Derleme
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Kaynak Göster

Çocuk Hastalarda Kaudal Blokaj

Yıl 2018, Cilt 6, Sayı 3, 26 - 30, 31.12.2018
https://doi.org/10.21765/pprjournal.413298

Öz

Caudal Anesthesia is the most important pediatric regional anesthesia technique alone. Caudal anesthesia is a technique that is really easy to learn, safe to use and can be used for many procedures. Caudal block; continues to be a simple, safe and effective technique that can be used in procedures under umbilicus 

Caudal Anesthesia is the most important pediatric regional anesthesia technique alone. Caudal anesthesia is a technique that is really easy to learn, safe to use and can be used for many procedures. Caudal block; continues to be a simple, safe and effective technique that can be used in procedures under umbilicus 

Kaynakça

  • Kaynaklar1. Campbell MF. Caudal anesthesia in children. Am J Urol 1933; 30:245-249.2. Tyler DC. Pharmacology of pain management. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1994; 44(1) 59-71.3. Brill JE. Control of pain.. Crit Care Clin. 1992; 8(1): 203-18. 4. Schuepfer G, Konrad C, Schmeck J et al. Generating a learning curve for pediatric caudal epidural blocks: an empirical evaluation of technical skills in novice and experienced anesthetists. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2000; 25: 385–388 5. Gunter J. Caudal anesthesia in children: a survey. Anesthesiology 1991; 75: A936.6. Adewale L, Dearlove O, Wilson B et al. The caudal canal in children: a study using magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Anesth 2000; 10: 137–141.7. Senoglu N, Senoglu M,Oksuz H, Gumusalan Y, Yuksel KZ, Zencirci B et al. Landmarks of the sacral hiatus for caudal epidural block: an anatomical study. Br J Anaesth 2005;95:692-5.8. Flandin-Ble´ty C, Barrier G. Accidents following extradural analgesia in children. The results of a retrospective study. Pediatr Anesth 1995; 5: 41–46.9. Tobias JD. Caudal epidural block: a review of test dosing and recognition of systemic injection in children. Anesth Analg 2001;93:1156-6110. Guay J. The epidural test dose: a review. Anesth Analg 2006;102:921-9. 11. Wolf AR, Valley RD, Fear DW et al. Bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in infants and children: the optimal effective concentration. Anesthesiology 1988; 69: 102–106. 12. Gunter JB, Dunn CM, Bennie JB et al. Optimum concentration of bupivacaine for combined caudal-general anesthesia in children. Anesthesiology 1991; 75: 57–61. 13. Koo BN, Hong JY, Kil HK. Spread of ropivacaine by a weight-based formula in a pediatric caudal block: a fluoroscopic examination. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2010; 54: 562–565.14. Thomas ML, Roebuck D, Yule C et al. The effect of volume of local anesthetic on the anatomic spread of caudal block in children aged 1–7 years. Pediatr Anesth 2010; 20: 1017–1021. 15. Lundblad M, Lonnqvist PA, Eksborg S et al. Segmental distribution of high-volume caudal anesthesia in neonates, infants, and toddlers as assessed by ultrasonography. Pediatr Anesth 2011; 21: 121–127. 16. Bhananker SM, Ramamoorthy C, Geiduschek JM et al. Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest in children: update from the Pediatric Perioperative Cardiac Arrest Registry. Anesth Analg 2007; 105: 344–350. 17. Morray JP, Geiduschek JM, Ramamoorthy C et al. Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest in children: initial findings of the Pediatric Perioperative Cardiac Arrest (POCA) Registry. Anesthesiology 2000; 93: 6–14. 18. Ansermino M, Basu R, Vandebeek C et al. Nonopioid additives to local anaesthetics for caudal blockade in children: a systematic review. Pediatr Anesth 2003; 13: 561–573. 19. de Beer DA, Thomas ML. Caudal additives in children-solutions or problems? Br J Anaesth 2003; 90: 487–498.20. Veyckemans F, Van Obbergh LJ, Gouverneur JM. Lessons from 1100 pediatric caudal blocks in a teaching hospital. Reg Anesth 1992; 17: 119–125.21. Mauch J, Kutter AP, Madjdpour C et al. Electrocardiographic alterations during intravascular application of three different test doses of bupivacaine and epinephrine: experimental study in neonatal pigs. Br J Anaesth 2010; 104: 94–97.22. Lee JJ, Rubin AP. Comparison of a bupivacaine-clonidine mixture with plain bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children. Br J Anaesth 1994; 72: 258–262.23. Motsch J, Bo¨ ttiger BW, Bach A et al. Caudal clonidine and bupivacaine for combined epidural and general anaesthesia in children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41: 877–883.24. Breschan C, Krumpholz R, Likar R et al. Can a dose of 2 microg.kg(-1) caudal clonidine cause respiratory depression in neonates? Pediatr Anesth 1999; 9: 81–83.25. Bouchut JC, Dubois R, Godard J. Clonidine in preterm-infant caudal anesthesia may be responsible for postoperative apnea. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2001; 26: 83–85.26. Fellmann C, Gerber AC, Weiss M. Apnoea in a former preterm infant after caudal bupivacaine with clonidine for inguinal herniorrhaphy. Pediatr Anesth 2002; 12: 637–640.27. Galante D. Preoperative apnea in a preterm infant after caudal block with ropivacaine and clonidine. Pediatr Anesth 2005; 15: 708–709.28. Krane EJ, Jacobson LE, Lynn AM et al. Caudal morphine for postoperative analgesia in children: a comparison with caudal bupivacaine and intravenous morphine. Anesth Analg 1987; 66: 647–653.29. Krane EJ. Delayed respiratory depression in a child after caudal epidural morphine. Anesth Analg 1988; 67: 79–82.30. Lonnqvist PA, Ivani G, Moriarty T. Use of caudal-epidural opioids in children: still state of the art or the beginning of the end? Pediatr Anesth 2002; 12: 747–749.31. Erol A, Tavlan A, Tuncer S et al. Caudal anesthesia for minor subumbilical pediatric surgery: a comparison of levobupivacaine alone and levobupivacaine plus sufentanil. J Clin Anesth 2008; 20: 442–446.32. Kumar TPS, Jacob R. A comparison of caudal epidural bupivacaine with adrenaline and bupivacaine with adrenaline and pethidine for operative and postoperative analgesia in infants and children. Anaesth Intensive Care 1993; 21: 424–428.33. Kelleher AA, Black A, Penman S et al. Comparison of caudal bupivacaine and diamorphine with caudal bupivacaine alone for repair of hypospadias. Br J Anaesth 1996; 77: 586–590.34. Prosser DP, Davis A, Booker PD et al. Caudal tramadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric hypospadias surgery. Br J Anaesth 1997; 79: 293–296.35. Cook B, Doyle E. The use of additives to local anaesthetic solutions for caudal epidural blockade. Pediatr Anesth 1996; 6: 353–359.36. Flandin-Ble´ty C, Barrier G. Accidents following extradural analgesia in children. Theresults of a retrospective study. Pediatr Anesth 1995; 5: 41–46.37. Ecoffey C, Samii K. Neurologic complication after epidural anesthesia in a 15-yearold boy. Ann Fr Anesth Re´anim 1990; 9:398.38. Zeidan A, Narchi P, Goujard E et al. Postoperative nerve irritation syndrome after epidural analgesia in a six-year-old child. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 146–148.39. Breschan C, Krumpholz R, Jost R et al. Intraspinal haematoma following lumbar epidural anaesthesia in a neonate. Pediatr Anesth 2001; 11: 105–108.40. Jo¨ hr M, Sossai R. Colonic puncture during ilioinguinal nerve block in a child. Anesth Analg 1999; 88: 1051–1052.41. Amory C, Mariscal A, Guyot E et al. Is ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve block always totally safe in children? Pediatr Anesth 2003;13: 164–166.42. Frigon C, Mai R, Valois-Gomez T et al. Bowel hematoma following an iliohypogastric-ilioinguinal nerve block. Pediatr Anesth 2006; 16: 993–996.43. Lipp AK, Woodcock J, Hensman B et al. Leg weakness is a complication of ilio-inguinal nerve block in children. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 273–274.44. Smith T, Moratin P, Wulf H. Smaller children have greater bupivacaine plasma concentrations after ilioinguinal block. Br J Anaesth 1996; 76: 452–455.

Çocuk Hastalarda Kaudal Blokaj

Yıl 2018, Cilt 6, Sayı 3, 26 - 30, 31.12.2018
https://doi.org/10.21765/pprjournal.413298

Öz

Kaudal Anestezi tek başına en önemli pediatrik rejyonel anestezi tekniğidir. Kaudal anestezi, gerçekten öğrenmesi kolay, güvenliği kanıtlanmış ve birçok prosedür için kullanılabilen bir
tekniktir. Kaudal blok; umblikus altı girişimlerde kullanılabilen basit, güvenli ve etkili bir teknik olmayı sürdürmektedir.Kaudal Anestezi tek başına en önemli pediatrik rejyonel anestezi tekniğidir. Kaudal anestezi, gerçekten öğrenmesi kolay, güvenliği kanıtlanmış ve birçok prosedür için kullanılabilen bir tekniktir.Pediatrik hastalarda, postoperatif ağrı hemodinamiyi olumsuz yönde etkilemekte ve konforu bozmaktadır. Campbell tarafından 1933 yılında ilk kez uygulanan kaudal epidural analjezi pediatrik anestezide en popüler ve sıklıkla tercih edilen rejyonel bloktur (1). 

Kaynakça

  • Kaynaklar1. Campbell MF. Caudal anesthesia in children. Am J Urol 1933; 30:245-249.2. Tyler DC. Pharmacology of pain management. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1994; 44(1) 59-71.3. Brill JE. Control of pain.. Crit Care Clin. 1992; 8(1): 203-18. 4. Schuepfer G, Konrad C, Schmeck J et al. Generating a learning curve for pediatric caudal epidural blocks: an empirical evaluation of technical skills in novice and experienced anesthetists. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2000; 25: 385–388 5. Gunter J. Caudal anesthesia in children: a survey. Anesthesiology 1991; 75: A936.6. Adewale L, Dearlove O, Wilson B et al. The caudal canal in children: a study using magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Anesth 2000; 10: 137–141.7. Senoglu N, Senoglu M,Oksuz H, Gumusalan Y, Yuksel KZ, Zencirci B et al. Landmarks of the sacral hiatus for caudal epidural block: an anatomical study. Br J Anaesth 2005;95:692-5.8. Flandin-Ble´ty C, Barrier G. Accidents following extradural analgesia in children. The results of a retrospective study. Pediatr Anesth 1995; 5: 41–46.9. Tobias JD. Caudal epidural block: a review of test dosing and recognition of systemic injection in children. Anesth Analg 2001;93:1156-6110. Guay J. The epidural test dose: a review. Anesth Analg 2006;102:921-9. 11. Wolf AR, Valley RD, Fear DW et al. Bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in infants and children: the optimal effective concentration. Anesthesiology 1988; 69: 102–106. 12. Gunter JB, Dunn CM, Bennie JB et al. Optimum concentration of bupivacaine for combined caudal-general anesthesia in children. Anesthesiology 1991; 75: 57–61. 13. Koo BN, Hong JY, Kil HK. Spread of ropivacaine by a weight-based formula in a pediatric caudal block: a fluoroscopic examination. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2010; 54: 562–565.14. Thomas ML, Roebuck D, Yule C et al. The effect of volume of local anesthetic on the anatomic spread of caudal block in children aged 1–7 years. Pediatr Anesth 2010; 20: 1017–1021. 15. Lundblad M, Lonnqvist PA, Eksborg S et al. Segmental distribution of high-volume caudal anesthesia in neonates, infants, and toddlers as assessed by ultrasonography. Pediatr Anesth 2011; 21: 121–127. 16. Bhananker SM, Ramamoorthy C, Geiduschek JM et al. Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest in children: update from the Pediatric Perioperative Cardiac Arrest Registry. Anesth Analg 2007; 105: 344–350. 17. Morray JP, Geiduschek JM, Ramamoorthy C et al. Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest in children: initial findings of the Pediatric Perioperative Cardiac Arrest (POCA) Registry. Anesthesiology 2000; 93: 6–14. 18. Ansermino M, Basu R, Vandebeek C et al. Nonopioid additives to local anaesthetics for caudal blockade in children: a systematic review. Pediatr Anesth 2003; 13: 561–573. 19. de Beer DA, Thomas ML. Caudal additives in children-solutions or problems? Br J Anaesth 2003; 90: 487–498.20. Veyckemans F, Van Obbergh LJ, Gouverneur JM. Lessons from 1100 pediatric caudal blocks in a teaching hospital. Reg Anesth 1992; 17: 119–125.21. Mauch J, Kutter AP, Madjdpour C et al. Electrocardiographic alterations during intravascular application of three different test doses of bupivacaine and epinephrine: experimental study in neonatal pigs. Br J Anaesth 2010; 104: 94–97.22. Lee JJ, Rubin AP. Comparison of a bupivacaine-clonidine mixture with plain bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children. Br J Anaesth 1994; 72: 258–262.23. Motsch J, Bo¨ ttiger BW, Bach A et al. Caudal clonidine and bupivacaine for combined epidural and general anaesthesia in children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41: 877–883.24. Breschan C, Krumpholz R, Likar R et al. Can a dose of 2 microg.kg(-1) caudal clonidine cause respiratory depression in neonates? Pediatr Anesth 1999; 9: 81–83.25. Bouchut JC, Dubois R, Godard J. Clonidine in preterm-infant caudal anesthesia may be responsible for postoperative apnea. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2001; 26: 83–85.26. Fellmann C, Gerber AC, Weiss M. Apnoea in a former preterm infant after caudal bupivacaine with clonidine for inguinal herniorrhaphy. Pediatr Anesth 2002; 12: 637–640.27. Galante D. Preoperative apnea in a preterm infant after caudal block with ropivacaine and clonidine. Pediatr Anesth 2005; 15: 708–709.28. Krane EJ, Jacobson LE, Lynn AM et al. Caudal morphine for postoperative analgesia in children: a comparison with caudal bupivacaine and intravenous morphine. Anesth Analg 1987; 66: 647–653.29. Krane EJ. Delayed respiratory depression in a child after caudal epidural morphine. Anesth Analg 1988; 67: 79–82.30. Lonnqvist PA, Ivani G, Moriarty T. Use of caudal-epidural opioids in children: still state of the art or the beginning of the end? Pediatr Anesth 2002; 12: 747–749.31. Erol A, Tavlan A, Tuncer S et al. Caudal anesthesia for minor subumbilical pediatric surgery: a comparison of levobupivacaine alone and levobupivacaine plus sufentanil. J Clin Anesth 2008; 20: 442–446.32. Kumar TPS, Jacob R. A comparison of caudal epidural bupivacaine with adrenaline and bupivacaine with adrenaline and pethidine for operative and postoperative analgesia in infants and children. Anaesth Intensive Care 1993; 21: 424–428.33. Kelleher AA, Black A, Penman S et al. Comparison of caudal bupivacaine and diamorphine with caudal bupivacaine alone for repair of hypospadias. Br J Anaesth 1996; 77: 586–590.34. Prosser DP, Davis A, Booker PD et al. Caudal tramadol for postoperative analgesia in paediatric hypospadias surgery. Br J Anaesth 1997; 79: 293–296.35. Cook B, Doyle E. The use of additives to local anaesthetic solutions for caudal epidural blockade. Pediatr Anesth 1996; 6: 353–359.36. Flandin-Ble´ty C, Barrier G. Accidents following extradural analgesia in children. Theresults of a retrospective study. Pediatr Anesth 1995; 5: 41–46.37. Ecoffey C, Samii K. Neurologic complication after epidural anesthesia in a 15-yearold boy. Ann Fr Anesth Re´anim 1990; 9:398.38. Zeidan A, Narchi P, Goujard E et al. Postoperative nerve irritation syndrome after epidural analgesia in a six-year-old child. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 146–148.39. Breschan C, Krumpholz R, Jost R et al. Intraspinal haematoma following lumbar epidural anaesthesia in a neonate. Pediatr Anesth 2001; 11: 105–108.40. Jo¨ hr M, Sossai R. Colonic puncture during ilioinguinal nerve block in a child. Anesth Analg 1999; 88: 1051–1052.41. Amory C, Mariscal A, Guyot E et al. Is ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve block always totally safe in children? Pediatr Anesth 2003;13: 164–166.42. Frigon C, Mai R, Valois-Gomez T et al. Bowel hematoma following an iliohypogastric-ilioinguinal nerve block. Pediatr Anesth 2006; 16: 993–996.43. Lipp AK, Woodcock J, Hensman B et al. Leg weakness is a complication of ilio-inguinal nerve block in children. Br J Anaesth 2004; 92: 273–274.44. Smith T, Moratin P, Wulf H. Smaller children have greater bupivacaine plasma concentrations after ilioinguinal block. Br J Anaesth 1996; 76: 452–455.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Derlemeler
Yazarlar

Funda DURMAZ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
TOKAT DEVLET HASTANESİ
0000-0002-7990-2028
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2018
Kabul Tarihi 24 Nisan 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2018, Cilt 6, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Vancouver Durmaz F. Çocuk Hastalarda Kaudal Blokaj. Pediatric Practice and Research. 2018; 6(3): 26-30.