Araştırma Makalesi

Bu çalışmanın amacı, ortaokul matematik öğretmeni adaylarından istatistiksel bir araştırmanın bulgularını sunan bir gazete haberini okumaları istendiğinde öğretmen adaylarının nasıl eleştirel düşündüklerini incelemektir. Çalışmanın katılımcıları bir devlet üniversitesinde öğrenim gören dört son sınıf ortaokul matematik öğretmeni adayıdır. Araştırmanın amacına uygun olarak, durum çalışması yönteminden yararlanılmıştır. Çalışmanın ana veri toplama kaynağını, öğretmen adaylarıyla yapılan görüşmeler oluşturmaktadır. Yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler aracılığıyla katılımcıların eleştirel düşünme süreçleri derinlemesine incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmanın bulguları, ortaokul matematik öğretmeni adaylarının bilimsel araştırma içeren bir gazete haberini okurken çeşitli eleştirel düşünme süreçlerinden (anlama, bağlantı kurma, çıkarım yapma, eleştirme ve yansıtıcı düşünme) yararlandıklarını ortaya koymaktadır. Aynı zamanda bu eleştirel düşünme süreçlerinin birbirleriyle ilişki olduğuna dair ipuçları sunmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın, istatistiksel okuryazarlık bağlamında eleştirel düşünmenin tanımlanmasına ilişkin harmanlanmış bir teorik çerçeve sunarak, istatistik eğitimi ve eleştirel düşünme çalışmalarına ışık tutacağı öngörülmektedir. Ayrıca bu çalışma, matematik öğretmeni adayları için istatistik eğitimi derslerinde hem eleştirel düşünme hem de istatistiksel okuryazarlığın geliştirilmesi için medya metinleri içeren ders içeriklerinin geliştirilmesini önermektedir.

Eleştirel düşünme İstatistiksel okuryazarlık Matematik eğitimi Medya metinleri Öğretmen yetiştirme

- Aizikovitsh-Udi, E., Kuntze, S., & Clarke, D. (2016). Connections between statistical thinking and critical thinking: A case study. In D. Ben-Zvi & K. Makar (Eds.), The teaching and learning of statistics (pp. 83-94). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-23470-0_8
- Australian Education Council (1991). A national statement on mathematics for Australian schools. Carlton, Victoria: Curriculum Corporation.
- Batanero, C., Burrill, G., & Reading, C. (2011). Overview: Challenges for teaching statistics in school mathematics and preparing mathematics teachers. In C. Batanero, G. Burrill, & C. Reading (Eds.), Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics. Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education: AJoint ISMI/IASE Study (pp. 407–418). New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-1131-0
- Batanero, C., & Díaz, C. (2010). Training teachers to teach statistics: what can we learn from research? Statistique et enseignement, 1(1), 5-20.
- Ben-Zvi, D., & Garfield, J. (2008). Introducing the emerging discipline of statistics education. School Science and Mathematics, 108(8), 355-361. DOI: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.2008.tb17850.x
- Böcherer-Linder, K., Eichler, A., & Vogel, M. (2017). The impact of visualization on flexible Bayesian reasoning. Avances de investigación en educación matemática, 11, 25-46. DOI: 10.35763/aiem.v1i11.169
- Budgett, S., & Pfannkuch, M. (2010). Assessing students’ statistical literacy. In P. Bidgood, N. Hunt, & F. Jolliffe (Eds.), Assessment methods in statistical education: An international perspective (pp. 103–121). Chichester, UK: Wiley. DOI: 10.1002/9780470710470.ch9
- Burrill, G., & Biehler, R. (2011). Fundamental statistical ideas in the school curriculum and in training teachers. In C. Batanero, G. Burrill, & C. Reading (Eds.), Teaching statistics in school mathematics: Challenges for teaching and teacher education (A joint ICMI/IASE Study) (pp. 57–69). New York, NY: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-1131-0_10
- Cantürk-Günhan, B., Bukova-Güzel, E. & Özgür, Z. (2012). The prospective mathematics teachers’ thought processes and views about using problem-based learning in statistics education. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Sciences and Technology, 43(2), 145-165. DOI: 10.1080/0020739X.2011.592611
- Carnell, L. J. (1997). Characteristics of reasoning about conditional probability (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Greensboro.
- Cheat radar better tuned in men, study finds. (2008, October 30). The Mercury (Hobart, Tasmania), p. 3.
- Chesler, J. (2015). Reading the News: The Statistical Preparation of Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers. Issues in the Undergraduate Mathematics Preparation of School Teachers, 1. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1061106
- delMas, R. (2002). Statistical literacy, reasoning and learning: A commentary. Journal of Statistics Education, 10(3). Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10691898.2002.11910679. DOI: 10.1080/10691898.2002.11910679
- Ennis, R. H. (1985). A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills. Educational Leadership, 43(2), 44-48.
- Ennis, R. H., & Weir, E. E. (1985). The Ennis-Weir critical thinking essay test: An instrument for teaching and testing. Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest Publications.
- Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction. Research findings and recommendations (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED315423). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED315423.
- Facione, P. A. (2011). Think critically. New York: Pearson Education, Englewood Cliffs.
- Falk, R. (1986). Conditional probabilities: Insights and difficulties. In R. Davidson & J. Swift (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Teaching Statistics (pp. 292-297). Victoria, Canada: International Statistical Institute.
- Gal, I. (2002). Adults’ statistical literacy: Meaning, components, responsibilities. International Statistical Review, 70(1), 1–25. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-5823.2002.tb00336.x
- Gal, I. (2005). Towards “probability literacy” for all citizens: Building blocks and instructional dilemmas. In G. A. Jones (Ed.), Exploring probability in school. Challenges for teaching and learning (pp. 39-63). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. DOI: 10.1007/0-387-24530-8_3
- Gattuso, L., & Ottaviani, M. G. (2011). Complementing mathematical thinking and statistical thinking in school mathematics. In C. Batanero, G. Burrill & C. Reading (Eds.), Teaching statistics in school mathematics-Challenges for teaching and teacher education: A Joint ICMI/IASE Study (pp. 121-132). Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-1131-0_15
- Gelman, A., & Nolan, D. (2002). Teaching statistics: A bag of tricks. Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198785699.001.0001
- Gould, R. (2017). Data literacy is statistical literacy. Statistics Education Research Journal, 16(1), 22-25.
- Halpern, D. F. (1998). Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains. American Psychologist, 53(4), 449–455. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.53.4.449
- Jacobs, H. (2010). Curriculum 21: Essential education for a changing world. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
- Jarman, R., & McClune, B. (2007). Developing scientific literacy: Using news media in the classroom. England, Open University Press.
- Kennedy, M., Fisher, M. B. & Ennis, R. H. (1991). Critical thinking: Literature review and needed research. In L. Idol & B. F. Jones (Eds.), Educational values and cognitive instruction: Implications for reform (pp. 11-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315044392
- Kuhn, D. (1999). A developmental model of critical thinking. Educational Researcher, 28(2), 16-25. DOI: 10.3102/0013189X028002016
- Kuntze, S., Aizikovitsh-Udi, E., & Clarke, D. (2017). Hybrid task design: Connecting learning opportunities related to critical thinking and statistical thinking. ZDM, 49(6), 923-935. DOI: 10.1007/s11858-017-0874-4
- Lin, S. S. (2014). Science and non-science undergraduate students’ critical thinking and argumentation performance in reading a science news report. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 12(5), 1023-1046. DOI: 10.1007/s10763-013-9451-7
- McClune, B. & Jarman, R. (2012). Encouraging and equipping students to engage critically with science in the news: What can we learn from the literature? Studies in Science Education, 48(1), 1–49. DOI: 10.1080/03057267.2012.655036
- McPeck, J. E. (1990). Critical thinking and subject specificity: A reply to Ennis. Educational Researcher, 19(4), 10-12. DOI: 10.3102/0013189X019004010
- Ministry of National Education (2018). Matematik Dersi Öğretim Programı (İlkokul ve Ortaokul 1-8. Sınıflar) [Teaching Program of Mathematics Course (Elementary and Middle School 1-8 Grades)]. Ankara. Retrieved from http://mufredat.meb.gov.tr/Dosyalar/201813017165445-MATEMAT%C4%B0K%20%C3%96%C4%9ERET%C4%B0M%20PROGRAMI%202018v.pdf.
- Moore, D. S. (1998). Statistics among the liberal arts. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 93(444), 1253-1259. DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1998.10473786
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: NCTM.
- Norris, S. P. & Phillips, L. M. (2012). Reading science: How naive view of reading hinders so much else. In A. Zohar & Y. J. Dori (Eds.), Metacognition in science education: Trends in current research (pp. 37-56). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2132-6_3
- Paul, R. (1984). Critical thinking: Fundamental for education in a free society. Educational Leadership, 42(1), 4-14.
- Rumsey, D. J. (2002). Statistical literacy as a goal for introductory statistics courses. Journal of Statistics Education, 10(3). DOI: 10.1080/10691898.2002.11910678
- Schield, M. (1999). Statistical literacy: Thinking critically about statistics. Of Significance, 1(1), 15-20. Retrieved from www.statlit.org/pdf/1999SchieldAPDU.pdf.
- Schield, M. (2004). Information literacy, statistical literacy, data literacy. IASSIST quarterly, 28(2-3), 6-11. DOI: 10.29173/iq790
- Siegel, H. (1988). Educating reason: Rationality, critical thinking, and education. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.1177/027046769101100128
- Stohl (2005). Probability in teacher education and development. In G. Jones (Ed.), Exploring probability in schools: Challenges for teaching and learning (pp. 345- 366). Dodrecht: Kluwer. DOI: 10.1007/0-387-24530-8_15
- ten Dam, G., & Volman, M. (2004). Critical thinking as a citizenship competence: Teaching strategies. Learning and Instruction, 14(4), 359-379. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2004.01.005
- Utts, J. (2003). What educated citizens should know about statistics and probability. The American Statistician, 57(2), 74-79. DOI: 10.1198/0003130031630
- Vieira, R. M., & Tenreiro-Vieira, C. (2016). Fostering scientific literacy and critical thinking in elementary science education. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 14(4), 659-680. DOI: 10.1007/s10763-014-9605-2
- Wagner, T. (2014). The global achievement gap: Why even our best schools don't teach the new survival skills our children need and what we can do about it. New York: Basic Books.
- Wallman, K. (1993). Enhancing statistical literacy: Enriching our society. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 88(421), 1-8. DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1993.10594283
- Watson, J. M. (1995). Conditional probability: Its place in the mathematics curriculum. The Mathematics Teacher, 88(1), 12-17.
- Watson, J. M. (1997). Assessing statistical literacy through the use of media surveys. In I. Gal & J. Garfield (Eds.), The assessment challenge in statistics education (pp. 107-121). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute/ IOS Press.
- Watson, J. M. (2006). Statistical literacy at school: Growth and goals. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. DOI: 10.4324/9780203053898
- Watson, J. M. (2011). Cheating partners, conditional probability and contingency tables. Teaching Statistics, 33(3), 66-70. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9639.2010.00421.x
- Watson, J., & Callingham, R. (2003). Statistical literacy: A complex hierarchical construct. Statistics Education Research Journal, 2(2), 3-46.
- Watson, J., & Callingham, R. (2014). Two-way tables: Issues at the heart of statistics and probability for students and teachers. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 16(4), 254-284. DOI: 10.1080/10986065.2014.953019
- Watson, J., Callingham, R., & Nathan, E. (2009). Probing teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in statistics: “How will Tom get to school tomorrow?” In R. Hunter, B. Bicknell, & T. Burgess (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (Vol. 2, pp. 563-570). Adelaide: MERGA.
- Watson, J. M., & Moritz, J. (2002). Quantitative Literacy for pre-service teachers via the Internet. Mathematics Teachers Education and Development, 4(1), 42-55.
- Watson, J., & Nathan, E. (2010). Biased sampling and PCK: The case of the marijuana problem. In L. Sparrow, B. Kissane, & C. Hurst (Eds.), Shaping the future of mathematics education. Proceedings of the 33rd annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (Vol. 2, pp. 610-617). Fremantle, WA: MERGA.
- Zhang, Q., & Stephens, M. (2016). Teacher capacity as a key element of national curriculum reform in statistical thinking: A comparative study between Australia and China. In D. Ben-Zvi and M. Makar (Eds.), The Teaching and Learning of Statistics (pp. 301-313). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-23470-0_36

This study aimed to explore how prospective middle school mathematics teachers think critically about a newspaper article that reported the findings of a statistical research. Participants of the study were four fourth-year students enrolled at the mathematics teacher education program of a public university. To investigate the research question of the study, case study method was employed. In-depth semi-structured interviews were done to examine participants’ critical thinking processes. The findings of the study indicated that prospective mathematics teachers made use of a variety of critical thinking processes (comprehending, making connections, inferring ideas, critiquing, and self-reflecting) and provided clues about the interrelated nature of these processes. This study would shed light on the characterization of critical thinking in the context of statistical literacy by suggesting a blended framework. It also suggests the design of the tasks including media articles to promote both statistical literacy and critical thinking in statistics education courses for prospective mathematics teachers.

Critical thinking Mathematics education Media texts Statistical literacy Teacher training

- Aizikovitsh-Udi, E., Kuntze, S., & Clarke, D. (2016). Connections between statistical thinking and critical thinking: A case study. In D. Ben-Zvi & K. Makar (Eds.), The teaching and learning of statistics (pp. 83-94). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-23470-0_8
- Australian Education Council (1991). A national statement on mathematics for Australian schools. Carlton, Victoria: Curriculum Corporation.
- Batanero, C., Burrill, G., & Reading, C. (2011). Overview: Challenges for teaching statistics in school mathematics and preparing mathematics teachers. In C. Batanero, G. Burrill, & C. Reading (Eds.), Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics. Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education: AJoint ISMI/IASE Study (pp. 407–418). New York: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-1131-0
- Batanero, C., & Díaz, C. (2010). Training teachers to teach statistics: what can we learn from research? Statistique et enseignement, 1(1), 5-20.
- Ben-Zvi, D., & Garfield, J. (2008). Introducing the emerging discipline of statistics education. School Science and Mathematics, 108(8), 355-361. DOI: 10.1111/j.1949-8594.2008.tb17850.x
- Böcherer-Linder, K., Eichler, A., & Vogel, M. (2017). The impact of visualization on flexible Bayesian reasoning. Avances de investigación en educación matemática, 11, 25-46. DOI: 10.35763/aiem.v1i11.169
- Budgett, S., & Pfannkuch, M. (2010). Assessing students’ statistical literacy. In P. Bidgood, N. Hunt, & F. Jolliffe (Eds.), Assessment methods in statistical education: An international perspective (pp. 103–121). Chichester, UK: Wiley. DOI: 10.1002/9780470710470.ch9
- Burrill, G., & Biehler, R. (2011). Fundamental statistical ideas in the school curriculum and in training teachers. In C. Batanero, G. Burrill, & C. Reading (Eds.), Teaching statistics in school mathematics: Challenges for teaching and teacher education (A joint ICMI/IASE Study) (pp. 57–69). New York, NY: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-1131-0_10
- Cantürk-Günhan, B., Bukova-Güzel, E. & Özgür, Z. (2012). The prospective mathematics teachers’ thought processes and views about using problem-based learning in statistics education. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Sciences and Technology, 43(2), 145-165. DOI: 10.1080/0020739X.2011.592611
- Carnell, L. J. (1997). Characteristics of reasoning about conditional probability (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Greensboro.
- Cheat radar better tuned in men, study finds. (2008, October 30). The Mercury (Hobart, Tasmania), p. 3.
- Chesler, J. (2015). Reading the News: The Statistical Preparation of Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers. Issues in the Undergraduate Mathematics Preparation of School Teachers, 1. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1061106
- delMas, R. (2002). Statistical literacy, reasoning and learning: A commentary. Journal of Statistics Education, 10(3). Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10691898.2002.11910679. DOI: 10.1080/10691898.2002.11910679
- Ennis, R. H. (1985). A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills. Educational Leadership, 43(2), 44-48.
- Ennis, R. H., & Weir, E. E. (1985). The Ennis-Weir critical thinking essay test: An instrument for teaching and testing. Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest Publications.
- Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction. Research findings and recommendations (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED315423). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED315423.
- Facione, P. A. (2011). Think critically. New York: Pearson Education, Englewood Cliffs.
- Falk, R. (1986). Conditional probabilities: Insights and difficulties. In R. Davidson & J. Swift (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Teaching Statistics (pp. 292-297). Victoria, Canada: International Statistical Institute.
- Gal, I. (2002). Adults’ statistical literacy: Meaning, components, responsibilities. International Statistical Review, 70(1), 1–25. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-5823.2002.tb00336.x
- Gal, I. (2005). Towards “probability literacy” for all citizens: Building blocks and instructional dilemmas. In G. A. Jones (Ed.), Exploring probability in school. Challenges for teaching and learning (pp. 39-63). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. DOI: 10.1007/0-387-24530-8_3
- Gattuso, L., & Ottaviani, M. G. (2011). Complementing mathematical thinking and statistical thinking in school mathematics. In C. Batanero, G. Burrill & C. Reading (Eds.), Teaching statistics in school mathematics-Challenges for teaching and teacher education: A Joint ICMI/IASE Study (pp. 121-132). Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-1131-0_15
- Gelman, A., & Nolan, D. (2002). Teaching statistics: A bag of tricks. Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198785699.001.0001
- Gould, R. (2017). Data literacy is statistical literacy. Statistics Education Research Journal, 16(1), 22-25.
- Halpern, D. F. (1998). Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains. American Psychologist, 53(4), 449–455. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.53.4.449
- Jacobs, H. (2010). Curriculum 21: Essential education for a changing world. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
- Jarman, R., & McClune, B. (2007). Developing scientific literacy: Using news media in the classroom. England, Open University Press.
- Kennedy, M., Fisher, M. B. & Ennis, R. H. (1991). Critical thinking: Literature review and needed research. In L. Idol & B. F. Jones (Eds.), Educational values and cognitive instruction: Implications for reform (pp. 11-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315044392
- Kuhn, D. (1999). A developmental model of critical thinking. Educational Researcher, 28(2), 16-25. DOI: 10.3102/0013189X028002016
- Kuntze, S., Aizikovitsh-Udi, E., & Clarke, D. (2017). Hybrid task design: Connecting learning opportunities related to critical thinking and statistical thinking. ZDM, 49(6), 923-935. DOI: 10.1007/s11858-017-0874-4
- Lin, S. S. (2014). Science and non-science undergraduate students’ critical thinking and argumentation performance in reading a science news report. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 12(5), 1023-1046. DOI: 10.1007/s10763-013-9451-7
- McClune, B. & Jarman, R. (2012). Encouraging and equipping students to engage critically with science in the news: What can we learn from the literature? Studies in Science Education, 48(1), 1–49. DOI: 10.1080/03057267.2012.655036
- McPeck, J. E. (1990). Critical thinking and subject specificity: A reply to Ennis. Educational Researcher, 19(4), 10-12. DOI: 10.3102/0013189X019004010
- Ministry of National Education (2018). Matematik Dersi Öğretim Programı (İlkokul ve Ortaokul 1-8. Sınıflar) [Teaching Program of Mathematics Course (Elementary and Middle School 1-8 Grades)]. Ankara. Retrieved from http://mufredat.meb.gov.tr/Dosyalar/201813017165445-MATEMAT%C4%B0K%20%C3%96%C4%9ERET%C4%B0M%20PROGRAMI%202018v.pdf.
- Moore, D. S. (1998). Statistics among the liberal arts. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 93(444), 1253-1259. DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1998.10473786
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: NCTM.
- Norris, S. P. & Phillips, L. M. (2012). Reading science: How naive view of reading hinders so much else. In A. Zohar & Y. J. Dori (Eds.), Metacognition in science education: Trends in current research (pp. 37-56). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2132-6_3
- Paul, R. (1984). Critical thinking: Fundamental for education in a free society. Educational Leadership, 42(1), 4-14.
- Rumsey, D. J. (2002). Statistical literacy as a goal for introductory statistics courses. Journal of Statistics Education, 10(3). DOI: 10.1080/10691898.2002.11910678
- Schield, M. (1999). Statistical literacy: Thinking critically about statistics. Of Significance, 1(1), 15-20. Retrieved from www.statlit.org/pdf/1999SchieldAPDU.pdf.
- Schield, M. (2004). Information literacy, statistical literacy, data literacy. IASSIST quarterly, 28(2-3), 6-11. DOI: 10.29173/iq790
- Siegel, H. (1988). Educating reason: Rationality, critical thinking, and education. New York: Routledge. DOI: 10.1177/027046769101100128
- Stohl (2005). Probability in teacher education and development. In G. Jones (Ed.), Exploring probability in schools: Challenges for teaching and learning (pp. 345- 366). Dodrecht: Kluwer. DOI: 10.1007/0-387-24530-8_15
- ten Dam, G., & Volman, M. (2004). Critical thinking as a citizenship competence: Teaching strategies. Learning and Instruction, 14(4), 359-379. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2004.01.005
- Utts, J. (2003). What educated citizens should know about statistics and probability. The American Statistician, 57(2), 74-79. DOI: 10.1198/0003130031630
- Vieira, R. M., & Tenreiro-Vieira, C. (2016). Fostering scientific literacy and critical thinking in elementary science education. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 14(4), 659-680. DOI: 10.1007/s10763-014-9605-2
- Wagner, T. (2014). The global achievement gap: Why even our best schools don't teach the new survival skills our children need and what we can do about it. New York: Basic Books.
- Wallman, K. (1993). Enhancing statistical literacy: Enriching our society. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 88(421), 1-8. DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1993.10594283
- Watson, J. M. (1995). Conditional probability: Its place in the mathematics curriculum. The Mathematics Teacher, 88(1), 12-17.
- Watson, J. M. (1997). Assessing statistical literacy through the use of media surveys. In I. Gal & J. Garfield (Eds.), The assessment challenge in statistics education (pp. 107-121). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute/ IOS Press.
- Watson, J. M. (2006). Statistical literacy at school: Growth and goals. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. DOI: 10.4324/9780203053898
- Watson, J. M. (2011). Cheating partners, conditional probability and contingency tables. Teaching Statistics, 33(3), 66-70. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9639.2010.00421.x
- Watson, J., & Callingham, R. (2003). Statistical literacy: A complex hierarchical construct. Statistics Education Research Journal, 2(2), 3-46.
- Watson, J., & Callingham, R. (2014). Two-way tables: Issues at the heart of statistics and probability for students and teachers. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 16(4), 254-284. DOI: 10.1080/10986065.2014.953019
- Watson, J., Callingham, R., & Nathan, E. (2009). Probing teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in statistics: “How will Tom get to school tomorrow?” In R. Hunter, B. Bicknell, & T. Burgess (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (Vol. 2, pp. 563-570). Adelaide: MERGA.
- Watson, J. M., & Moritz, J. (2002). Quantitative Literacy for pre-service teachers via the Internet. Mathematics Teachers Education and Development, 4(1), 42-55.
- Watson, J., & Nathan, E. (2010). Biased sampling and PCK: The case of the marijuana problem. In L. Sparrow, B. Kissane, & C. Hurst (Eds.), Shaping the future of mathematics education. Proceedings of the 33rd annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (Vol. 2, pp. 610-617). Fremantle, WA: MERGA.
- Zhang, Q., & Stephens, M. (2016). Teacher capacity as a key element of national curriculum reform in statistical thinking: A comparative study between Australia and China. In D. Ben-Zvi and M. Makar (Eds.), The Teaching and Learning of Statistics (pp. 301-313). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-23470-0_36

Toplam 57 adet kaynakça vardır.

Birincil Dil | İngilizce |
---|---|

Konular | Alan Eğitimleri |

Bölüm | Araştırma Makaleleri |

Yazarlar | |

Yayımlanma Tarihi | 31 Ocak 2020 |

Kabul Tarihi | 21 Ocak 2020 |

Yayımlandığı Sayı | Yıl 2020 Cilt: 9 Sayı: 1 |

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