Tourist destination risk perception: The case of Israel. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 14(2), 83–108. https://doi.org/10.1300/J150v14n02_06
  • Fourie, J., Rosselló-Nadal, J., & Santana-Gallego, M. (2020). Fatal attraction: How security threats hurt tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 59(2), 209-219.
  • Soleimani, G. A., & Einolahzadeh, H. (2018). The influence of service quality on revisit intention: The mediating role of WOM and satisfaction (Case study: Guilan travel agencies). Cogent Social Sciences, 4(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2018.1560651
  • Gong, X., & Liang, M. (2019). Study on Risk Perception of Domestic Cruise Tourists. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 252(4), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/252/4/042032
  • González-Reverté, F., Díaz-Luque, P., Gomis-López, J. M., & Morales-Pérez, S. (2018). Tourists’ risk perception and the use of mobile devices in beach tourism destinations. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020413
  • Guliling, H. H., & Aziz, Y. A. (2018). Historical Service Quality Assessment of Malaysia’s World Heritage Site. Journal of International Business, Economics and Entrepreneurship, 3(2), 12–22. Retrieved from https://jibe.uitm.edu.my/images/dec2018/Hasnawatifull.pdf
  • Gujarati, D. (2004). Basic Economecrics. Fourth Edition. The McGraw−Hil: New York.
  • Güvenek, B., & Alptekin, V. (2015). Turistlere Yönelik Terör Saldırılarının Turizme Etkisi : Türkiye Üzerine Ampirik Bir Çalışma. Selçuk Üniversitesi / Sosyal Bilimler Meslek Yüksekokulu Dergisi, 17(1), 21–38.
  • Hasan, M. K., Ismail, A. R., & Islam, M. F. (2017). Tourist risk perceptions and revisit intention: A critical review of literature. Cogent Business and Management, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2017.1412874
  • Hashim, N. A. A. N., Noor, M. A. M., Awang, Z., Che Aziz, R., & Yusoff, A. M. (2018). The Influence of Tourist The Influence of Tourist Perceived Risk towards Travel Intention : A Conceptual Paper. International Journal of Academic Research in Business & Social Sciences, 8(16), 92–102. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i16/5120
  • Hosany, S., Prayag, G., Deesilatham, S., Cauševic, S., & Odeh, K. (2015). Measuring Tourists’ Emotional Experiences. Journal of Travel Research, 54(4), 482–495. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287514522878
  • Huang, X., Dai, S., & Xu, H. (2020). Predicting tourists’ health risk preventative behaviour and travelling satisfaction in Tibet: Combining the theory of planned behaviour and health belief model. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2019.100589
  • Huo, Y., & Miller, D. (2007). Satisfaction Measurement of Small Tourism Sector (Museum): Samoa. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 12(2), 103–117. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941660701243331
  • Jacoby, J., & Kaplan, L. B. (1972). The components of perceived risk. ACR special volumes.
  • Jin, N., Line, N. D., & Merkebu, J. (2016). The Impact of Brand Prestige on Trust, Perceived Risk, Satisfaction, and Loyalty in Upscale Restaurants. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 25(5), 523–546. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2015.1063469
  • Karamustafa, K., Fuchs, G., & Reichel, A. (2013). Risk Perceptions of a Mixed-Image Destination: The Case of Turkey’s First-Time Versus Repeat Leisure Visitors. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 22(3), 243–268. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2011.641709
  • Karl, M., Muskat, B., & Ritchie, B. W. (2020). Which travel risks are more salient for destination choice? An examination of the tourist’s decision-making process. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 18(January), 100487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2020.100487
  • Khan, M. J., Khan, F., Amin, S., & Chelliah, S. (2020). Perceived risks, travel constraints, and destination perception: A study on sub-saharan African medical travellers. Sustainability, 12(7), 2807.
  • Kim, L. H., Kim, D. J., & Leong, J. K. (2005). The effect of perceived risk on purchase intention in purchasing airline tickets online. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 13(2), 33–53. https://doi.org/10.1300/J150v13n02_04
  • Kırlar, B., & Ozgen, I. (2020). Turistlerin Terör Riski Algısı ve Riskle Başa Çıkma Davranışları. Anatolia: Tourism Research Journal, 31(2), 125–137. https://doi.org/10.17123/atad.777512
  • Koc, E., & Villi, B. (2021). Transformation of tourism and hospitality customers’ perception of risk and customers’ needs for control. Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Tourism, 6(2), 117–125. https://doi.org/10.31822/jomat.2021-6-2-117
  • Koçoğlu, C. M. (2016). Risk algısının yeniden satın alma davranışı üzerindeki etkisi: Havayolu sektöründe bir araştırma. Akademik Bakış Dergisi, Eylül-Ekim(57), 246–263.
  • Korstanje, M. (2009). Re-visitng risk perception theory in the context of travel. E-Review of Tourism Research, 7(4), 68–81. Retrieved from http://ertr.tamu.edu
  • Kovačić, S., Jovanović, T., Miljković, D., Lukić, T., Marković, S. B., Vasiljević, D. A., … Ivkov, M. (2019). Are Serbian tourists worried? The effect of psychological factors on tourists’ behavior based on the perceived risk. Open Geosciences, 11(1), 273–287. https://doi.org/10.1515/geo-2019-0022
  • Kozak, M., Crotts, J. C., & Law, R. (2007). The impact of the perception of risk on international travellers. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9(4), 233–242. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.607
  • Larsen, S., Doran, R., & Wolff, K. (2017). How psychology can stimulate tourist experience studies. Visitor experience design, 5, 13-29.
  • Li, Z., Sha, Y., Song, X., Yang, K., ZHao, K., Jiang, Z., & Zhang, Q. (2020). Impact of risk perception on customer purchase behavior: a meta-analysis. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 35(1), 76–96. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBIM-12-2018-0381
  • Lu, H. Y. (2021). An Investigation of Factors Influencing the Risk Perception and Revisit Willingness of Seniors. Asia Pacific Management Review, (xxxx). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmrv.2021.01.002
  • Lv, X., Li, C., & McCabe, S. (2020). Expanding theory of tourists’ destination loyalty: The role of sensory impressions. Tourism Management, 77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.104026
  • Mansfeld, Y., Jonas, A., & Cahaner, L. (2016). Between Tourists’ Faith and Perceptions of Travel Risk. Journal of Travel Research, 55(3), 395–413. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287514550099
  • Maria Gstaettner, A., Rodger, K., & Lee, D. (2017). Visitor perspectives of risk management in a natural tourism setting: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 19(October 2016), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2017.04.001
  • Matiza, T. (2020). Post-Covid-19 crisis travel behaviour: towards mitigating the effects of perceived risk. Journal of Tourism Futures, 2012(April). https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-04-2020-0063
  • Mawby, R. I., Ozascilar, M., & Ziyalar, N. (2021). Risk, safety and security among visitors to Istanbul. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 21(1), 61–72. https://doi.org/10.1177/1467358420948918
  • Nazir, M. U., Yasin, I., & Tat, H. H. (2021). Destination image’s mediating role between perceived risks, perceived constraints, and behavioral intention. Heliyon. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07613
  • Nguyen Viet, B., Dang, H. P., & Nguyen, H. H. (2020). Revisit intention and satisfaction: The role of destination image, perceived risk, and cultural contact. Cogent Business and Management, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2020.1796249
  • Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence Consumer Loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63(1999), 33. https://doi.org/10.2307/1252099
  • Osland, G. E., Mackoy, R., & McCormick, M. (2017). Perceptions of personal risk in tourists’ destination choices: nature tours in Mexico. European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation, 8(1), 38–50. https://doi.org/10.1515/ejthr-2017-0002
  • Ozascilar, M., Mawby, R. I., & Ziyalar, N. (2019). Perceptions of risk on vacation among visitors to Istanbul. Safer Communities, 18(1), 16–29. https://doi.org/10.1108/SC-06-2018-0017
  • Park, S., & Tussyadiah, I. P. (2017). Multidimensional Facets of Perceived Risk in Mobile Travel Booking. Journal of Travel Research, 56(7), 854–867. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287516675062
  • Pelaez, A., Chen, C. W., & Chen, Y. X. (2019). Effects of Perceived Risk on Intention to Purchase: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 59(1), 73–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/08874417.2017.1300514
  • Perić, G., Dramićanin, S., & Conić, M. (2021). The impact of serbian tourists’ risk perception on their travel intentions during the Covid-19 pandemic. European Journal of Tourism Research, 27(1), 1–22.
  • Quintal, V. A., Lee, J. A., & Soutar, G. N. (2010). Risk, uncertainty and the theory of planned behavior: A tourism example. Tourism Management, 31(6), 797–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.08.006
  • Rahmafitria, F., Suryadi, K., Oktadiana, H., Putro, H. P. H., & Rosyidie, A. (2021). Applying knowledge, social concern and perceived risk in planned behavior theory for tourism in the Covid-19 pandemic. Tourism Review, 76(4), 809–828. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-11-2020-0542
  • Rahman, M. K., Gazi, M. A. I., Bhuiyan, M. A., & Rahaman, M. A. (2021). Effect of Covid-19 pandemic on tourist travel risk and management perceptions. Plos One, 16(9), e0256486. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256486
  • Reisinger, Y., & Mavondo, F. (2005). Travel anxiety and intentions to travel internationally: Implications of travel risk perception. Journal of Travel Research, 43(3), 212–225. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287504272017
  • Reisinger, Y., & Mavondo, F. T. (2006). Cultural differences in travel risk perception. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 20(1), 13–31. https://doi.org/10.1300/J073v20n01_02
  • Ritchie, B. W., & Jiang, Y. (2019). A review of research on tourism risk, crisis and disaster management: Launching the annals of tourism research curated collection on tourism risk, crisis and disaster management. Annals of Tourism Research, 79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.102812
  • Ruan, W. Q., Li, Y. Q., & Liu, C. H. S. (2017). Measuring tourism risk impacts on destination image. Sustainability (Switzerland), 9(9), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9091501
  • Savascı, U. (2020). Destinasyon İmajı ve Algılanan riskin, Davranışsal Niyete Etkisi: Bodrum Örneği. Canakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü, Seyahat İşletmeciliği ve Turizm Rehberliği Anabilimdalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  • Savaşçı, U., & Yıldırım, H. M. (2021). Destinasyon İmajı ve Algılanan Riskin, Davranışsal Niyete Etkisi: Bodrum Örneği. GSI Journals Serie A: Advancements in Tourism Recreation and Sports Sciences, 4(2), 17–36. https://doi.org/10.53353/atrss.887811
  • Seçilmiş, C., Özdemir, C., & Kılıç, İ. (2021). How travel influencers affect visit intention? The roles of cognitive response, trust, Covid-19 fear and confidence in vaccine. Current Issues in Tourism, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2021.1994528
  • Şen Küpeli, T., & Özer, L. (2020). Assessing perceived risk and perceived value in the hotel industry: an integrated approach. Anatolia An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 31(1), 111–130. https://doi.org/10.1080/13032917.2020.1711785
  • Sert, A. N. (2019). The Impact of Tourist Safety on Risk Reduction Behavior, Recommendation and Revisit Intention: A Case Study on Iranian Tourists in Istanbul. Anemon Journal of Social Sciences of Mus Alp. University, 7(5), 71–82.
  • Sharifpour, M., Walters, G., Ritchie, B. W., & Winter, C. (2014). Investigating the Role of Prior Knowledge in Tourist Decision Making: A Structural Equation Model of Risk Perceptions and Information Search. Journal of Travel Research, 53(3), 307–322. Link
  • Simpson, P. M., & Siguaw, J. A. (2008). Perceived travel risks: The traveller perspective and manageability. International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(4), 315-327.
  • Sofiichuk, K. (2018). Risks of the Tourism Industry in Ukraine. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism. Link
  • Sohn, H. K., Lee, T. J., & Yoon, Y. S. (2016). Relationship between Perceived Risk, Evaluation, Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intention: A Case of Local-Festival Visitors. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 33(1), 28–45. Link
  • Sönmez, S. F., & Graefe, A. R. (1998). Influence of terrorism risk on foreign tourism decisions. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(1), 112–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0160-7383(97)00072-8
  • Supani, I. D., & Abd Hamid, Z. (2020). Risk perception towards international travellers’ destination choice: A case of Sabah. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality & Culinary Arts, 12(1), 1–13.
  • Tavitiyaman, P., & Qu, H. (2013). Destination Image and Behavior Intention of Travelers to Thailand: The Moderating Effect of Perceived Risk. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 30(3), 169–185. Link
  • Teeroovengadum, V., Seetanah, B., Bindah, E., Pooloo, A., & Veerasawmy, I. (2021). Minimising perceived travel risk in the aftermath of the Covid-19 pandemic to boost travel and tourism. Tourism Review, 76(4), 910–928. Link
  • Tiwari, A. K., Das, D., & Dutta, A. (2019). Geopolitical risk, economic policy uncertainty and tourist arrivals: Evidence from a developing country. Tourism Management, 75(May), 323–327. Link
  • Tosun, C., Dedeoğlu, B. B., & Fyall, A. (2015). Destination service quality, affective image and revisit intention: The moderating role of past experience. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 4(4), 222–234. Link
  • Tse, D. K., & Wilton, P. C. (1988). Models of Consumer Satisfaction Formation: An Extension. Journal of Marketing Research, 25(2), 204. Link
  • Turkmendag, T., & Uygur, S. (2020). An Investigation of the Effect of Perceived Risk on Repurchase Intention in Online Vacation Purchases. Tourism Academic Journal, 7(2), 255–266.
  • Ulker-Demirel, E., & Ciftci, G. (2020). A systematic literature review of the theory of planned behavior in tourism, leisure and hospitality management research. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 43(April), 209–219. Link
  • Ünal, A. (2020). Yerli Turistlerin Algıladıkları Seyahat Risklerinin Destinasyo n Satın Alma Süreçlerine Etkilerinin Belirlenmesine Yönelik Bir Araştırma. Iğdır Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergis, (24), 403–424.
  • Vada, S., Prentice, C., Scott, N., & Hsiao, A. (2020). Positive psychology and tourist well-being: A systematic literature review. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33, 100631. Link
  • Wen, J., Kozak, M., Yang, S., & Liu, F. (2021). Covid-19: potential effects on Chinese citizens’ lifestyle and travel. Tourism Review, 76(1), 74–87. Link
  • Wolff, K., Larsen, S., & Øgaard, T. (2019). How to define and measure risk perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 79. Link
  • Xie, C., Zhang, J., & Morrison, A. M. (2021). Developing a Scale to Measure Tourist Perceived Safety. Journal of Travel Research, 60(6), 1232–1251. Link
  • Yamane, T. (2006). Elementary Sampling Theory. New Jersey, United States: Prentice Hall.
  • Yang, C. L., & Nair, V. (2014). Risk Perception Study in Tourism: Are we Really Measuring Perceived Risk? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 144(2006), 322–327. Link
  • Yazid, A. S., Yusof, M. Y. M., Rashid, N., Ghazali, P. L., Salleh, F., Mahmod, M. S., & Mahmood, S. (2018). A Mediating Effect of Risk Perception on Factors Influencing Tourist Intention to Travel: A Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(11), 1246–1255. Link
  • Zhan, L., Zeng, X., Morrison, A. M., Liang, H., & Coca-Stefaniak, J. A. (2020). A risk perception scale for travel to a crisis epicentre: visiting Wuhan after Covid-19. Current Issues in Tourism. Link

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Otelcilik, Konaklama, Spor ve Turizm
Yayınlanma Tarihi July (First Published Online 26-01-2022)
Bölüm Contents
Yazarlar

Ali Rıza MANCI (Sorumlu Yazar)
HARRAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-4618-5891
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Temmuz 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 7, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Mancı, A. R. (2022). Determining destination risk perceptions, their effects on satisfaction, revisit and recommendation intentions: Evidence from Sanliurfa/Turkey . Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Tourism , 7 (1) , 81-96 . DOI: 10.31822/jomat.2022-7-1-81