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Göksu Nehri su kalitesinin su kalite endeksi yöntemi ile uzun süreli izleme verileri kullanılarak değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2020, Cilt 2, Sayı 1, 5 - 12, 30.06.2020

Öz

Bu çalışma Göksu Nehrinin Kuzeydoğu Akdeniz’e dökülen sularındaki su kalitesini tespit etmek ve yıllara bağlı olan değişimini incelemek için yapılmıştır. Devlet Su İşleri (DSİ) tarafından Göksu Nehrinin mansabında 1992-2017 yılları arasında mevsimlik olarak yapılan sıcaklık (oC), nitrit (NO2-), nitrat (NO3-), amonyum (NH4+), biyolojik oksijen ihtiyacı (BOI5), kimyasal oksijen ihtiyacı (KOİ), çözünmüş oksijen (ÇO), pH, sülfat (SO42-), sodyum (Na+), toplam çözünmüş katı madde (TÇK) parametrelerine ait ölçüm sonuçları açısından değerlendirilmiştir. Parametrelere ait yıllık ortalama konsantrasyon değerleri Su Kirliliği Kontrolü Yönetmeliği ile karşılaştırıldığında su kalitesinin pH, ÇO, KOİ, SO42-, Na+, TÇK, NO3- parametreleri bakımından 1. sınıf, BOİ parametresi bakımından 1.sınıf ile 2. sınıf arasında değişmekte ve NO2-, NH4+ parametreleri bakımından 1. sınıf ile 4. sınıf arası değişmekte olduğu tespitedilmiştir. Parametreler arası su kalitesinde gözlemlenen bu değişimleri en doğruşekilde değerlendirilebilmek için su kalite endeksi kullanılmıştır. 2010’lu yıllarakadar su kalite endeksinde önemli bir değişiklik gözlemlenmezken, 2014 yılında maksimum seviye olan 2873’e ulaşmış ve ardından tekrar azalmaya başlamıştır. Mevsimlere bağlı olarak da su kalitesinde değişimler olduğu, yaz aylarında artan buharlaşma sonucunda su kalitesinde önemli bir düşüş olduğu tespit edilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Akçay, İ. & Tuğrul, S. (2018). Riverine nutrient inputs to the Mersin Bay, northeastern Mediterranean. Internatıonal Marine & Freshwater Sciences Symposium, Antalya, Turkey. Proceedings Book, 56-61.
  • Akiner, I. & Akiner, E. (2010). Sustainable urban development: a case study on Goksu Delta. Conference on Water Observation and Information System for Decision Support,Balwoıs. Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia. Proceedings Book, 1-14.
  • Akoteyon, I. S., Omotayo, A. O., Soladoye, O. & Olaoye, H. O. (2011). Determination of water quality index and suitability of urban river for municipal water supply in Lagos-Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research, 54(2): 263-271.
  • Alam, M. & Pathak, J. K. (2010). Rapid assessment of water quality index of Ramganga river, Western Uttar Pradesh (India) using a computer programme. Nature and Science, 8(11): 1-8.
  • Ali, E. M., & Khairy, H. M. (2016). Environmental assessment of drainage water impacts on water quality and eutrophication level of Lake Idku, Egypt. Environmental Pollution, 216: 437-449.
  • Al-Qutob, M., Hase, C., Tilzer, M. M. & Lazar, B. (2002). Phytoplankton drives nitrite dynamics in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 239: 233-239.
  • Ayaz S., Koyunluoğlu A. Ş., Atasoy A. E., Erdoğan N., Metin E., Doğan Ö., Uyuşur B., Haksevenler B. H. G., Dilaver M., Beşiktaş M., Kalay B., Aydöner C., Sarıkaya Ö. & Akyol O. (2013). Havza Koruma Eylem Planlarının Hazırlanması Projesi. Doğu Akdeniz Havzası Nihai Raporu. TUBITAK MAM. Gebze, Kocaeli.
  • Belal, A. A. M., El-Sawy, M. A. & Dar, M. A. (2016). The effect of water quality on the distribution of macro-benthic fauna in Western Lagoon and Timsah Lake, Egypt. I. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 42(4): 437-448.
  • Boskidis, I., Gikas, G. D., Pisinaras, V. & Tsihrintzis, V. A. (2010). Spatial and temporal changes of water quality, and SWAT modeling of Vosvozis river basin, North Greece. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering, 45(11): 1421–1440.
  • Boyacioglu, H. & Boyacioglu, H. (2008). Water pollution sources assessment by multivariate statistical methods in the Tahtali Basin, Turkey. Environmental Geology, 54(2): 275-282.
  • Demirel, Z., Özer, Z. & Özer, O. (2011). Investigation and modeling of water quality of Göksu River (Cleadnos) in an international protected area by using GIS. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 21(3): 429-440.
  • DSİ, (2019). Rasatlar Bilgi Sistemi. Retrieved on December 10, 2019 from: http://svtbilgi.dsi.gov.tr/Bilgi.aspx?istasyon=D17A053%20KARGICAK%20G%C3%96KSU%20N.
  • EMCC, (2020). Eastern Mediterranean climate center. Retrieved on January 08, 2020 from:http://www.emcc.mgm.gov.tr/archive-view.aspx?y=2014&m=02
  • Gałczyńska M., Gamrat R., Burczyk P., Horak A. & Kot M. (2013). The influence of human impact and water surface stability on the concentration of selected mineral macroelements in mid-field ponds. Water-Environment-Rural Areas, 3(3/43): 41-54.
  • Gonzalez, S. O., Almeida, C. A., Calderón, M., Mallea, M. A. & González, P. (2014). Assessment of the water self-purification capacity on a river affected by organic pollution: application of chemometrics in spatial and temporal variations. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(18): 10583-10593.
  • Horton, R. K. (1965). An index number system for rating water quality. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, 37(3): 300-306.
  • Icaga, Y. (2007). Fuzzy evaluation of water quality classification. Ecological Indicators, 7: 710-718.
  • Kazi, T. G., Arain, M. B., Jamali, M. K., Jalbani, N., Afridi, H. I., Sarfraz, R. A., Baig, J. A. & Shah, A. Q. (2009). Assessment of water quality of polluted lake using multivariate statistical techniques: a case study. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 72(2): 301-309.
  • Kılıç E. (2017). Asi Havzasındaki Su Kalitesinin Çok Değişkeli İstatistiksel Yöntemler Kullanılarak Değerlendirilmesi. Yükseklisans Tezi. İskenderun Teknik Üniversitesi Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Hatay, Türkiye, 77 s.
  • Kılıç, E. & Yücel, N. (2019). Determination of spatial and temporal changes in water quality at Asi River using multivariate statistical techniques. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 19(9): 727-737.
  • Kılıç, E., Akpınar, A. & Yücel, N. (2018). The Asi River’s estimated nutrient load and effects on the eastern Mediterranean. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, 33(2): 61-66.
  • Kowalkowski, T., Zbytniewski, R., Szpejna, J. & Buszewski, B. (2006). Application of chemometrics in river water classification. Water Research, 40(4): 744–752.
  • Kükrer, S. & Mutlu, E. (2019). Assessment of surface water quality using water quality index and multivariate statistical analyses in Saraydüzü Dam Lake, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191(2): 71.
  • Liou, S. M., Lo, S. L. & Wang, S. H. (2004). A generalized water quality index for Taiwan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 96(1): 35-52.
  • Mutlu, E. (2019). Evaluation of spatio-temporal variations in water quality of Zerveli stream (northern Turkey) based on water quality index and multivariate statistical analyses. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191(6): 335.
  • Nasiri, F., Maqsood, I., Huang, G. & Fuller, N. (2007). Water Quality Index: a fuzzy river pollution decision support expert system. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 133(2): 95-105.
  • Nassar, M. Z. & Hamed, M. A. (2003). Phytoplankton standing crop and species diversity in relation to some water characteristics of Suez Lagoon (Red Sea). Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 7(3): 25-48.
  • Nassar, M. Z., Ismail L. M. & El Sawy M. A. (2016). Seasonal variations of phytoplankton and nutrients in the egyptian harbors of the Northern Red Sea. International Journal of Marine Science, 6(9): 1-17.
  • Ogwueleka, T. C. (2015). Use of multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of temporal and spatial variations in water quality of the Kaduna River, Nigeria. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187: 135.
  • Orem, W. H., Gilmour, C. C., Krabbenhoft, D. P. & Aiken, G. A. (2011). Sulfate as a contaminant in freshwater ecosystems: Sources, impacts and mitigation. US Geological Survey. Retrieved on February 23, 2020 from http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/ncer2011/Presentations/Wednesday/Waterview%20C-D/am/0850_Orem.pdf.
  • Rasoloariniaina, J. R. (2017). Physico-chemical water characteristics and aquatic macroinverteb rates of Lake Tsimanampesotse, south-western Madagascar. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 42(2): 191-199.
  • Ruždjak, A. M. & Ruždjak, D. (2015). Evaluation of river water quality variations using multivariate statistical techniques. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(4): 1-14.
  • Sadat-Noori, S. M., Ebrahimi, K. & Liaghat, A. M. (2014). Groundwater quality assessment using the Water Quality Index and GIS in Saveh-Nobaran aquifer, Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(9): 3827-3843.
  • Selvam, S., Manimaran, G., Sivasubramanian, P., Balasubramanian, N. & Seshunarayana, T. (2014). GIS-based evaluation of water quality index of groundwater resources around Tuticorin coastal city, South India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(6): 2847-2867.
  • Singh, H., Singh, D., Singh, S. K. & Shukla, D. N. (2017). Assessment of river water quality and ecological diversity through multivariate statistical techniques, and earth observation dataset of rivers Ghaghara and Gandak, India. International Journal of River Basin Management, 15(3): 347-360.
  • Smith, V. H., Tilnan, G. D. & Nekola, J. C. (1999). Eutrophication: impacts of excess nutrient inputs of freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Environmental Pollution, 100: 179-196.
  • Snyder, J. (2007). Dissolved Oxygen. Retrieved on February 23, 2020 from http://www.seagrant.sunysb.edu/oli/Water%20Quality/DissolvedOxygen.html2013.
  • Şener, Ş., Şener, E. & Davraz, A. (2017). Evaluation of water quality using water quality index (WQI) method and GIS in Aksu River (SW-Turkey). Science of the Total Environment, 584–585: 131-144.
  • Tyagi, S., Sharma, B., Singh, P. & Dobhal, R. (2013). Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index. American Journal of Water Resources, 1(3): 34-38.
  • Yıldırım, Ü., Güler, C., Kurt, M. A. & Geçgel, C. (2018). Göksu Nehri akış yolu boyunca ana element değişimlerinin İncelenmesi. HİDRO’2018: Ulusal Hidrojeoloji ve Su Kaynakları Sempozyumu, Ankara, Turkey. Proceedings Book, 206-213.
  • Yisa, J. & Jimoh, T. (2010). Analytical studies on water quality index of river Landzu. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(4): 453-458.
  • Yücel, N. (2013). Monthly changes in primary and bacterial productivity in the North – Eastern Mediterranean shelf waters. PhD Thesis. Middle East Technical University Institude of Marine Science, Mersin, 179 pp.
  • Zhou, F., Guo, H., Liu, Y. & Jiang, Y. (2007). Chemometrics data analysis of marine water quality and source identification in Southern Hong Kong. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54(6), 745-756.

Evaluation of water quality by water quality index method using long time monitoring data in Göksu River

Yıl 2020, Cilt 2, Sayı 1, 5 - 12, 30.06.2020

Öz

This study was conducted to evaluate the time depended variation and status of water quality of Göksu River. Seasonal measurements which were conducted at the downstream of Göksu River between 1992-2017 by State of Hydraulic Works of Turkey (DSI) were evaluated in terms of temperature (oC), nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, sulfate (SO42-), sodium (Na+) and total dissolved solids (TDS). When annual average concentrations of water quality parameters were compared with the water pollution control regulation, water quality was classified as class 1 in terms of pH, DO, COD, SO42-, Na+, TDS, NO3-, varied between class 1 to class 2 in terms of BOD and varied between class 1 to class 4 in terms of NO2-, NH4+. Water quality index method was used to determine the time depended variation in the water quality in most accurate way. There was no significant variation observed in the water quality index until the beginning of 2010’s. After that, water quality index value was peaked to 2873 on 2014 and tended to decrease afterwards. Also, seasonal variation in the water quality was observed. Results revealed that water quality in Göksu River tend to decrease during summer as a result of intense evaporation.

Kaynakça

  • Akçay, İ. & Tuğrul, S. (2018). Riverine nutrient inputs to the Mersin Bay, northeastern Mediterranean. Internatıonal Marine & Freshwater Sciences Symposium, Antalya, Turkey. Proceedings Book, 56-61.
  • Akiner, I. & Akiner, E. (2010). Sustainable urban development: a case study on Goksu Delta. Conference on Water Observation and Information System for Decision Support,Balwoıs. Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia. Proceedings Book, 1-14.
  • Akoteyon, I. S., Omotayo, A. O., Soladoye, O. & Olaoye, H. O. (2011). Determination of water quality index and suitability of urban river for municipal water supply in Lagos-Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research, 54(2): 263-271.
  • Alam, M. & Pathak, J. K. (2010). Rapid assessment of water quality index of Ramganga river, Western Uttar Pradesh (India) using a computer programme. Nature and Science, 8(11): 1-8.
  • Ali, E. M., & Khairy, H. M. (2016). Environmental assessment of drainage water impacts on water quality and eutrophication level of Lake Idku, Egypt. Environmental Pollution, 216: 437-449.
  • Al-Qutob, M., Hase, C., Tilzer, M. M. & Lazar, B. (2002). Phytoplankton drives nitrite dynamics in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 239: 233-239.
  • Ayaz S., Koyunluoğlu A. Ş., Atasoy A. E., Erdoğan N., Metin E., Doğan Ö., Uyuşur B., Haksevenler B. H. G., Dilaver M., Beşiktaş M., Kalay B., Aydöner C., Sarıkaya Ö. & Akyol O. (2013). Havza Koruma Eylem Planlarının Hazırlanması Projesi. Doğu Akdeniz Havzası Nihai Raporu. TUBITAK MAM. Gebze, Kocaeli.
  • Belal, A. A. M., El-Sawy, M. A. & Dar, M. A. (2016). The effect of water quality on the distribution of macro-benthic fauna in Western Lagoon and Timsah Lake, Egypt. I. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 42(4): 437-448.
  • Boskidis, I., Gikas, G. D., Pisinaras, V. & Tsihrintzis, V. A. (2010). Spatial and temporal changes of water quality, and SWAT modeling of Vosvozis river basin, North Greece. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering, 45(11): 1421–1440.
  • Boyacioglu, H. & Boyacioglu, H. (2008). Water pollution sources assessment by multivariate statistical methods in the Tahtali Basin, Turkey. Environmental Geology, 54(2): 275-282.
  • Demirel, Z., Özer, Z. & Özer, O. (2011). Investigation and modeling of water quality of Göksu River (Cleadnos) in an international protected area by using GIS. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 21(3): 429-440.
  • DSİ, (2019). Rasatlar Bilgi Sistemi. Retrieved on December 10, 2019 from: http://svtbilgi.dsi.gov.tr/Bilgi.aspx?istasyon=D17A053%20KARGICAK%20G%C3%96KSU%20N.
  • EMCC, (2020). Eastern Mediterranean climate center. Retrieved on January 08, 2020 from:http://www.emcc.mgm.gov.tr/archive-view.aspx?y=2014&m=02
  • Gałczyńska M., Gamrat R., Burczyk P., Horak A. & Kot M. (2013). The influence of human impact and water surface stability on the concentration of selected mineral macroelements in mid-field ponds. Water-Environment-Rural Areas, 3(3/43): 41-54.
  • Gonzalez, S. O., Almeida, C. A., Calderón, M., Mallea, M. A. & González, P. (2014). Assessment of the water self-purification capacity on a river affected by organic pollution: application of chemometrics in spatial and temporal variations. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(18): 10583-10593.
  • Horton, R. K. (1965). An index number system for rating water quality. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, 37(3): 300-306.
  • Icaga, Y. (2007). Fuzzy evaluation of water quality classification. Ecological Indicators, 7: 710-718.
  • Kazi, T. G., Arain, M. B., Jamali, M. K., Jalbani, N., Afridi, H. I., Sarfraz, R. A., Baig, J. A. & Shah, A. Q. (2009). Assessment of water quality of polluted lake using multivariate statistical techniques: a case study. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 72(2): 301-309.
  • Kılıç E. (2017). Asi Havzasındaki Su Kalitesinin Çok Değişkeli İstatistiksel Yöntemler Kullanılarak Değerlendirilmesi. Yükseklisans Tezi. İskenderun Teknik Üniversitesi Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Hatay, Türkiye, 77 s.
  • Kılıç, E. & Yücel, N. (2019). Determination of spatial and temporal changes in water quality at Asi River using multivariate statistical techniques. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 19(9): 727-737.
  • Kılıç, E., Akpınar, A. & Yücel, N. (2018). The Asi River’s estimated nutrient load and effects on the eastern Mediterranean. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, 33(2): 61-66.
  • Kowalkowski, T., Zbytniewski, R., Szpejna, J. & Buszewski, B. (2006). Application of chemometrics in river water classification. Water Research, 40(4): 744–752.
  • Kükrer, S. & Mutlu, E. (2019). Assessment of surface water quality using water quality index and multivariate statistical analyses in Saraydüzü Dam Lake, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191(2): 71.
  • Liou, S. M., Lo, S. L. & Wang, S. H. (2004). A generalized water quality index for Taiwan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 96(1): 35-52.
  • Mutlu, E. (2019). Evaluation of spatio-temporal variations in water quality of Zerveli stream (northern Turkey) based on water quality index and multivariate statistical analyses. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191(6): 335.
  • Nasiri, F., Maqsood, I., Huang, G. & Fuller, N. (2007). Water Quality Index: a fuzzy river pollution decision support expert system. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 133(2): 95-105.
  • Nassar, M. Z. & Hamed, M. A. (2003). Phytoplankton standing crop and species diversity in relation to some water characteristics of Suez Lagoon (Red Sea). Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 7(3): 25-48.
  • Nassar, M. Z., Ismail L. M. & El Sawy M. A. (2016). Seasonal variations of phytoplankton and nutrients in the egyptian harbors of the Northern Red Sea. International Journal of Marine Science, 6(9): 1-17.
  • Ogwueleka, T. C. (2015). Use of multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of temporal and spatial variations in water quality of the Kaduna River, Nigeria. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187: 135.
  • Orem, W. H., Gilmour, C. C., Krabbenhoft, D. P. & Aiken, G. A. (2011). Sulfate as a contaminant in freshwater ecosystems: Sources, impacts and mitigation. US Geological Survey. Retrieved on February 23, 2020 from http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/ncer2011/Presentations/Wednesday/Waterview%20C-D/am/0850_Orem.pdf.
  • Rasoloariniaina, J. R. (2017). Physico-chemical water characteristics and aquatic macroinverteb rates of Lake Tsimanampesotse, south-western Madagascar. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 42(2): 191-199.
  • Ruždjak, A. M. & Ruždjak, D. (2015). Evaluation of river water quality variations using multivariate statistical techniques. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(4): 1-14.
  • Sadat-Noori, S. M., Ebrahimi, K. & Liaghat, A. M. (2014). Groundwater quality assessment using the Water Quality Index and GIS in Saveh-Nobaran aquifer, Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(9): 3827-3843.
  • Selvam, S., Manimaran, G., Sivasubramanian, P., Balasubramanian, N. & Seshunarayana, T. (2014). GIS-based evaluation of water quality index of groundwater resources around Tuticorin coastal city, South India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(6): 2847-2867.
  • Singh, H., Singh, D., Singh, S. K. & Shukla, D. N. (2017). Assessment of river water quality and ecological diversity through multivariate statistical techniques, and earth observation dataset of rivers Ghaghara and Gandak, India. International Journal of River Basin Management, 15(3): 347-360.
  • Smith, V. H., Tilnan, G. D. & Nekola, J. C. (1999). Eutrophication: impacts of excess nutrient inputs of freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Environmental Pollution, 100: 179-196.
  • Snyder, J. (2007). Dissolved Oxygen. Retrieved on February 23, 2020 from http://www.seagrant.sunysb.edu/oli/Water%20Quality/DissolvedOxygen.html2013.
  • Şener, Ş., Şener, E. & Davraz, A. (2017). Evaluation of water quality using water quality index (WQI) method and GIS in Aksu River (SW-Turkey). Science of the Total Environment, 584–585: 131-144.
  • Tyagi, S., Sharma, B., Singh, P. & Dobhal, R. (2013). Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index. American Journal of Water Resources, 1(3): 34-38.
  • Yıldırım, Ü., Güler, C., Kurt, M. A. & Geçgel, C. (2018). Göksu Nehri akış yolu boyunca ana element değişimlerinin İncelenmesi. HİDRO’2018: Ulusal Hidrojeoloji ve Su Kaynakları Sempozyumu, Ankara, Turkey. Proceedings Book, 206-213.
  • Yisa, J. & Jimoh, T. (2010). Analytical studies on water quality index of river Landzu. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(4): 453-458.
  • Yücel, N. (2013). Monthly changes in primary and bacterial productivity in the North – Eastern Mediterranean shelf waters. PhD Thesis. Middle East Technical University Institude of Marine Science, Mersin, 179 pp.
  • Zhou, F., Guo, H., Liu, Y. & Jiang, Y. (2007). Chemometrics data analysis of marine water quality and source identification in Southern Hong Kong. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54(6), 745-756.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Çevre Çalışmaları
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Ece KILIÇ (Sorumlu Yazar)
İskenderun Teknik Üniversitesi
0000-0003-1953-5008
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Haziran 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 23 Şubat 2020
Kabul Tarihi 6 Nisan 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 2, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Kılıç, E. (2020). Göksu Nehri su kalitesinin su kalite endeksi yöntemi ile uzun süreli izleme verileri kullanılarak değerlendirilmesi . Marine and Life Sciences , 2 (1) , 5-12 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/marlife/issue/55380/693110
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