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Evaluation of compliance with regulations on the sale of pesticides in shops in the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey

Yıl 2016, Cilt 14, Sayı 1, 32 - 42, 04.05.2016
https://doi.org/10.20518/thsd.11703

Öz

Objective: We assessed whether the regulations for the use of pesticide in shops were being appropriately followed in Southeastern Anatolia (GAP). Methods: This descriptive study was completed in 326 shops that sold pesticides, selected from 342 places, in the GAP region in 2013. Observations made and questionnaires were used to evaluate the shops regarding appropriate qualifications of the workers and the extent to which the working environments matched relevant legal documents. Results: 90.2% of the places that sold pesticides were retail, 9.2% were wholesale and retail, and 0.6% were branch offices. Of the respondents, 96.9% were male. 16.8% had graduated from primary or secondary school, 27.4% were high school graduates or equivalent, and 55.8% were university graduates. 48.5% of employees were working in accordance with the legal regulations. It was determined that 81.3% shops were located near the homes or the workplaces; 68.8% had not written ‘very poisonous plant protection products” on the shelves and compartments containing very toxic substances; 57.3% did not sell any individual protection equipment for use during application of pesticides. There was no shop that was in accord with all the legal regulations. Of the employees, 88.1% did not know the definition of maximum residual amount, 86.8% did not know waiting period after spraying, and 27.9% did not know negative health effects of pesticides. 64.3% of employees reported that they received training about the health effects of pesticides. Conclusions: The results of the study explore the need for both regulatory compliance and audit of the shops that sell pesticides and health education for employees.

Key words: Pesticide, shopping place, legal regulations, Southeastern Anatolia

Kaynakça

  • 1. United Nations. World Population Prospects 2012. [online]. Available at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Documentati on/publications.htm. Accessed May 12, 2014.
  • 2. Kimya Sanayii Özel İhtisas Komisyonu, Dokuzuncu Kalkınma Planı, 2007–2013 [online]. Available at: http://www.serka.org.tr/downloads/ust_ol cekli/19_kimya_sanayi.pdf . Accessed May 19, 2015.
  • 3. Demirci F, Dursun HY. Türkiye’de Tarım İlaçları Üretim ve Kullanımı. Türkiye Ziraat Mühendisliği VIII. Teknik Kongre Kitabı. Ankara: 1. Baskı; 2015. p. 1069-1079.
  • 4. Robert RJ, Reigart JR. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisining. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington: 6. Baskı, 2013. P. 2-240.
  • 5. Donham KJ, Thelin A. ‘Health Effects of Agricultural Pesticides’. Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for the Health Professions. 1st ed. Iowa, USA:Blackwell Publishing 2006. P. 173-198.
  • 6. George J, Shukla Y. Early Changes in Proteome Levels upon Acute Deltamethrin Exposure in Mammalian Skin System Associated with Its Neoplastic Transformation Potential. J Toxicol Sci 2013;38(4):629–642.
  • 7. Hou L, Andreotti G, Baccarelli AA et al. Lifetime Pesticide Use and Telomere Shortening among Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2013; 121(8): 919–924.
  • 8. Bassil KL, Vakil C, Sanborn M, Cole DC, Kaur JS, Kerr KJ. Cancer Health Effects of Pesticides: systematic review. Can Fam Phtsician. 2007;53(10):1704-1711.
  • 9. Gaytán BD, Loguinov AV, Lantz SR, Lerot JM, Denslow ND, Vulpe CD. Functional Profiling Discovers the Dieldrin Organochlorinated Pesticide Affects Leucine Availability in Yeast. Toxicol Sci 2013;132(2):347–358.
  • 10. Budnik LT, Kloth S, Baur X, Preisser AM, Schwarzenbach H. Circulating Mitochondrial DNA as Biomarker Linking Environmental Chemical Exposure to Early Preclinical Lesions Elevation of mtDNA in Human Serum After Exposure to Carcinogenic Haloalkane-based Pesticides. PLoS One 2013;8(5):e64413.
  • 11. Koutros S, Berndt SI, Hughes Barry K et al. Genetic Susceptibility Loci, Pesticide Exposure and Prostate Cancer Risk. PLoS One 2013;8(4):e58195.
  • 12. Ye M, Beach J, Martin JW, Senthilselvan A. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2013; 10(12): 6442–6471.
  • 13. Navaranjan G, Hohenadel K, Blair A et al. Exposures to Multiple Pesticides and the Risk of Hodgkin Lymphoma in Canadian Men. Cancer Causes Control 2013; 24(9): 1661–1673.
  • 14. Sexton K, Salinas JJ, McDonald TJ.et al. Biomarkers of Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides Measured in Pregnant Hispanic Women from Brownsville, Texas. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2013;10(1):237–248.
  • 15. Bitki Koruma Ürünlerinin Toptan ve Perakende Satılması İle Depolanması Hakkında Yönetmelik. Resmî Gazete Tarihi: 11/10/2007; sayısı: 26670. [online]. Available at: www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/10/ 20071011-11.htm. Accessed July 30, 2015.
  • 16. Field WE, Tormoehlen RL. Education and Training as Intervention Strategies (Eds. James E. Lessenger). Agricultural Medicine; A practical guide, Springer Publishing, 2006, 42-51.
  • 17. İstatistikî Bölge Birimleri Sınıflandırması. Available at: www.tuik.gov.tr/PreIstatistikTablo.do?istab _id=1315. Accessed September 16, 2015.
  • 18. Çapacı B, Arıkan A, Evci Kiraz DE, Ergin F. Aydın’da Bitki Koruma Ürünü Satan Bayilerin Mevzuat Bilgisi ve Üreticilere Danışmanlık Rolü. 1.Uluslararası Katılımlı Ulusal Biyosidal Kongresi, Kongre Kitabı, Antalya 19-22 Mart 2014. [online]. Available at:ftsturizm.org/biyosidal/biyosidalkabul/poster.pdf. Accessed July 30, 2015.
  • 19. Yavuz H, Şimşek Z, Akbaba M. Healthrisk Behaviors in Agriculture and Related Factors, Southeastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. J Agromedicine 2014;19(4):364- 372.
  • 20. Hwang S, Gomez MI, Stark AD et al. Safety Awareness Among New York Farmers. Am J Ind Med 2010; 38(1): 71-81.
  • 21. Şahin G, Uskun E, Ay R, Öztürk M. Elma Yetiştiriciliği Alanında Çalışanların Tarım İlaçları Konusunda Bilgi, Tutum ve Davranışları. TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6): 633-644.
  • 22. Ergönen AT, Salacin S, Ozdemir MH. Pesticide Use Among Greenhouse Workers in Turkey. J ClinForensic Med 2005; 12(4): 205–208.
  • 23. Chen R, Huang J, Qiao F. Farmers' Knowledge on Pest Management and Pesticide Use in Bt Cotton Production in China. China Economic Review 2013; 27: 15–24.
  • 24. Zyoud SH, Sawalha AF, Sweileh WM ve ark. Knowledge and Practices of Pesticide Use Among Farm Workers in the West Bank, Palestine: Safety Implications. Environ Health Prev Med 2010;15(4): 252-61.
  • 25. Mohanty MK, Behera BK, Jena SK, Srikanth S, Mogane C. Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Pesticide Use Among Agricultural Workers in Puducherry, South India. J Forensic Leg Med 2013; 20(8): 1028-1031.
  • 26. Salameh PR, Balhi I, Brochard P, Saleh A. Pesticides in Lebanon: a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Study. Environ Res 2004; 94(1): 1–6.
  • 27. GAP Tarımda Çalışanların Sağlığı Araştırması/2013. Harran Üniversitesi Tarımda İş Sağlığı ve Güvenliği Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi Yayınları, Şanlıurfa: 1. Baskı; 2014. p. 115-122.

Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi’nde pestisit satış yerlerinin yasal düzenlemelere uygunluk durumunun değerlendirilmesi

Yıl 2016, Cilt 14, Sayı 1, 32 - 42, 04.05.2016
https://doi.org/10.20518/thsd.11703

Öz

Amaç: Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi’nde (GAP) pestisit satış yerlerinin yasal düzenlemeler açısından uygunluğunu değerlendirmektir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Tanımlayıcı nitelikteki bu araştırmada, 2013 yılında GAP Bölgesi'ndeki 342 işyerinden 326’sına ulaşılmıştır. Satış yerlerinin yasal düzenlemelerde belirlenmiş olan kişi ve ortam özelliklerine uygunluğunu saptamak için, her işyeri ziyaret edilerek gözlem yapılmış ve soru kağıtları uygulanmıştır.  Bulgular: İşyerlerinin %90.2'si perakende, %9.2'si toptancı ve perakende, %0.6'sı bayidir. Çalışanların %96.9'u erkektir. %16.8’i ilköğretim ikinci kademe ve altı mezunu, %27.4'ü lise ve dengi, %55.8'i ise üniversite ve üzerinde eğitim almıştır. Çalışanların %48.5'i yasal düzenlemelerle tanımlanan uygun meslektendir. İşyerlerinin %81.3'ünün etrafında ev ve işyeri bulunduğu, işyerlerinin %68.8'inde çok zehirli raf ve bölmelerde ''çok zehirli bitki koruma ürünleri'' ifadesi bulunmadığı, satış yerlerinin %57.3'ünde ilaçlamada kullanılan koruyucu ekipmanların satılmadığı saptanmıştır. Araştırmada yasal düzenlemelere tam uygun satış yeri saptanmamıştır. Çalışanların %88.1'i maksimum rezidü miktarını, %86.8'i ilaçlama sonrası bekleme süresini, %27.9'u insanlarda meydana getirdiği sağlık sorunlarını bilmemektedir. Çalışanların %64.3'ü pestisitlerin insan sağlığına etkilerine ilişkin eğitim aldıklarını bildirmişlerdir. Sonuç: Araştırma bulguları, pestisit satış yerlerinin yasal düzenlemelere uygunluk açısından denetimlerinin ve satış elemanlarının sağlık eğitimlerinin yapılmasının gerekliliğini ortaya koymaktadır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Pestisit, satış yeri, yasal düzenlemeler, Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi

Kaynakça

  • 1. United Nations. World Population Prospects 2012. [online]. Available at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Documentati on/publications.htm. Accessed May 12, 2014.
  • 2. Kimya Sanayii Özel İhtisas Komisyonu, Dokuzuncu Kalkınma Planı, 2007–2013 [online]. Available at: http://www.serka.org.tr/downloads/ust_ol cekli/19_kimya_sanayi.pdf . Accessed May 19, 2015.
  • 3. Demirci F, Dursun HY. Türkiye’de Tarım İlaçları Üretim ve Kullanımı. Türkiye Ziraat Mühendisliği VIII. Teknik Kongre Kitabı. Ankara: 1. Baskı; 2015. p. 1069-1079.
  • 4. Robert RJ, Reigart JR. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisining. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington: 6. Baskı, 2013. P. 2-240.
  • 5. Donham KJ, Thelin A. ‘Health Effects of Agricultural Pesticides’. Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for the Health Professions. 1st ed. Iowa, USA:Blackwell Publishing 2006. P. 173-198.
  • 6. George J, Shukla Y. Early Changes in Proteome Levels upon Acute Deltamethrin Exposure in Mammalian Skin System Associated with Its Neoplastic Transformation Potential. J Toxicol Sci 2013;38(4):629–642.
  • 7. Hou L, Andreotti G, Baccarelli AA et al. Lifetime Pesticide Use and Telomere Shortening among Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2013; 121(8): 919–924.
  • 8. Bassil KL, Vakil C, Sanborn M, Cole DC, Kaur JS, Kerr KJ. Cancer Health Effects of Pesticides: systematic review. Can Fam Phtsician. 2007;53(10):1704-1711.
  • 9. Gaytán BD, Loguinov AV, Lantz SR, Lerot JM, Denslow ND, Vulpe CD. Functional Profiling Discovers the Dieldrin Organochlorinated Pesticide Affects Leucine Availability in Yeast. Toxicol Sci 2013;132(2):347–358.
  • 10. Budnik LT, Kloth S, Baur X, Preisser AM, Schwarzenbach H. Circulating Mitochondrial DNA as Biomarker Linking Environmental Chemical Exposure to Early Preclinical Lesions Elevation of mtDNA in Human Serum After Exposure to Carcinogenic Haloalkane-based Pesticides. PLoS One 2013;8(5):e64413.
  • 11. Koutros S, Berndt SI, Hughes Barry K et al. Genetic Susceptibility Loci, Pesticide Exposure and Prostate Cancer Risk. PLoS One 2013;8(4):e58195.
  • 12. Ye M, Beach J, Martin JW, Senthilselvan A. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2013; 10(12): 6442–6471.
  • 13. Navaranjan G, Hohenadel K, Blair A et al. Exposures to Multiple Pesticides and the Risk of Hodgkin Lymphoma in Canadian Men. Cancer Causes Control 2013; 24(9): 1661–1673.
  • 14. Sexton K, Salinas JJ, McDonald TJ.et al. Biomarkers of Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides Measured in Pregnant Hispanic Women from Brownsville, Texas. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2013;10(1):237–248.
  • 15. Bitki Koruma Ürünlerinin Toptan ve Perakende Satılması İle Depolanması Hakkında Yönetmelik. Resmî Gazete Tarihi: 11/10/2007; sayısı: 26670. [online]. Available at: www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/10/ 20071011-11.htm. Accessed July 30, 2015.
  • 16. Field WE, Tormoehlen RL. Education and Training as Intervention Strategies (Eds. James E. Lessenger). Agricultural Medicine; A practical guide, Springer Publishing, 2006, 42-51.
  • 17. İstatistikî Bölge Birimleri Sınıflandırması. Available at: www.tuik.gov.tr/PreIstatistikTablo.do?istab _id=1315. Accessed September 16, 2015.
  • 18. Çapacı B, Arıkan A, Evci Kiraz DE, Ergin F. Aydın’da Bitki Koruma Ürünü Satan Bayilerin Mevzuat Bilgisi ve Üreticilere Danışmanlık Rolü. 1.Uluslararası Katılımlı Ulusal Biyosidal Kongresi, Kongre Kitabı, Antalya 19-22 Mart 2014. [online]. Available at:ftsturizm.org/biyosidal/biyosidalkabul/poster.pdf. Accessed July 30, 2015.
  • 19. Yavuz H, Şimşek Z, Akbaba M. Healthrisk Behaviors in Agriculture and Related Factors, Southeastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. J Agromedicine 2014;19(4):364- 372.
  • 20. Hwang S, Gomez MI, Stark AD et al. Safety Awareness Among New York Farmers. Am J Ind Med 2010; 38(1): 71-81.
  • 21. Şahin G, Uskun E, Ay R, Öztürk M. Elma Yetiştiriciliği Alanında Çalışanların Tarım İlaçları Konusunda Bilgi, Tutum ve Davranışları. TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6): 633-644.
  • 22. Ergönen AT, Salacin S, Ozdemir MH. Pesticide Use Among Greenhouse Workers in Turkey. J ClinForensic Med 2005; 12(4): 205–208.
  • 23. Chen R, Huang J, Qiao F. Farmers' Knowledge on Pest Management and Pesticide Use in Bt Cotton Production in China. China Economic Review 2013; 27: 15–24.
  • 24. Zyoud SH, Sawalha AF, Sweileh WM ve ark. Knowledge and Practices of Pesticide Use Among Farm Workers in the West Bank, Palestine: Safety Implications. Environ Health Prev Med 2010;15(4): 252-61.
  • 25. Mohanty MK, Behera BK, Jena SK, Srikanth S, Mogane C. Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Pesticide Use Among Agricultural Workers in Puducherry, South India. J Forensic Leg Med 2013; 20(8): 1028-1031.
  • 26. Salameh PR, Balhi I, Brochard P, Saleh A. Pesticides in Lebanon: a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Study. Environ Res 2004; 94(1): 1–6.
  • 27. GAP Tarımda Çalışanların Sağlığı Araştırması/2013. Harran Üniversitesi Tarımda İş Sağlığı ve Güvenliği Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi Yayınları, Şanlıurfa: 1. Baskı; 2014. p. 115-122.

Ayrıntılar

Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Burcu KARA Bu kişi benim


Zeynep SİMSEK>

0000-0002-4572-7137

Yayımlanma Tarihi 4 Mayıs 2016
Başvuru Tarihi 4 Mayıs 2016
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016, Cilt 14, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @ { tjph263471, journal = {Turkish Journal of Public Health}, eissn = {1304-1088}, address = {}, publisher = {Halk Sağlığı Uzmanları Derneği}, year = {2016}, volume = {14}, number = {1}, pages = {32 - 42}, doi = {10.20518/thsd.11703}, title = {Evaluation of compliance with regulations on the sale of pesticides in shops in the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Kara, Burcu and Simsek, Zeynep} }
APA Kara, B. & Simsek, Z. (2016). Evaluation of compliance with regulations on the sale of pesticides in shops in the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey . Turkish Journal of Public Health , 14 (1) , 32-42 . DOI: 10.20518/thsd.11703
MLA Kara, B. , Simsek, Z. "Evaluation of compliance with regulations on the sale of pesticides in shops in the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey" . Turkish Journal of Public Health 14 (2016 ): 32-42 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tjph/issue/24963/263471>
Chicago Kara, B. , Simsek, Z. "Evaluation of compliance with regulations on the sale of pesticides in shops in the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey". Turkish Journal of Public Health 14 (2016 ): 32-42
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of compliance with regulations on the sale of pesticides in shops in the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey AU - Burcu Kara , Zeynep Simsek Y1 - 2016 PY - 2016 N1 - doi: 10.20518/thsd.11703 DO - 10.20518/thsd.11703 T2 - Turkish Journal of Public Health JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 32 EP - 42 VL - 14 IS - 1 SN - -1304-1088 M3 - doi: 10.20518/thsd.11703 UR - https://doi.org/10.20518/thsd.11703 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Türkiye Halk Sağlığı Dergisi Evaluation of compliance with regulations on the sale of pesticides in shops in the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey %A Burcu Kara , Zeynep Simsek %T Evaluation of compliance with regulations on the sale of pesticides in shops in the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey %D 2016 %J Turkish Journal of Public Health %P -1304-1088 %V 14 %N 1 %R doi: 10.20518/thsd.11703 %U 10.20518/thsd.11703
ISNAD Kara, Burcu , Simsek, Zeynep . "Evaluation of compliance with regulations on the sale of pesticides in shops in the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey". Turkish Journal of Public Health 14 / 1 (Mayıs 2016): 32-42 . https://doi.org/10.20518/thsd.11703
AMA Kara B. , Simsek Z. Evaluation of compliance with regulations on the sale of pesticides in shops in the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey. TurkJPH. 2016; 14(1): 32-42.
Vancouver Kara B. , Simsek Z. Evaluation of compliance with regulations on the sale of pesticides in shops in the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Public Health. 2016; 14(1): 32-42.
IEEE B. Kara ve Z. Simsek , "Evaluation of compliance with regulations on the sale of pesticides in shops in the Southeastern Anatolia Region in Turkey", Turkish Journal of Public Health, c. 14, sayı. 1, ss. 32-42, May. 2016, doi:10.20518/thsd.11703

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