Müellifinin alanındaki otoritesi ve telifinde takip ettiği titizlik ve metot sayesinde İslâm kültüründe Kur’ân’dan sonra en güvenilir kitap olarak şöhret bulan Buhârî’nin el-Câmiu’s-sahîh’inin bugüne ulaşmasında önemli bir yer edinen Ebû Zer el-Herevî (ö.434/1043), hadis başta olmak üzere Kur’an ilimleri, fıkıh ve kelâm dallarında eserler telif etmiş çok yönlü bir âlimdir. Devrinin önemli ilim merkezlerini dolaşmış, pek çok hocadan ders almıştır. Sahîh-i Buhârî’nin Ferebrî nüshasının üç ayrı rivayetini birleştirmek suretiyle edisyon kritiğinin ilk örneklerinden birisini ortaya koymuş, bu gayreti ile Ferebrî rivâyetinin diğer rivayetlere tercih edilmesine katkıda bulunmuştur. Hayatının önemli bir kısmını geçirdiği Mekke’de Sahih’i okutması, kendi nüshasının farklı coğrafyalara yayılmasını sağlamıştır. O, talebelik ettiği ve mezhebini benimsediği Eş’arî âlimi Ebû Bekr el-Bakıllânî’nin görüşlerinin yayılmasına da öncülük etmiş, zâhidâne yaşantısı sayesinde de tasavvufta emsal gösterilen Harem şeyhlerinden biri haline gelmiştir. Kendi telif ettiği eserler yanında râvisi olduğu eserler, Ebû Zer’i, ilim tarihinde önemli bir konuma getirmiştir. Buhârî’nin Sahîh’inden başka iki Târîh’inin ve Dârekutnî’nin önemli bazı eserlerinin günümüze ulaşmasında onun da katkısı olmuştur. Bu makale, onun hayatını, ilim çevresini ve İslâmî ilimlerdeki konumunu, özellikle de Sahîh-i Buhârî râvîleri arasındaki yerini ve Sahîh nüshasının bazı özelliklerini ortaya koymayı hedeflemektedir. Ayrıca onun rivayet ettiği -tespit edilebildiği kadarıyla- 21 esere işaret edilerek kitap rivâyet geleneğinin bir örneği ortaya konulmuş olacaktır.
Abū Zarʿ ‘Abd b. Aḥmad al-Harawī (d. 434/1043) is a multi-faceted, voluminous scholar who has written works in Qurʾānic sciences, fiqh and kalam, especially ḥadīth. He was born in Harāt, one of the major cities of Khorasan, in 355 or 356 (966 or 967) as a descendant of Hazraj. He has an important place in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī's living up to today, which is a work that found fame in Islamic culture as the most reliable book after Qurʾān thanks to the authority of the author in his field and the method and thoroughness he followed.
Abū Zarʿ traveled the important science centers of his time, like Basrah, Baghdad, Damascus, Eygpt, Sarakhs, Balkh, Marw, Neyshabur, Mecca and took lessons from many teachers. As a matter of fact, he collected the names of the teachers he learned from them in a book and the number of teachers mentioned in this book exceeded 300.
Abū Zarʿ was a reliable, trustworthy and accurate scholar. His vast accumulation about the authenticity and narrators of hadith, and his meticulosity in hearing (semā‘), and the beauty of his method in many works, and also his being very sensitive about the preservation of books was pointed out. In addition it was stated that the work he had done on Ṣaḥīḥs of al-Bukhārī' and Muslim, called Ṣaḥīḥayn, signified the strength of his memory. This work includes many hadiths which both of two author did not take into their collection despite the accordance of their conditions.
Abū Zarʿ accepted the Maliki denomination. Despite the fact that he had a clairvoyance in the Islamic jurisprudence and was considered a faqīh, refrained from giving a fatwa and directed people who asked him a fatwa to other faqihs. At the same time, some of his works mentioned in the sources are about fıqh, al-Manasik, al-Ribā etc. It was also attributed to him a commentary book (Tafsir) and a work on the virtues of surah.
Abū Zarʿ has also works related to aqaid. Likewise, he also pioneered the propagation of the views of Ashʿarī theologian Abū Bakr al-Bāqillānī, one of his teachers whose denomination adopted by him. According to sources, he adopted al-Bāqillānī’s views when he saw the respect and compliment of his teacher al-Dāraqutnī to him. In this, the fact that his own thinking is in line with Bāqillānī’s views should be as effective as his devotion to his teacher, al-Dāraqutnī.
In addition to his own works the books he narrated brought him an important position in the history of science. By transmitting them to next generation, he contributed two great history books of al-Bukhārī other than his Ṣaḥīḥ and some important works of al-Dāraqutnī.
The main point that earned Abū Zarʿ fame is his being a Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī's narrator. Because he revealed one of the first examples of the editorial critique by combining three separate narrations of Farabrī’s copy of Ṣaḥīḥ and by this endeavor he contributed to the preference of the Farabrī narration to others. The fact that he taught Ṣaḥīḥ in Mecca, where he he got married and lived a significant part of his life, enabled his own copy to spread to different geographies. Because he made a pilgrimage every year and read Ṣaḥīḥ in there to the people came to listen him from all over the world. When the soundness of his memory and perfection is added to this, many scholar heared Ṣaḥīḥ from him and obtained permission to transmit it. His son Abū Maktūm ‘Īsā, Abu al-‘Abbās al-‘Udhri, Bājī, Abd al-Ghanī al-Azdī, Abū ‘Īmrān al-Fāsī, Shatanjālā, Ibn Shurayḥ, Ibn ‘Abd al-Bar and Khatīb al-Baghdādī are the most prominent belong them. It is noteworthy that Ibn Hajar, the famous hadith scholar, accepted Abū Zarʿs copy as basis for his commentary work.
Next to all this, thanks to his devoutness life he became one of the al-Haram sheikhs who were exemplary in mysticism. He is an exemplary personage for scholars by paying no attention the world and being so generous enough to hand out everything he has to others. Maybe that's why he was called “Abū Zarʿ”.
This article aims to reveal Abū Zarʿ al-Harawī's life, his scientific surroundings and his position in Islamic sciences, in particular his place between the Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī’s narrators and some features of his Ṣaḥīḥ script which was published latterly using two separate manuscripts, even if it would be appropriate to make a large edition of it including his own notes. In addition, an example of the narrative tradition of the book will be put forward by pointing to the 21 works that he narrated.
|APA||AKPINAR, Ö . (2019). Ebû Zer el-Herevî’nin Hayatı ve İlmî Kişiliği. Bilimname, 2019 (37), 725-757. DOI: 10.28949/bilimname.461055|
|MLA||AKPINAR, Ö . "Ebû Zer el-Herevî’nin Hayatı ve İlmî Kişiliği". Bilimname 2019 (2019): 725-757 <http://dergipark.org.tr/bilimname/issue/43606/461055>|
|Chicago||AKPINAR, Ö . "Ebû Zer el-Herevî’nin Hayatı ve İlmî Kişiliği". Bilimname 2019 (2019): 725-757|
|RIS||TY - JOUR T1 - Ebû Zer el-Herevî’nin Hayatı ve İlmî Kişiliği AU - ÖMER FARUK AKPINAR Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.461055 DO - 10.28949/bilimname.461055 T2 - Bilimname JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 725 EP - 757 VL - 2019 IS - 37 SN - 1304-1878-2148-5860 M3 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.461055 UR - https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.461055 Y2 - 2019 ER -|
|EndNote||%0 Bilimname Ebû Zer el-Herevî’nin Hayatı ve İlmî Kişiliği %A ÖMER FARUK AKPINAR %T Ebû Zer el-Herevî’nin Hayatı ve İlmî Kişiliği %D 2019 %J Bilimname %P 1304-1878-2148-5860 %V 2019 %N 37 %R doi: 10.28949/bilimname.461055 %U 10.28949/bilimname.461055|
|ISNAD||AKPINAR, ÖMER FARUK . "Ebû Zer el-Herevî’nin Hayatı ve İlmî Kişiliği". Bilimname 2019 / 37 (April 2019): 725-757. https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.461055|