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Anxiety and insomnia among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Yıl 2020, Cilt 18, Sayı COVID-19 Special, 47 - 57, 06.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.20518/tjph.767187

Öz

Objective: In this study, the anxiety and insomnia levels of healthcare workers were investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The population of this cross-sectional study was the healthcare workers serving in a district health directorate. The data was collected through questionnaire forms which were applied through face-to-face interviews. The form, which consisted of three parts, included questions about the descriptive characteristics of the participants, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Test and the Insomnia Severity Index. Results: 85.6% (n=149) of the study population was reached. The mean age was 35.70 ± 9.27 and 71.5% of the participants were women. 82.3% were college graduates and 10.8% were physicians. 31.5% of all participants worked in the public health services and 24.6% of them worked in oral and dental health centers. While 33.1% of the workers continued their usual duties in the pandemic period, 27.7% of them were working on case tracing and 16.9% of them in the Public Health Management System. 19.2% of the participants were diagnosed with COVID-19. 52.3% of the workers had generalized anxiety disorder and 53.1% of them presented with insomnia. 36.9% of the participants had both generalized anxiety disorder and insomnia. According to education level, high school graduates were the group that had the lowest proportion of anxiety disorder and insomnia (p=0.029; p=0.031, respectively). Conclusions: Anxiety and insomnia are common in district health directorate workers who are at the frontline against the pandemic. The protection of healthcare workers is an important part of the measures to be taken during the pandemic. In order to provide sufficient human resources both in maintaining the well-being of workers and of healthcare services; the mental health problems of healthcare workers should be given high priority. Only thus can the important healthcare services they provide to society continue without disruption.

Kaynakça

  • World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Situation Report – 169.; 2020. doi:10.30895/2312-7821-2020-8-1-3-8
  • Bhaumik S, Moola S, Tyagi J, Nambiar D, Kakoti M. Community health workers for pandemic response: A rapid evidence synthesis. BMJ Glob Heal. 2020;5(6):1-20. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002769
  • Ataç Ö, Uçar A, Taşdemir M. COVID-19 Nedir; Epidemiyoloji, Kaynak ve Bulaş Yolları, Risk Grupları Nelerdir? In: Yiğit Ö, ed. Kulak Burun Boğaz ve COVID-19. 1. Baskı. Ankara: Türkiye Klinikleri.; 2020:1-8.
  • The International Council of Nurses. ICN calls for data on healthcare worker infection rates and deaths [online]. https://www.icn.ch/news/icn-calls-data-healthcare-worker-infection-rates-and-deaths Erişim Tarihi: 08/07/2020.
  • Avidan AY. Sleep and fatigue countermeasures for the neurology resident and physician. Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.). 2013;19(1):204-222. doi:10.1212/01.CON.0000427205.67811.08
  • Demir ÜF. Sleep quality & prevalence of restless legs syndrome among healthcare professionals. J Surg Med. 2020;4(2):144-147. doi:10.28982/josam.693717
  • Zhang WR, Wang K, Yin L, et al. Mental Health and Psychosocial Problems of Medical Health Workers during the COVID-19 Epidemic in China. Psychother Psychosom. 2020;100053(45):242-250. doi:10.1159/000507639
  • Balasopoulou A, Κokkinos P, Pagoulatos D, et al. Psychological impact of COVID-19 on ophthalmologists-in-training and practising ophthalmologists in India. BMC Ophthalmol. 2020;68:994-998. doi:10.4103/ijo.IJO
  • Cheval B, Mongin D, Cullati S, et al. Reciprocal relations between care-related emotional burden and sleep problems in healthcare professionals: A multicentre international cohort study. Occup Environ Med. 2018;0:1-7. doi:10.1136/oemed-2018-105096
  • Çetinol T, Özvurmaz S. Hemşirelerde Uyku Kalitesi ve İlişkili Faktörler. Med Sci. 2018;13(4):80-90. doi:10.12739/NWSA.2018.13.4.1B0054.
  • Chou TL, Chang LI, Chung MH. The mediating and moderating effects of sleep hygiene practice on anxiety and insomnia in hospital nurses. Int J Nurs Pract. 2015;21(Suppl. 2):9-18. doi:10.1111/ijn.12164
  • Ghalichi L, Pournik O, Ghaffari M, Vingard E. Sleep quality among health care workers. Arch Iran Med. 2013;16(2):100-103. doi:013162/AIM.0010
  • Schmidt RE, Cullati S, Mostofsky E, et al. Healthcare-related regret among nurses and physicians is associated with self-rated insomnia severity: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):1-12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139770
  • Christopher DJ, Isaac BT, Rupali P, Thangakunam B. Primary cavitary sarcoidosis: A case report, systematic review, and proposal of new diagnostic criteria. Lung India. 2020;37:238-245. doi:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia
  • Selvi Y, Özdemir PG, Özdemir O, Aydın A, Beşiroğlu L. Sağlık çalışanlarında vardiyalı çalışma sisteminin sebep olduğu genel ruhsal belirtiler ve yaşam kalitesi üzerine etkisi. Dusunen Adam J Psychiatry Neurol Sci. 2010;23(4):237-243. doi:10.5350/dajpn2010230403
  • Maunder R, Hunter J, Vincent L, et al. The immediate psychological and occupational impact of the 2003 SARS outbreak in a teaching hospital. Cmaj. 2003;168(10):1245-1251.
  • Koh D, Lim MK, Chia SE, et al. Risk Perception and Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) on Work and Personal Lives of Healthcare Workers in Singapore What Can We Learn? Med Care. 2005;43(7):676-682.
  • Bennett D, Chiang CF, Malani A. Learning during a crisis: The SARS epidemic in Taiwan. J Dev Econ. 2015;112:1-18. doi:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2014.09.006
  • Bai YM, Lin CC, Lin CY, Chen JY, Chue CM, Chou P. Survey of stress reactions among health care workers involved with the SARS outbreak. Psychiatr Serv. 2004;55(9):1055-1057. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.55.9.1055
  • Uzun ND, Tekin M, Sertel E, Tuncar A. Psychological and social effects of COVID-19 pandemic on obstetrics and gynecology employees. J Surg Med. 2020;4(5):355-358. doi:10.28982/josam.735384
  • Bohlken J, Schömig F, Lemke MR, Pumberger M, Riedel-Heller SG. COVID-19 Pandemic: Stress Experience of Healthcare Workers - A Short Current Review. Psychiatr Prax. 2020;47:190-197. https://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1159-5551
  • Consolo U, Bellini P, Bencivenni D, Iani C, Checchi V. Epidemiological aspects and psychological reactions to COVID-19 of dental practitioners in the Northern Italy districts of modena and reggio emilia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17:1-17. doi:10.3390/ijerph17103459
  • Temsah MH, Al-Sohime F, Alamro N, et al. The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in a MERS-CoV endemic country. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13(6):877-882. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.05.021
  • Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, et al. Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw open. 2020;3(3):e203976. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976
  • Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JW, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-1097.
  • Konkan R, Şenormanci Ö, Güçlü O, Aydin E, Sungur MZ. Validity and reliability study for the Turkish adaptation of the generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale. Noropsikiyatri Ars. 2013;50(1):53-58. doi:10.4274/npa.y6308
  • Bastien CH, Vallières A, Morin CM. Validation of the insomnia severity index as an outcome measure for insomnia research. Sleep Med. 2001;2(4):297-307. doi:10.1016/S1389-9457(00)00065-4
  • Boysan M, Güleç M, Beşiroğlu L, Kalafat T. Psychometric properties of the Insomnia Severity Index in Turkish sample. Anatol J Psychiatry. 2010;11:248-252.
  • Yazdi Z, Sadeghniiat-Haghighi K, Javadi ARHS, Rikhtegar G. Sleep quality and insomnia in nurses with different circadian chronotypes: Morningness and eveningness orientation. Work. 2014;47(4):561-567. doi:10.3233/WOR-131664
  • Weaver MD, Vetter C, Rajaratnam SMW, et al. Sleep disorders, depression, and anxiety are associated with adverse safety outcomes in healthcare workers: A prospective cohort study. J Sleep Res. 2018;27(6):1-18. doi:10.1111/jsr.12722.Sleep
  • Edwards C, Mukherjee S, Simpson L, Palmer LJ, Almeida OP, Hillman DR. Depressive symptoms before and after treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in men and women. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015;11(9):1029-1038. doi:10.5664/jcsm.5020

COVID-19 pandemisinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarında anksiyete belirtileri ve uykusuzluk

Yıl 2020, Cilt 18, Sayı COVID-19 Special, 47 - 57, 06.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.20518/tjph.767187

Öz

Amaç: Bu çalışmada, COVID-19 pandemisi döneminde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarının anksiyete ve uykusuzluk düzeyleri incelenmiştir. Yöntem: Kesitsel türde olan bu çalışmanın evrenini bir ilçe sağlık müdürlüğünde görevli sağlık çalışanları oluşturmaktadır. Veriler yüz yüze görüşme yoluyla uygulanan anket formlarıyla toplanmıştır. Üç bölümden oluşan anket formunda katılımcıların tanımlayıcı özelliklerine yönelik sorular, Yaygın Anksiyete Bozukluğu-7 Testi ve Uykusuzluk Şiddeti İndeksi yer almaktadır. Bulgular: Çalışma evreninin %85.6’sına (n=149) ulaşılmıştır. Yaş ortalaması 35.70±9.27 olup %71.5’i kadındır. %82.3’ü üniversite mezunu, %10.8’i hekimdir. Halk sağlığı hizmetleri biriminde görev yapanlar tüm personelin %31.5’ini; ağız ve diş sağlığı merkezinde görev yapanlar ise %24.6’sını oluşturmaktadır. Katılımcıların %33.1’i pandemi döneminde de aynı görevine devam ederken, %27.7’si vaka filyasyonu, %16.9’u ise Halk Sağlığı Yönetim Sistemi işlemlerinde görev yapmaktadır. COVID-19 tanısı alanların oranı %19.2’dir. Çalışanların %52.3’ünde yaygın anksiyete bozukluğu, %53.1’inde uykusuzluk mevcuttur. Hem yaygın anksiyete bozukluğu hem de uykusuzluk olanların oranı %36.9’dur. Öğrenim durumuna göre, lise mezunları anksiyete bozukluğu ve uykusuzluğun en az olduğu gruptur (sırasıyla p=0.029; p=0.031). Sonuç: Pandemiyle mücadelede ön safta görev yapan ilçe sağlık müdürlüğü personelinde yaygın anksiyete bozukluğu ve uykusuzluk sık görülmektedir. Çalışanların korunması pandemi döneminde alınması gereken önlemlerin önemli bir parçasıdır. Hem çalışanların iyilik halinin sürdürülmesi hem de sağlık hizmetlerinin yürütülmesinde yeterli insan kaynağını sağlayabilmek için sağlık çalışanlarının ruh sağlığı sorunlarına önem verilmelidir. Bu sayede hem çalışanların sağlıkları korunacak hem de topluma sundukları sağlık hizmeti aksamadan devam edecektir.

Kaynakça

  • World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Situation Report – 169.; 2020. doi:10.30895/2312-7821-2020-8-1-3-8
  • Bhaumik S, Moola S, Tyagi J, Nambiar D, Kakoti M. Community health workers for pandemic response: A rapid evidence synthesis. BMJ Glob Heal. 2020;5(6):1-20. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002769
  • Ataç Ö, Uçar A, Taşdemir M. COVID-19 Nedir; Epidemiyoloji, Kaynak ve Bulaş Yolları, Risk Grupları Nelerdir? In: Yiğit Ö, ed. Kulak Burun Boğaz ve COVID-19. 1. Baskı. Ankara: Türkiye Klinikleri.; 2020:1-8.
  • The International Council of Nurses. ICN calls for data on healthcare worker infection rates and deaths [online]. https://www.icn.ch/news/icn-calls-data-healthcare-worker-infection-rates-and-deaths Erişim Tarihi: 08/07/2020.
  • Avidan AY. Sleep and fatigue countermeasures for the neurology resident and physician. Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.). 2013;19(1):204-222. doi:10.1212/01.CON.0000427205.67811.08
  • Demir ÜF. Sleep quality & prevalence of restless legs syndrome among healthcare professionals. J Surg Med. 2020;4(2):144-147. doi:10.28982/josam.693717
  • Zhang WR, Wang K, Yin L, et al. Mental Health and Psychosocial Problems of Medical Health Workers during the COVID-19 Epidemic in China. Psychother Psychosom. 2020;100053(45):242-250. doi:10.1159/000507639
  • Balasopoulou A, Κokkinos P, Pagoulatos D, et al. Psychological impact of COVID-19 on ophthalmologists-in-training and practising ophthalmologists in India. BMC Ophthalmol. 2020;68:994-998. doi:10.4103/ijo.IJO
  • Cheval B, Mongin D, Cullati S, et al. Reciprocal relations between care-related emotional burden and sleep problems in healthcare professionals: A multicentre international cohort study. Occup Environ Med. 2018;0:1-7. doi:10.1136/oemed-2018-105096
  • Çetinol T, Özvurmaz S. Hemşirelerde Uyku Kalitesi ve İlişkili Faktörler. Med Sci. 2018;13(4):80-90. doi:10.12739/NWSA.2018.13.4.1B0054.
  • Chou TL, Chang LI, Chung MH. The mediating and moderating effects of sleep hygiene practice on anxiety and insomnia in hospital nurses. Int J Nurs Pract. 2015;21(Suppl. 2):9-18. doi:10.1111/ijn.12164
  • Ghalichi L, Pournik O, Ghaffari M, Vingard E. Sleep quality among health care workers. Arch Iran Med. 2013;16(2):100-103. doi:013162/AIM.0010
  • Schmidt RE, Cullati S, Mostofsky E, et al. Healthcare-related regret among nurses and physicians is associated with self-rated insomnia severity: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):1-12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139770
  • Christopher DJ, Isaac BT, Rupali P, Thangakunam B. Primary cavitary sarcoidosis: A case report, systematic review, and proposal of new diagnostic criteria. Lung India. 2020;37:238-245. doi:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia
  • Selvi Y, Özdemir PG, Özdemir O, Aydın A, Beşiroğlu L. Sağlık çalışanlarında vardiyalı çalışma sisteminin sebep olduğu genel ruhsal belirtiler ve yaşam kalitesi üzerine etkisi. Dusunen Adam J Psychiatry Neurol Sci. 2010;23(4):237-243. doi:10.5350/dajpn2010230403
  • Maunder R, Hunter J, Vincent L, et al. The immediate psychological and occupational impact of the 2003 SARS outbreak in a teaching hospital. Cmaj. 2003;168(10):1245-1251.
  • Koh D, Lim MK, Chia SE, et al. Risk Perception and Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) on Work and Personal Lives of Healthcare Workers in Singapore What Can We Learn? Med Care. 2005;43(7):676-682.
  • Bennett D, Chiang CF, Malani A. Learning during a crisis: The SARS epidemic in Taiwan. J Dev Econ. 2015;112:1-18. doi:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2014.09.006
  • Bai YM, Lin CC, Lin CY, Chen JY, Chue CM, Chou P. Survey of stress reactions among health care workers involved with the SARS outbreak. Psychiatr Serv. 2004;55(9):1055-1057. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.55.9.1055
  • Uzun ND, Tekin M, Sertel E, Tuncar A. Psychological and social effects of COVID-19 pandemic on obstetrics and gynecology employees. J Surg Med. 2020;4(5):355-358. doi:10.28982/josam.735384
  • Bohlken J, Schömig F, Lemke MR, Pumberger M, Riedel-Heller SG. COVID-19 Pandemic: Stress Experience of Healthcare Workers - A Short Current Review. Psychiatr Prax. 2020;47:190-197. https://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1159-5551
  • Consolo U, Bellini P, Bencivenni D, Iani C, Checchi V. Epidemiological aspects and psychological reactions to COVID-19 of dental practitioners in the Northern Italy districts of modena and reggio emilia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17:1-17. doi:10.3390/ijerph17103459
  • Temsah MH, Al-Sohime F, Alamro N, et al. The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in a MERS-CoV endemic country. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13(6):877-882. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.05.021
  • Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, et al. Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw open. 2020;3(3):e203976. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976
  • Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JW, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-1097.
  • Konkan R, Şenormanci Ö, Güçlü O, Aydin E, Sungur MZ. Validity and reliability study for the Turkish adaptation of the generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale. Noropsikiyatri Ars. 2013;50(1):53-58. doi:10.4274/npa.y6308
  • Bastien CH, Vallières A, Morin CM. Validation of the insomnia severity index as an outcome measure for insomnia research. Sleep Med. 2001;2(4):297-307. doi:10.1016/S1389-9457(00)00065-4
  • Boysan M, Güleç M, Beşiroğlu L, Kalafat T. Psychometric properties of the Insomnia Severity Index in Turkish sample. Anatol J Psychiatry. 2010;11:248-252.
  • Yazdi Z, Sadeghniiat-Haghighi K, Javadi ARHS, Rikhtegar G. Sleep quality and insomnia in nurses with different circadian chronotypes: Morningness and eveningness orientation. Work. 2014;47(4):561-567. doi:10.3233/WOR-131664
  • Weaver MD, Vetter C, Rajaratnam SMW, et al. Sleep disorders, depression, and anxiety are associated with adverse safety outcomes in healthcare workers: A prospective cohort study. J Sleep Res. 2018;27(6):1-18. doi:10.1111/jsr.12722.Sleep
  • Edwards C, Mukherjee S, Simpson L, Palmer LJ, Almeida OP, Hillman DR. Depressive symptoms before and after treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in men and women. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015;11(9):1029-1038. doi:10.5664/jcsm.5020

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Ömer ATAÇ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL MEDİPOL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ, DAHİLİ TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ, HALK SAĞLIĞI ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0001-8984-9673
Türkiye


Mehmet Akif SEZEROL>
Üsküdar İlçe Sağlık Müdürlüğü
0000-0001-6744-1343
Türkiye


Yusuf TAŞÇI>
Üsküdar İlçe Sağlık Müdürlüğü
0000-0002-2154-4221
Türkiye


Osman HAYRAN>
İSTANBUL MEDİPOL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ, DAHİLİ TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ, HALK SAĞLIĞI ANABİLİM DALI
0000-0002-9994-5033
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 6 Aralık 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 9 Temmuz 2020
Kabul Tarihi 25 Kasım 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 18, Sayı COVID-19 Special

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tjph767187, journal = {Turkish Journal of Public Health}, eissn = {1304-1088}, address = {}, publisher = {Halk Sağlığı Uzmanları Derneği}, year = {2020}, volume = {18}, number = {COVID-19 Special}, pages = {47 - 57}, doi = {10.20518/tjph.767187}, title = {COVID-19 pandemisinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarında anksiyete belirtileri ve uykusuzluk}, key = {cite}, author = {Ataç, Ömer and Sezerol, Mehmet Akif and Taşçı, Yusuf and Hayran, Osman} }
APA Ataç, Ö. , Sezerol, M. A. , Taşçı, Y. & Hayran, O. (2020). COVID-19 pandemisinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarında anksiyete belirtileri ve uykusuzluk . Turkish Journal of Public Health , 2020(18):(Özel Sayı) , 47-57 . DOI: 10.20518/tjph.767187
MLA Ataç, Ö. , Sezerol, M. A. , Taşçı, Y. , Hayran, O. "COVID-19 pandemisinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarında anksiyete belirtileri ve uykusuzluk" . Turkish Journal of Public Health 18 (2020 ): 47-57 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tjph/issue/57957/767187>
Chicago Ataç, Ö. , Sezerol, M. A. , Taşçı, Y. , Hayran, O. "COVID-19 pandemisinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarında anksiyete belirtileri ve uykusuzluk". Turkish Journal of Public Health 18 (2020 ): 47-57
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - COVID-19 pandemisinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarında anksiyete belirtileri ve uykusuzluk AU - ÖmerAtaç, Mehmet AkifSezerol, YusufTaşçı, OsmanHayran Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.20518/tjph.767187 DO - 10.20518/tjph.767187 T2 - Turkish Journal of Public Health JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 47 EP - 57 VL - 18 IS - COVID-19 Special SN - -1304-1088 M3 - doi: 10.20518/tjph.767187 UR - https://doi.org/10.20518/tjph.767187 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Türkiye Halk Sağlığı Dergisi COVID-19 pandemisinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarında anksiyete belirtileri ve uykusuzluk %A Ömer Ataç , Mehmet Akif Sezerol , Yusuf Taşçı , Osman Hayran %T COVID-19 pandemisinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarında anksiyete belirtileri ve uykusuzluk %D 2020 %J Turkish Journal of Public Health %P -1304-1088 %V 18 %N COVID-19 Special %R doi: 10.20518/tjph.767187 %U 10.20518/tjph.767187
ISNAD Ataç, Ömer , Sezerol, Mehmet Akif , Taşçı, Yusuf , Hayran, Osman . "COVID-19 pandemisinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarında anksiyete belirtileri ve uykusuzluk". Turkish Journal of Public Health 18 / COVID-19 Special (Aralık 2020): 47-57 . https://doi.org/10.20518/tjph.767187
AMA Ataç Ö. , Sezerol M. A. , Taşçı Y. , Hayran O. COVID-19 pandemisinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarında anksiyete belirtileri ve uykusuzluk. TurkJPH. 2020; 18(COVID-19 Special): 47-57.
Vancouver Ataç Ö. , Sezerol M. A. , Taşçı Y. , Hayran O. COVID-19 pandemisinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarında anksiyete belirtileri ve uykusuzluk. Turkish Journal of Public Health. 2020; 18(COVID-19 Special): 47-57.
IEEE Ö. Ataç , M. A. Sezerol , Y. Taşçı ve O. Hayran , "COVID-19 pandemisinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarında anksiyete belirtileri ve uykusuzluk", Turkish Journal of Public Health, c. 18, sayı. COVID-19 Special, ss. 47-57, Ara. 2020, doi:10.20518/tjph.767187

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