Araştırma Makalesi
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Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 64, 1 - 17, 31.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.17066/tpdrd.1095688

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Akça-Koca, D., & Erden, S. (2018). The effect of cognitive-behavioral group counseling on psychological resilience and level of humor in adolescents. Life Skills Journal of Psychology, 2(3), 61-72. https://doi.org/10.31461/ybpd.414466
  • American Psychiatric Association (2014). Mental bozuklukların tanısal ve sayımsal elkitabı (DSM 5) [Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.)] (E. Köroğlu, Trans.). Hekimler Yayın Birliği. (Original work published 2013).
  • Balcı, İ. (2018). Çocukluk çağı travmaları ile baş etme yönelimli psiko-eğitim programının psikolojik sağlamlık üzerindeki etkisi [The impact of coping with childhood traumas oriented psycho-education program on resilience] (Publication No. 511061) [Doctoral dissertation, Karadeniz Technical University]. YÖK Thesis Center.
  • Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173
  • Beck, A. T. (1964). Thinking and depression: II. Theory and therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 10(6), 561–571. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1964.01720240015003
  • Boyraz, G., & Legros, D. N. (2020). Coronavirus disease (covid-19) and traumatic stress: Probable risk factors and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 25(6-7), 503-522. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2020.1763556
  • Bozkurt, N. (2019). Ergenlerde psikolojik sağlamlık ve bilişsel esneklik düzeylerinin sınav kaygısı ile ilişkisi [The relationship between resilience and cognitive flexibility levels and test anxiety in adolescents] (Publication No. 553887) [Master thesis, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa]. YÖK Thesis Center.
  • Briere, J. N. ve Scott, C. (2014). Travma terapisinin ilkeleri: Belirtiler, değerlendirme ve tedavi için bir kılavuz [Principles of trauma therapy: A guide to symptoms, evaluation, and treatment] (B. D. Genç, Trans.). İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları. (Original work published 2006).
  • Brooks, S., Amlôt, R., Rubin, G. J., & Greenberg, N. (2020). Psychological resilience and post-traumatic growth in disaster-exposed organisations: Overview of the literature. BMJ Military Health, 166(1), 52-56. https://doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2017-000876
  • Büyükaşık-Çolak, C., Gündoğdu-Aktürk, E., & Bozo, O. (2012). Mediating role of coping in the dispositional optimism-posttraumatic growth relation in breast cancer patients. The Journal of Psychology, 146(5), 471–483. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2012.654520
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çokluk, Ö., & Köklü, N. (2013). Sosyal bilimler için istatistik [Statistics for social sciences] (12th ed.). Pegem Akademi.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2012). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods] (7th ed.). Pegem Akademi
  • Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (1998). Posttraumatic growth: Future directions. In R. G. Tedeschi, C. L. Park, & L. G. Calhoun (Eds.), Posttraumatic growth: Positive change in the aftermath of crisis (pp. 215-238). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Cañas, J. J., Quesada, J. F., Antoli, A., & Fajardo, I. (2003). Cognitive flexibility and adaptability to environmental changes in dynamic complex problem-solving tasks. Ergonomics, 46(5), 482–501. https://doi.org/10.1080/0014013031000061640
  • Casagrande, M., Favieri, F., Tambelli, R., & Forte, G. (2020). The enemy who sealed the world: Effects quarantine due to the COVID-19 on sleep quality, anxiety, and psychological distress in the Italian population. Sleep Medicine, 75, 12–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.05.011
  • Chen, R., Sun, C., Chen, J. J., Jen, H. J., Kang, X. L., Kao, C. C., & Chou, K. R. (2021). A large-scale survey on trauma, burnout, and posttraumatic growth among nurses during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 30(1), 102–116. https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12796
  • Crone, E. A., Ridderinkhof, K. R., Worm, M., Somsen, R. J. M., & Van der Molen, M. W. (2004). Switching between spatial stimulus–response mappings: A developmental study of cognitive flexibility. Developmental Science, 7(4), 443-455. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2004.00365.x
  • Dennis, J. P., & Wal, J. S. V. (2010). The cognitive flexibility inventory: Instrument development and estimates of reliability and validity. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34(3), 241-253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9276-4
  • Doğan, T. (2015). Adaptation of the Brief Resilience Scale into Turkish: A validity and reliability study. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 3(1), 93-102. https://toad.halileksi.net/sites/default/files/pdf/kisa-psikolojik-saglamlik-olcegi-toad.pdf
  • Durlak, J. A. (1998). Common risk and protective factors in successful prevention programs. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(4), 512-520. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0080360
  • Erden-Çınar, S., & Eminoğlu, Z. (2020). The effect of cognitive behavioral based psycho-education program on psychological resilience and emotion regulation. OPUS International Journal of Society Researches, 15(21), 1401-1429. https://doi.org/10.26466/opus.626228
  • Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistic using SPSS (3rd ed.). Sage Publications Inc.
  • Gabrys, R. L., Tabri, N., Anisman, H., & Matheson, K. (2018). Cognitive control and flexibility in the context of stress and depressive symptoms: The cognitive control and flexibility questionnaire. Frontiers in Pssychology, 9(2219), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02219
  • Geyik-Koç, G. (2020). Bilişsel esneklik ve psikolojik dayanıklılık ile stresle başa çıkma arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi [Analysis of the correlation between cognitive flexibility and psychological resilience in coping with stress] (Publication No. 631281) [Master thesis, Sakarya University]. YÖK Thesis Center.
  • Gurgan, U. (2020). The effect of psychodrama integrated psycho-education program on resilience and divorce adjustment of children of divorced families. World Journal of Education, 10(1), 56-68. https://doi.org/10.5430/wje.v10n1p56
  • Güleç, S. (2020). Lise öğrencilerinde bilişsel esneklik ile psikolojik sağlamlık arasındaki ilişkide yaşam amaçlarının aracı rolü [Mediator role of life goals in the relationship between cognitive flexibility and resilience in high school student]. Gelişim ve Psikoloji Dergisi, 1(1), 27-35. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gpd/issue/50139/740073
  • Gülüm, İ. V., & Dağ, İ. (2012). The Turkish adaptation, validity and reliability study of the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire and the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 13, 216-223.
  • Hawryluck, L., Gold, W. L., Robinson, S., Pogorski, S., Galea, S., & Styra, R. (2004). SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(7), 1206-1212. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201%2Feid1007.030703
  • Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press.
  • Herman, J. L. (1992). Trauma and recovery. Basic Books.
  • Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., ... & Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS0140-6736(20)30183-5
  • Johnson, B. (2008). Teacher-student relationships which promote resilience at school: A micro-level analysis of students' views. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 36(4), 385–398. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069880802364528
  • Kağan, M., Güleç, M., Boysan, M., & Çavuş, H. (2012). Hierarchical factor structure of the Turkish version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory in a normal population. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin, 11(5), 617 – 624. https://www.cabdirect.org/globalhealth/abstract/20133003640
  • Karaırmak, Ö. (2006). Resilience, risk and protective factors. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 3(26), 129-142. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/200210
  • Keyfitz, L. (2010). The role of positive schemas in child psychopathology and resilience [Master thesis, The University of Guelph]. https://hdl.handle.net/10214/23315
  • Keyfitz, L., Lumley, M. N., Hennig, K. H., & Dozois, D. J. A. (2013). The role of positive schemas in child psychopathology and resilience. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(1), 97–108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9455-6
  • Kılıç, S. (2018). Üniversite öğrencilerinde pozitif şemaların iyi oluş ve psikolojik belirtileri yordaması [The prediction of positive schemas of wellbeing and psychopathology of university students] (Publication No. 527516) [Master thesis, Gazi University]. YÖK Thesis Center.
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  • Özkapu, Y. (2019). Suriyeli çocuklarla çalışan psikolojik danışmanların, kişilik özellikleri ve öz yeterlik algılarının psikolojik sağlamlıkları üzerindeki etkisi [The effect of psychological counselors working with Syrian children on resilience of personality and self-efficiency perceptions] (Publication No. 565728) [Master thesis, Marmara University]. YÖK Thesis Center.
  • Piaget, J. (1964). Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2(3), 176-186. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660020306.
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  • Sayar, K. (Ed.). (2020). Kaygı çağı: Salgın zamanlarında ruh sağlığı. Kapı Yayınları.
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  • Soltani, E., Shareh, H., Bahrainian, S. A., & Farmani, A. (2013). The mediating role of cognitive flexibility in correlation of coping styles and resilience with depression. Pajoohandeh Journal, 18(2), 88-96. https://pajoohande.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-1518-en.html
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The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Growth and Psychological Resilience in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Flexibility and Positive Schemas

Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 64, 1 - 17, 31.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.17066/tpdrd.1095688

Öz

The aim of this study was to examine the serial multiple mediator roles of cognitive flexibility and positive schemas in the relationship between posttraumatic growth and psychological resilience of adult individuals in the Covid 19 pandemic. Correlational survey model was used in this study. The sample of the research consists of 329 adult individuals, 233 women (70,8%) and 96 men (29,2%). Personal Information Form, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Positive Schema Scale, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, and The Brief Resilience Scale were used as data collection tools. The research data were analyzed by using SPSS Statistics 21.0 and SPSS Process Macro. In this study, The PROCESS Macro proposed by Hayes was used to conduct serial multiple mediation analysis. According to the findings of the study, the mediator role of cognitive flexibility and positive schemas in the relationship between posttraumatic growth and psychological resilience was found to be statistically significant.

Kaynakça

  • Akça-Koca, D., & Erden, S. (2018). The effect of cognitive-behavioral group counseling on psychological resilience and level of humor in adolescents. Life Skills Journal of Psychology, 2(3), 61-72. https://doi.org/10.31461/ybpd.414466
  • American Psychiatric Association (2014). Mental bozuklukların tanısal ve sayımsal elkitabı (DSM 5) [Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.)] (E. Köroğlu, Trans.). Hekimler Yayın Birliği. (Original work published 2013).
  • Balcı, İ. (2018). Çocukluk çağı travmaları ile baş etme yönelimli psiko-eğitim programının psikolojik sağlamlık üzerindeki etkisi [The impact of coping with childhood traumas oriented psycho-education program on resilience] (Publication No. 511061) [Doctoral dissertation, Karadeniz Technical University]. YÖK Thesis Center.
  • Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173
  • Beck, A. T. (1964). Thinking and depression: II. Theory and therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 10(6), 561–571. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1964.01720240015003
  • Boyraz, G., & Legros, D. N. (2020). Coronavirus disease (covid-19) and traumatic stress: Probable risk factors and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 25(6-7), 503-522. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2020.1763556
  • Bozkurt, N. (2019). Ergenlerde psikolojik sağlamlık ve bilişsel esneklik düzeylerinin sınav kaygısı ile ilişkisi [The relationship between resilience and cognitive flexibility levels and test anxiety in adolescents] (Publication No. 553887) [Master thesis, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa]. YÖK Thesis Center.
  • Briere, J. N. ve Scott, C. (2014). Travma terapisinin ilkeleri: Belirtiler, değerlendirme ve tedavi için bir kılavuz [Principles of trauma therapy: A guide to symptoms, evaluation, and treatment] (B. D. Genç, Trans.). İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları. (Original work published 2006).
  • Brooks, S., Amlôt, R., Rubin, G. J., & Greenberg, N. (2020). Psychological resilience and post-traumatic growth in disaster-exposed organisations: Overview of the literature. BMJ Military Health, 166(1), 52-56. https://doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2017-000876
  • Büyükaşık-Çolak, C., Gündoğdu-Aktürk, E., & Bozo, O. (2012). Mediating role of coping in the dispositional optimism-posttraumatic growth relation in breast cancer patients. The Journal of Psychology, 146(5), 471–483. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2012.654520
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çokluk, Ö., & Köklü, N. (2013). Sosyal bilimler için istatistik [Statistics for social sciences] (12th ed.). Pegem Akademi.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2012). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods] (7th ed.). Pegem Akademi
  • Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (1998). Posttraumatic growth: Future directions. In R. G. Tedeschi, C. L. Park, & L. G. Calhoun (Eds.), Posttraumatic growth: Positive change in the aftermath of crisis (pp. 215-238). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Cañas, J. J., Quesada, J. F., Antoli, A., & Fajardo, I. (2003). Cognitive flexibility and adaptability to environmental changes in dynamic complex problem-solving tasks. Ergonomics, 46(5), 482–501. https://doi.org/10.1080/0014013031000061640
  • Casagrande, M., Favieri, F., Tambelli, R., & Forte, G. (2020). The enemy who sealed the world: Effects quarantine due to the COVID-19 on sleep quality, anxiety, and psychological distress in the Italian population. Sleep Medicine, 75, 12–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.05.011
  • Chen, R., Sun, C., Chen, J. J., Jen, H. J., Kang, X. L., Kao, C. C., & Chou, K. R. (2021). A large-scale survey on trauma, burnout, and posttraumatic growth among nurses during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 30(1), 102–116. https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12796
  • Crone, E. A., Ridderinkhof, K. R., Worm, M., Somsen, R. J. M., & Van der Molen, M. W. (2004). Switching between spatial stimulus–response mappings: A developmental study of cognitive flexibility. Developmental Science, 7(4), 443-455. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2004.00365.x
  • Dennis, J. P., & Wal, J. S. V. (2010). The cognitive flexibility inventory: Instrument development and estimates of reliability and validity. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34(3), 241-253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9276-4
  • Doğan, T. (2015). Adaptation of the Brief Resilience Scale into Turkish: A validity and reliability study. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 3(1), 93-102. https://toad.halileksi.net/sites/default/files/pdf/kisa-psikolojik-saglamlik-olcegi-toad.pdf
  • Durlak, J. A. (1998). Common risk and protective factors in successful prevention programs. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(4), 512-520. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0080360
  • Erden-Çınar, S., & Eminoğlu, Z. (2020). The effect of cognitive behavioral based psycho-education program on psychological resilience and emotion regulation. OPUS International Journal of Society Researches, 15(21), 1401-1429. https://doi.org/10.26466/opus.626228
  • Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistic using SPSS (3rd ed.). Sage Publications Inc.
  • Gabrys, R. L., Tabri, N., Anisman, H., & Matheson, K. (2018). Cognitive control and flexibility in the context of stress and depressive symptoms: The cognitive control and flexibility questionnaire. Frontiers in Pssychology, 9(2219), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02219
  • Geyik-Koç, G. (2020). Bilişsel esneklik ve psikolojik dayanıklılık ile stresle başa çıkma arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi [Analysis of the correlation between cognitive flexibility and psychological resilience in coping with stress] (Publication No. 631281) [Master thesis, Sakarya University]. YÖK Thesis Center.
  • Gurgan, U. (2020). The effect of psychodrama integrated psycho-education program on resilience and divorce adjustment of children of divorced families. World Journal of Education, 10(1), 56-68. https://doi.org/10.5430/wje.v10n1p56
  • Güleç, S. (2020). Lise öğrencilerinde bilişsel esneklik ile psikolojik sağlamlık arasındaki ilişkide yaşam amaçlarının aracı rolü [Mediator role of life goals in the relationship between cognitive flexibility and resilience in high school student]. Gelişim ve Psikoloji Dergisi, 1(1), 27-35. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/gpd/issue/50139/740073
  • Gülüm, İ. V., & Dağ, İ. (2012). The Turkish adaptation, validity and reliability study of the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire and the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 13, 216-223.
  • Hawryluck, L., Gold, W. L., Robinson, S., Pogorski, S., Galea, S., & Styra, R. (2004). SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(7), 1206-1212. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201%2Feid1007.030703
  • Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press.
  • Herman, J. L. (1992). Trauma and recovery. Basic Books.
  • Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., ... & Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS0140-6736(20)30183-5
  • Johnson, B. (2008). Teacher-student relationships which promote resilience at school: A micro-level analysis of students' views. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 36(4), 385–398. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069880802364528
  • Kağan, M., Güleç, M., Boysan, M., & Çavuş, H. (2012). Hierarchical factor structure of the Turkish version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory in a normal population. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin, 11(5), 617 – 624. https://www.cabdirect.org/globalhealth/abstract/20133003640
  • Karaırmak, Ö. (2006). Resilience, risk and protective factors. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 3(26), 129-142. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/200210
  • Keyfitz, L. (2010). The role of positive schemas in child psychopathology and resilience [Master thesis, The University of Guelph]. https://hdl.handle.net/10214/23315
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Psikoloji
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Seval ERDEN ÇINAR Bu kişi benim
MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Cem BOYALI>
Bir kuruma bağlı değildir
0000-0002-7868-3011
Türkiye


Yakup ÖZKAPU>
Bir kuruma bağlı değildir
0000-0003-1813-1263
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 12, Sayı 64

Kaynak Göster

APA Erden Çınar, S. , Boyalı, C. & Özkapu, Y. (2022). The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Growth and Psychological Resilience in the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Flexibility and Positive Schemas . Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal , 12 (64) , 1-17 . DOI: 10.17066/tpdrd.1095688