Yıl 2019, Cilt 3 , Sayı 2, Sayfalar 126 - 145 2019-12-31

Traditions of Sufi Dhikr in the Musical-Poetical Culture of Tatar Muslims

Guzel SAYFULLINA [1]


The subject of the dhikr remains one of the unexplored areas of the Tatar religious culture today. The ‘Tatar dhikr’ has received adequate attention from researchers neither as part of the normative liturgical ritual, nor in the context of the Sufi culture that existed in the past. To some degree, it can be explained by the influence of the atheistic campaign of the Soviet decades, which caused a decline in the existence of, as well as competence in, ritual practices.

At the present time, together with the return of many religious rituals to the life of the Tatar-Muslims, the dhikr has been re-introuced into the practice of normative service. Much less is known about the Sufi dhikr in the Tatar milieu, where the Yasawiya and the Naqshbandiya traditions were the most widespread. The handwritten and printed sources in Arabic script of the past are still waiting for special studies.

Against this background, the materials recorded by Tatar ethnomusicologists in the last decades of the 20th century seem to be especially important: there are texts that reflect the importance of the Sufi dhikr for Muslims and show its structural features. Towards the end of the 20th century, such texts entered the repertoire of Tatar folk monajats and were recited in the style of the monajats. To a certain extent, the study of such samples provides an idea of the forms of the dhikr in the Tatar culture of the past; particularly it shows their connection with the Yasawiya tradition, and as a whole, proves the persistence of Sufi traditions in the folk culture.

This paper is based on the survey of little-studied religious and historical sources, recordings, and interviews made during field trips in the 1990-2000s on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia).
Dhikr, Sufi, Tatar, Music, Poetry
  • Algar, Hamid. (1992). “The Last Great Naqshbandi Shaykh of the Volga-Urals Region” Muslims in Central Asia. Expressions of Identity and Change. Ed. by Jo-Ann Gross: pp. 112-133. Duke University Press.
  • Algar, Hamid. (1976). “Silent and Vocal Dhikr in the Naqshbandi Order” Akten desVII Konggresses fur Arabistik und Islamwissenchaft (Papers of the VII Congress for Arabic and Islamic Studies), Dietrich, Albert (Ed.), (pp. 39-46.), Gottingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht
  • Babadjanov, Bakhtiyar (2008). “О видах зикра джахр у братств Центральной Азии” (About the types of dhikr jahr among the brotherhoods of Central Asia) Собрание фетв по обоснованию зикраджахр и самаʻ (A collection of fatwas on the rationale of dhikr jahr and samaʻ). Ed. Bakhtiyar Babadjanov, Saidakbar Muhammaddaminov: pp. 205-222. Almaty, Таshkent/Uzbekistan: Дайк-Пресс.
  • Baqırghan (2000) Бакырган китабы. 12-18 йөз төрки-татар шагыйрләре әсәрләре. (Baqırghan kitabı. Works of the Turkic-Tatar poets of the 12-18 centuries).Ed. F. Yahin. Кazan/Russia: Tatar Book Publications.
  • Bustanov, Alfrid. (2016). “Суфизм в России: proetcontra” (Sufism in Russia: proetcontra). Реальное время (Real Time), 31.10.2016. Retrieved from https://realnoevremya.ru/articles/46721
  • Bustanov, Alfrid. (2011). Накшбандийский обряд хатм-и хваджаган в Сибири (The Naqshbandi hatm-I hwajagan ritual in Siberia). Retrieved from http://dumrf.ru/islam/rites/2123.
  • DeWeese, Devin. (2003). “Йасавийа” Ислам на территории бывшей Российской империи. Энциклопедическийсловарь, Вып.4. (“Yasawiya”. Encyclopedic Dictionary Islam in the territory of the former Russian Empire). Ed. Stanislav M. Prozorov: pp. 35-38. Moskow/ Russia: Vostochnaya Literatura.
  • DeWeese, Devin. (1996). “The Mashā’ikh-i Turk and the Khojagān: Rethinking the Links between the Yasavī and Naqshbandī Sufi Traditions” Journal of Islamic Studies, 7(2): 180-207.
  • Djumaev, Alexander. (2001).: “Зикр в теории и практике Яссавийя” (Dhikr in theory and practice of Yassawi and Yassawiya). Тамыр (Tamyr). 2(4). Retrieved from http://ru-sufi.livejournal.com/193507.html
  • Djumaev, Alexander. (2016). “Religious Music and Chant in the Culture of Sedentary-Dwellers” The Music of Central Asia. Ed. Theodore Levin, Saida Daukeyeva, and Elmira Köchümkulova: pp. 379-398. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
  • Feldman, Walter. (1992). “Musical Genres and Zikir of the Sunni Tarikats of Istanbul” The Dervish Lodge. Architecture, Art and Sufism in Ottoman Turkey. Ed. Raymond Lifchez: pp.187-202. California: California University Press.
  • Ghabashi, Sultan (n.d.). (Archive of the Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of Tatarstan Republic). Fond 60, register 1, the storage unit 4.
  • Hismatulin, Aleksey (1996). Суфийская ритуальная практика (на примере братства Накшбандийа). (Sufi ritual practice (the brotherhood of Naqshbandiyya). St. Petersburg/Russia: Petersburg Oriental Studies.
  • Husnullin, Kutdus (2001). Мөнәҗәтләр һәм бәетләр: кәйләп укуга нигезләнгән жанрлар. (Monajats and bayets: the forms based on chant). Kazan/Russia: Rannur.
  • Ibragim, Taufik (2017). Interview in «БИЗНЕС Online» (Business Online). Retrieved from https://www.business-gazeta.ru/article/344590 19.04.2017
  • Ishmuhametov, Zarif (1979). Социальная роль и эволюция ислама в Татарии. Исторические очерки (The social role and evolution of Islam in Tatarstan. (Historical essays). Kazan/Russia: Tatar Book Publications.
  • Kemper, Michael. (1998). Sufis und Gelehrte in Tatarien und Baschkirien. Der islamische Diskurs unter russischer Herrschaft. (Sufis and scholars in Tatarstan and Bashkortostan). Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag.
  • Köprülü, Mehmed Fuad. (2006). Early Mystics in Turkish Literature. Trans., ed. and with an introduction by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff. Foreword by Devin DeWeese. Taylor & Francis e-Library. (Original work published 1918).
  • Makarov, Gennadiy. (2011). Дәрвишләрнең сөхбәтендә. Бәетләр һәм мөнәҗәтләр. (In the company of dervishes. Bayets and monajats) Kazan/Russia: Tatar Book Publications.
  • Maksudi Ahmadhadi. (1892). Ghiybadate Islamiya. Kazan/Russia: Publishing House of Brothers Karimov.
  • Matveev, Sergei. (1895). Мухаммеданский рассказ о Св. Деве Марии (Muhammadan story of St. Mary). Text and translation. Kazan/Russia: Printing House of the Imperial University.
  • Meier, Fritz. (1999). Essays on Islamic Rituals and Mysticism. (O’Kane, John, Trans.). Leiden/Boston/Koln: Brill.
  • Mijit, Mukaddas. (2016). “Sufism and the Ceremony of Dhikr in Ghulja” The Music of Central Asia. Ed. Theodore Levin, Saida Daukeyeva, and Elmira Köchümkulova: pp. 399-405. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
  • Mozaffari, Zarif. (1931). Işannar-dәrvişlәr (The ishans-dervishes). Kazan/Russia: Janalif.
  • Nigmedzyanov, Mahmud. (1984). НигмедзяновМахмуд. Татарские народные песни (Tatar folk songs). Кazan/Russia: Tatar Publishing House.
  • Papas, Alexandre. (2014). “Creating a Sufi Soundscape: Recitation (dhikr) and audition (sama’) according to Ahmad Kāsānı Dahbıdı (d. 1542)” Performing Islam. 3: 25-43.
  • Rasulev, Zaynulla. (2001). “Божественные истины, постижение которых необходимо для мюридов Накшбандийа, славословия [Аллаху] и молитвы «салават» (1899)”. (Divinetruths, comprehension of which is necessary for murids of the Sufi brotherhood of Naqshbandiya, together with the Thanks giving to Allah and prayers, 1899) Аль-Эрбили (al-Erbili). Книга вечных даров. О достоинствах и похвальных качествах суфийского братства Накшбандийа и его Пути к Богу (The book of eternal gifts. On the merits and meritorious qualities of the Sufi brotherhood of Naqshbandiya and his Path to God). (Ilshat Nasyrov, Trans.) Ufa/Russia: Kitab
  • Rorlich, Azade Ayse. (1983). “Sufism in Tatarstan: deep roots and new concerns” Central Asian Survey, II(4): 37-45.
  • Sayfullina, Guzel [audiorecorder]. (2001). Recitation of religious texts by Amina Ibrahimova, b. 1935, in the Cylna village. Tatarstan. [Audio field recordings of music]. July, 27, 2001. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Private Collection.
  • Sayfullina, Guzel. (2005). Багышлауга багышлау. Багышлау (посвящения) в контексте культуры народного ислама волжских татар (Baghishlau – Ritual dedications in the context of the folk Islam of the Volga Tatars). Kazan/Russia: Iman.
  • Sayfullina, Guzel. (2009). “Категория «кэйле китап» в музыкально-поэтической культуре татар-мусульман” (The küyle kitap category in the musical-poetical culture of Tatar Muslims) Музыка народов мира: проблемы изучения (World music: problems of learning). Ed. Violetta Yunusova and Alexander Kharuto: pp. 129-141. Moskow/Russia: Moscow state conservatory.
  • Sayfullina, Guzel. (2015). “Наследие Йасавийа в евразийском пространстве. Традиции волжских мусульман” (The Yasawiya legacy in the Eurasian space. Traditions of the Volga Muslims) Ладовые коммуникации в евразийском музыкальном пространстве (Mode communications in the Eurasian music space). Ed. Larisa Brazhnik: рр. 49-60. Kazan/Russia, Kazan state conservatory.
  • Sayfullina, Guzel. (2017). “Татарский мунаджат: трансформация жанра” (Tatar Munajat: transformation of the genre) Музыка народов мира. Вып. 2. изучения (World music.Vol. 2). Ed. Violetta Yunusova and Alexander Kharuto: p. 219-234. Moskow/Russia: Moscow State Conservatory.
  • Sayfullina, Guzel. (ed.) (2015): Антология татарской богословской мысли. Ислам и музыка. Х.-Г.Габаши, Р.Фахретдин, Г.Баруди, Х.Кильдебаки (Anthology of Tatar Theological Thought. Islam and Music. H.-G. Ghabashi, R. Fakhreddin, G. Barudi, H. Kildebaki). Kazan/Russia: Tatar Book Publications.
  • Sultanova, Razia. (2012). “Yassavi dhikr in twenty-first century Central Asia: sound, place and authenticity” Performing Islam, 1(1):129-151.
  • Togan, Isenbike. (1999). “The Khafi, Jahri Controversy in Central Asia Revisited” Naqshbandis in Western and Central Asia. Change and Continuity. [Conference Held at the Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul] Ozdalga, Elisabeth (Eds.), (pp. 17-46). Istanbul: Swedish Research Institute.
  • Yaghfarov, Rasid. and Sadikova, Aysylu (Ed.) (2000). Мөнәҗәтләр (Monajats.). Kazan/Russia: Iman.
  • Yakupov, Valiulla., (Ed) (2000). Сокровищница зикра (Treasury of Dhikr). /Russia: Iman.
  • Zarcone, Thierry. (2002). “Sufi Lineages and Saint Veneration in Russia, Soviet Tatarstan and Central Asia in the 20th Century” The Turks, Ed. Hasan Celâl Güzel and C. Cem Oğuz, Osman Karatay: pp. 93-100. Ankara/Turkey: Yeni Turkiye.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Müzik
Bölüm Articles
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0001-6606-8604
Yazar: Guzel SAYFULLINA (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Institute of History, The Academy of Sciences of Tatarstan, Russia
Ülke: The Netherlands


Destekleyen Kurum State Institute of of Art Studies, Moscow, Russia
Proje Numarası Выполнено при поддержке РФФИ: проект № 18-012-00227а «Концептуализация музыки в авраамических традициях. История–Теория–Практика».
Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 31 Aralık 2019

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { musicologist635939, journal = {Musicologist}, issn = {}, eissn = {2618-5652}, address = {Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Faik Ahmet Barutçu Kütüphanesi 61030 TRABZON}, publisher = {Trabzon Üniversitesi}, year = {2019}, volume = {3}, pages = {126 - 145}, doi = {10.33906/musicologist.635939}, title = {Traditions of Sufi Dhikr in the Musical-Poetical Culture of Tatar Muslims}, key = {cite}, author = {Sayfullına, Guzel} }
APA Sayfullına, G . (2019). Traditions of Sufi Dhikr in the Musical-Poetical Culture of Tatar Muslims . Musicologist , 3 (2) , 126-145 . DOI: 10.33906/musicologist.635939
MLA Sayfullına, G . "Traditions of Sufi Dhikr in the Musical-Poetical Culture of Tatar Muslims" . Musicologist 3 (2019 ): 126-145 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/musicologist/issue/51441/635939>
Chicago Sayfullına, G . "Traditions of Sufi Dhikr in the Musical-Poetical Culture of Tatar Muslims". Musicologist 3 (2019 ): 126-145
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Traditions of Sufi Dhikr in the Musical-Poetical Culture of Tatar Muslims AU - Guzel Sayfullına Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.33906/musicologist.635939 DO - 10.33906/musicologist.635939 T2 - Musicologist JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 126 EP - 145 VL - 3 IS - 2 SN - -2618-5652 M3 - doi: 10.33906/musicologist.635939 UR - https://doi.org/10.33906/musicologist.635939 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Musicologist Traditions of Sufi Dhikr in the Musical-Poetical Culture of Tatar Muslims %A Guzel Sayfullına %T Traditions of Sufi Dhikr in the Musical-Poetical Culture of Tatar Muslims %D 2019 %J Musicologist %P -2618-5652 %V 3 %N 2 %R doi: 10.33906/musicologist.635939 %U 10.33906/musicologist.635939
ISNAD Sayfullına, Guzel . "Traditions of Sufi Dhikr in the Musical-Poetical Culture of Tatar Muslims". Musicologist 3 / 2 (Aralık 2020): 126-145 . https://doi.org/10.33906/musicologist.635939
AMA Sayfullına G . Traditions of Sufi Dhikr in the Musical-Poetical Culture of Tatar Muslims. Musicologist. 2019; 3(2): 126-145.
Vancouver Sayfullına G . Traditions of Sufi Dhikr in the Musical-Poetical Culture of Tatar Muslims. Musicologist. 2019; 3(2): 126-145.