Endülüs İslâm medeniyetinde farklı birçok alanda ilim adamları yetişmiştir. İslâmî ilimlerde de önemli isimlerin yetişmiş ve ciddi gelişmeler kaydedilmiştir. Gerek yazılan eserler gerek ortaya konulan fikirler ile Endülüs bölgesi önemli bir ilmi birikime ev sahipliği yapmıştır. Ancak bölgede kıraat, tefsir, hadis ve fıkıh alanlarında kaydedilen ilerleme kelâm ilmi için aynı düzeyde gerçekleşememiştir. Öyle ki kelâmî fikirlerin özgürce tartışılması, yeni fikirlerin ortaya atılması bazı dönemlerde engellenmiş, bid’at kabul edilmiş ve hatta bazı dönemlerde yasaklanabilmiştir. Kelâm ilminin Endülüs’te yeterli oranda gelişme gösterememesinin gerisinde var olan toplumsal, siyasî ve fikri nedenler ve bu durumun ortaya çıkardığı mezhep taassubunun yaygınlaşması, taklitçiliğin teşviki gibi sonuçları üzerinde durulacaktır. Zira kelâmî konular ve görüşler sosyal, siyasal ve kültürel etkenlerden bağımsız değildir. Diğer yandan kelâm metodunun toplumda özgür düşünceyi güçlendiren, farklı din mensupları ile karşılaşıldığında ortaya çıkabilecek inanca dair tartışmaları aklî ilkeler ışığında düzenleyen yönleri de bulunmaktadır.
Endülüs’te bölgesel hâkimiyetlerin söz konusu olduğu dönemler yerine üç asra yakın süre bölgede etkisiyle öne çıkan Endülüs Emevîleri dönemi üzerinde durulacaktır. Bu dönem özellikle Doğu - Batı İslâm’ının mukayesesine de imkân vermektedir. Endülüs’te gelişen ilmî birikim, Doğu’ya gerçekleştirilen seyahatler yoluyla şekillenmiştir. Endülüs Emevîleri dönemi, Doğu Emevî Devletinin devamı olması özelliğiyle Abbasi-Emevî çekişmesinden etkilenmiş bu ise ilmî hayatın şekillenmesinde siyasetin belirleyici rolüne neden olmuştur. Siyasî etkiler yanı sıra bölgede etkin Malikî mezhebi ve toplumsal yapının da kelâm ilminin algılanışında etkili olduğu görülmektedir.
Andalusian civilization, which has an important place in the world history, has cultivated many intellectuals during the nine centuries. In religious sciences, developments and written works were prominent at that time particularly in the area of qiraah, tafsir, hadith and fiqh. It is possible to see that kalām does not develop in Andalusia like other religious sciences and it was forbidden in some periods. However, kalām has an important function because of both the rational method that it uses and the deceptive issues which it deals with. In our writings about Andalusia, the social, political and ideological causes of the inability to develop enough kalām will be emphasized. And this will focus on the consequences of the dissemination of sectarianism and the promotion of “taqlīd” in the society in which it emerges. Because theological debates and opinions are not independent from social, political and cultural factors.
Andalusian Umayyad state will be dealt with in Andalusia instead of the periods when regional dominance is mentioned. This period also makes it possible to compare East-West Islam in particular. The scientific accumulation carried to Andalusia has not developed independently from the East. It has been shaped through the travels to the East. Andalusian Umayyads, the continuation of the Umayyad State, were influenced by Abbasi-Umayyad conflicts. This has led to the influence of politics on the shaping of the scientific life.
The scientific accumulation carried to Andalusia has been shaped by travels to the East, which have not developed independently from the East. The period of Andalusian Umayyads was influenced by Abbasi-Umayyad conflicts and the continuity of Umayyad State, which has created the groundwork for the influence of politics in the shaping of the scientific life.
Political reasons and the impact of Abbas-Umayyad conflict led to the emergence of Maliki sect in Andalusia. Maliki sect was supported by the political authority. Maliki fuqahā’s concepts of solidarity and “taqlīd” has increased the power of sect. They see “taqlīd”, as a balancing element. Malik fuqahā could easily reject the ideas they accepted as a threat with this force. At the same time, they could they could say they were not Muslims. These attitudes have prevented the study of the subjects of kalām scholars.
Some rulers saw fuqahā’s power, especially in educational institutions, as a threat. And they have taken some precautions to reduce this power. On the other hand, there are some rulers who support the sciences using the rational method such as a kalām. However, Maliki did not reveal the scientific activities against fuqahā.
Political reasons, the power of Maliki Fuqahā and the structure of the society, negatively affected the development of kalām. Indeed, the accumulation of knowledge and intellectual level of the indigenous people is important for intellectual development. For this reason, it is important to know the social structure of people of Andalusia.
When you look at the history of Andalusian thought, there are two elements that makes the society. One of them is the locals. And indigenous people are not at an advanced level on “free thinking” and new ideas. The second element that constitutes society is those who came to Andalusia with conquest. They were more intellectual than Indigenous people. For this reason, the indigenous people did not force newcomers intellectually and motivate them to produce new ideas.
When we look at the other elements of society after the conquest of Andalusians, they will also be seen not to be very strong in intellectual care. Arabs and Berbers, who are called with the name “Belediyyun”, are also not free opinion holders. They are also close to the “Khariji”, tradition. For this reason it was very difficult for them to tolerate the new ideas and to contribute to the development of kalām province which has the tradition of reasoning based on the rational method.
Polarizations emerging between the two components of social construction have also caused to the decrease in tolerance in society. The “monotheistic” attitude has become widespread due to the decrease in tolerance in society. This is a significant obstacle in the development of kalām. It is seen that the social structure existing in Andalusia is also a disadvantage for the science of kalām. Because Kalām who adopts the intelligent method as well as the freedom of different opinions will also need open vision which will allow new ideas.
Elements that impede the development of the kalām appear to be elements that shape the society in general terms. Among these elements that shape the society intellectually, politics, religious understanding based on sects and intellectual accumulation of society should be considered.