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A Survey on Various Methods of Extraction and Recovery of Thorium

Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 4, 1197 - 1210, 30.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.18596/jotcsa.955211

Öz

In this survey, some methods of extraction of thorium such as selective extraction of thorium using phosphorodiamidate, selective cloud point extraction of thorium, extraction of thorium from sulfuric acid baking and leaching of monazite, extraction of thorium from chloride solution using Schiff base were discussed. The decomposition of monazite was manifested by sulfuric acid baking and leaching at an elated temperature. The recovery of thorium (Th) from various sources of rare earth and some selective extraction of thorium by using phosphorodiamidate as an extractant was also reported. Using a special synthesized surface-active ionic liquid extractant (SAIL), the cloud point extraction of thorium was analyzed. A synthesized Schiff base was applied for the extraction of thorium in the strategic solvent extraction method. Thorium, using α-amino phosphate extractant from bastnaesite, recovered by using Cyanex 572 and N1923, recovery of Th from industrial residues and recovery of Th from radioactive waste by using IREPO and monazite leached solution were discussed. In this study, the recovery of thorium from the industrial residue as well as from radioactive residue was also discussed.

Kaynakça

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Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 4, 1197 - 1210, 30.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.18596/jotcsa.955211

Öz

Kaynakça

  • 1. Aziman ES, Ismail AF, Muttalib NA, Hanifah MS. Investigation of thorium separation from rare-earth extraction residue via electrosorption with carbon based electrode toward reducing waste volume. Nuclear Engineering and Technology. 2021 Sep;53(9):2926–36.
  • 2. Kademani B, Vijai K, Anil S, Anil K, Lalit M, Surwase G. Scientometric dimensions of thorium research in India. DESIDOC Bull Inf Technol. 2006;26(3):9–25.
  • 3. Balakrishna P. ThO2 and (U,Th)O2 processing—A review. NS. 2012;04(11):943–9.
  • 4. Humphrey UE, Khandaker MU. Viability of thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle for the next generation nuclear reactor: Issues and prospects. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2018 Dec;97:259–75.
  • 5. Badash L. The discovery of thorium’s radioactivity. J Chem Educ. 1966 Apr;43(4):219.
  • 6. Ünak T. What is the potential use of thorium in the future energy production technology? Progress in Nuclear Energy. 2000 Jan;37(1–4):137–44.
  • 7. Wilson D. The use of thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel [Internet]. Australian Atomic Energy Commission; 1982 [cited 2021 Nov 1]. <URL>.
  • 8. Lu Y, Wei H, Zhang Z, Li Y, Wu G, Liao W. Selective extraction and separation of thorium from rare earths by a phosphorodiamidate extractant. Hydrometallurgy. 2016 Aug;163:192–7.
  • 9. Tani H, Kamidate T, Watanabe H. Micelle-mediated extraction. Journal of Chromatography A. 1997 Sep;780(1–2):229–41.
  • 10. Gupta CK, Krishnamurthy N. Extractive metallurgy of rare earths. International Materials Reviews. 1992 Jan;37(1):197–248.
  • 11. Cheira MF, Orabi AS, Hassanin MA, Hassan SM. Solvent extraction of thorium (IV) from chloride solution using Schiff base and its application for spectrophotometric determination. Chemical Data Collections. 2018 Mar;13–14:84–103.
  • 12. Eskandari Nasab M. Solvent extraction separation of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) with neutral organophosphorus and amine ligands. Fuel. 2014 Jan;116:595–600.
  • 13. Tan M, Huang C, Ding S, Li F, Li Q, Zhang L, et al. Highly efficient extraction separation of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) from nitric acid solution with di(1-methyl-heptyl) methyl phosphonate. Separation and Purification Technology. 2015 May;146:192–8.
  • 14. Dong Y, Li S, Su X, Wang Y, Shen Y, Sun X. Separation of thorium from rare earths with high-performance diphenyl phosphate extractant. Hydrometallurgy. 2017 Aug;171:387–93.
  • 15. Kalina DG, Mason GW, Philip Horwitz E. The thermodynamics of extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) from nitric acid by neutral phosphorus-based organic compounds. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry. 1981 Jan;43(1):159–63.
  • 16. Lu Y, Bi Y, Bai Y, Liao W. Extraction and separation of thorium and rare earths from nitrate medium with p -phosphorylated calixarene: Extraction and separation of thorium and rare earths with calixarene derivative. J Chem Technol Biotechnol. 2013 Oct;88(10):1836–40.
  • 17. Sun X, Dong Y, Wang Y, Chai Y. The synergistic extraction of heavy rare earth elements using EHEHP-type and BTMPP-type functional ionic liquids. RSC Adv. 2015;5(61):49500–7.
  • 18. Prabhu DR, Sengupta A, Murali MS, Pathak PN. Role of diluents in the comparative extraction of Th(IV), U(VI) and other relevant metal ions by DHOA and TBP from nitric acid media and simulated wastes: Reprocessing of U–Th based fuel in perspective. Hydrometallurgy. 2015 Dec;158:132–8.
  • 19. Bezerra MA, Ferreira da Mata Cerqueira UM, Ferreira SLC, Novaes CG, Novais FC, Valasques GS, et al. Recent developments in the application of cloud point extraction as procedure for speciation of trace elements. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews. 2021 May 12;1–15.
  • 20. Bezerra M de A, Arruda MAZ, Ferreira SLC. Cloud Point Extraction as a Procedure of Separation and Pre‐Concentration for Metal Determination Using Spectroanalytical Techniques: A Review. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews. 2005 Nov;40(4):269–99.
  • 21. Liu J, Liu R, Yin Y, Jiang G. Triton X-114 based cloud point extraction: a thermoreversible approach for separation/concentration and dispersion of nanomaterials in the aqueous phase. Chem Commun. 2009;(12):1514.
  • 22. Bezerra M de A, Arruda MAZ, Ferreira SLC. Cloud Point Extraction as a Procedure of Separation and Pre‐Concentration for Metal Determination Using Spectroanalytical Techniques: A Review. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews. 2005 Nov;40(4):269–99.
  • 23. Khalifa ME, Kenawy IMM, Hassanien MM, Elnagar MM. Mixed Micelle-mediated Extraction and Separation of Scandium from Yttrium and Some Lanthanide Ions. Anal Sci. 2016;32(4):395–400.
  • 24. Stalikas CD. Micelle-mediated extraction as a tool for separation and preconcentration in metal analysis. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 2002 May;21(5):343–55.
  • 25. Ravi Kumar K, Shyamala P. Catanionic mixed micellar cloud point extraction of metal ions in coal fly ash samples and their determination by CS-ETAAS. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2019 Jun;7(3):103119. <DOI> .
  • 26. Akl ZF, Hegazy MA. Selective cloud point extraction of thorium (IV) using tetraazonium based ionic liquid. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2020 Oct;8(5):104185. 27. Demol J, Ho E, Senanayake G. Sulfuric acid baking and leaching of rare earth elements, thorium and phosphate from a monazite concentrate: Effect of bake temperature from 200 to 800 °C. Hydrometallurgy. 2018 Aug;179:254–67.
  • 28. Xie F, Zhang TA, Dreisinger D, Doyle F. A critical review on solvent extraction of rare earths from aqueous solutions. Minerals Engineering. 2014 Feb;56:10–28.
  • 29. Zhu Z, Pranolo Y, Cheng CY. Separation of uranium and thorium from rare earths for rare earth production – A review. Minerals Engineering. 2015 Jun;77:185–96.
  • 30. Zhang Z, Jia Q, Liao W. Progress in the Separation Processes for Rare Earth Resources. In: Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths [Internet]. Elsevier; 2015 [cited 2021 Nov 1]. p. 287–376.
  • 31. Teixeira LAV, Silva RG, Majuste D, Ciminelli V. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Complex Monazite Ores. In: Davis BR, Moats MS, Wang S, Gregurek D, Kapusta J, Battle TP, et al., editors. Extraction 2018 [Internet]. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2018. p. 2381–90. (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series). Available from: <URL>.
  • 32. Moustafa MI, Abdelfattah NA. Physical and Chemical Beneficiation of the Egyptian Beach Monazite: Beneficiation of monazite. Resource Geology. 2010 Aug 24;60(3):288–99.
  • 33. Lim H, Ibana D, Eksteen J. Leaching of rare earths from fine-grained zirconosilicate ore. Journal of Rare Earths. 2016 Sep;34(9):908–16.
  • 34. Berry L, Agarwal V, Galvin J, Safarzadeh MS. Decomposition of monazite concentrate in sulphuric acid. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly. 2018 Oct 2;57(4):422–33.
  • 35. Kumari A, Jha MK, Yoo K, Panda R, Lee JY, Kumar JR, et al. Advanced process to dephosphorize monazite for effective leaching of rare earth metals (REMs). Hydrometallurgy. 2019 Aug;187:203–11.
  • 36. Chung KW, Yoon H-S, Kim C-J, Lee J-Y, Jyothi RK. Solvent extraction, separation and recovery of thorium from Korean monazite leach liquors for nuclear industry applications. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 2020 Mar;83:72–80.
  • 37. Demol J, Ho E, Soldenhoff K, Senanayake G. The sulfuric acid bake and leach route for processing of rare earth ores and concentrates: A review. Hydrometallurgy. 2019 Sep;188:123–39.
  • 38. Mccoy H. Method of manufacturing thorium nitrate. US 1,366,128.
  • 39. Pilkington ES, Wylie AW. Production of rare earth and thorium compounds from monazite. Part I. J Chem Technol Biotechnol. 1947 Nov;66(11):387–94.
  • 40. Urie RW. Pilot plant production of rare earth hydroxides and thorium oxalate from monazite. J Chem Technol Biotechnol. 1947 Dec;66(12):437–9.
  • 41. Shaw K. A process for separating thorium compounds from monazite sands [PhD Thesis]. Iowa State University; 1953.
  • 42. Barghusen J, Smutz M. Processing of Monazite Sands. Ind Eng Chem. 1958 Dec;50(12):1754–5.
  • 43. Borrowman S, Rosenbaum J. Recovery of thorium from a Wyoming ore. US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines; 1962.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Kimya, Ortak Disiplinler, Kimya, Uygulamalı
Bölüm DERLEME MAKALELER
Yazarlar

Sugyani DASH Bu kişi benim
GIET University, Gunupur, Odisha, India-765022
0000-0003-1005-9500
India


Pallabi HIAL Bu kişi benim
GIET University, Gunupur, Odisha, India-765022
0000-0003-0245-6960
India


Sagarkanya SENAPATI Bu kişi benim
GIET University, Gunupur, Odisha, India-765022
0000-0002-2564-4094
India


Biswajit DALAİ (Sorumlu Yazar)
GIET University, Gunupur
0000-0001-8401-7501
India

Teşekkür The authors are thankful to the Dr. Bipin B. Swain, former Professor of Khallikote University, Berhampur, India; Dr. Wael I. Mortada, Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt; Dr. Zeinab Farouk Hassan AKL, Nuclear Safeguards and Physical Protection Department, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA), Egypt; Dr. Liao Wuping, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, China and Dr. Mohammed Farid Cheira, Research Sector, Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo, Egypt for their valuable inputs in preparing our review article.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Kasım 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 23 Haziran 2021
Kabul Tarihi 27 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Vancouver Dash S. , Hıal P. , Senapatı S. , Dalai B. A Survey on Various Methods of Extraction and Recovery of Thorium. Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section A: Chemistry. 2021; 8(4): 1197-1210.
J. Turk. Chem. Soc., Sect. A: Chem.