Tarih boyunca insanlık, farklı ilahî kitaplara muhatap oldu. Bu durum, kitaplar çerçevesindeki hitabın mahiyeti hususunda insanların merakını celp etti. Hatta konunun, süreç içerisinde farklı toplumlarda tartışıldığı görüldü. Nihayet Müslüman toplum da Kur’an’ın yaratılmış olup-olmadığı hususunu sorgulamaktan kendini soyutlayamadı. Bu bağlamda Müslüman ilim adamları kendi perspektifleri doğrultusunda farklı görüşler ortaya koydu. Nitekim bazıları, konunun Grek felsefe temelli veya Yahudilik, Hristiyanlık gibi dış kaynaklı olduğu kanaatini ileri sürerken, diğerleri de konunun Müslüman toplumun kendi iç bünyesinden kaynaklanan bir tartışma olduğunu dile getirdi.
Kur’an’ın mahluk olup-olmadığı hususunda ilmî düzlemde başlayan ve gelişen tartışmalar, tarihin belli kesitlerinde siyasetin malzemesi haline dönüştürülerek, siyasallaştırıldı. Nitekim Abbasî halifesi Me’mun (198-218/813-833) ile başlayıp, Mütevekkil (232-247/847-861) ile son bulan Mihne Süreci, bu siyasallaşmanın çok açık yaşandığı bir dönemdir. Me’mun döneminde sosyo-politik şartların etkisiyle konunun tedricen siyasal ortama taşındığı bilinmektedir. Daha çok mevali kimlikli kişiler tarafından dile getirilen konu, ilmî merakı ve tecessüsü ile dikkat çeken halife tarafından sarayda oluşturulan ilim meclislerinde tartışılmaya açıldı. Bu durum konunun toplumsallaşmasının zeminini oluşturdu. İlk dönemlerde Halife, konu hakkında herhangi bir kanaat ortaya koymaktan kaçındı. Ancak uzun tartışma süreçleri neticesinde Kur’an’ın mahluk olduğu yönündeki görüşü, kendisinin de kabul ettiğini resmen ilan etti. Bu süreçte daha çok ilmî ortamlarda kişisel tercih veya kanaat şeklinde gündem olan konu, halifenin güçlü rakibi Bizans’a karşı sefere çıktığında fiilî siyasetin enstrümanı haline dönüştürüldü. Seferde olan halife, Bağdat’taki vekili İshak b. İbrahim’e talimat niteliğinde birtakım mektuplar gönderdi. Bu mektuplar, halku’l-Kur’an konusunun resmî olarak siyasallaşma sürecini başlattı. İlk aşamada halife, devlet yöneticilerinin ve bürokratların konu etrafında sorgulanmalarını isteyerek işe başladı. Şüphesiz yeni bir süreci ifade eden bu durum, Kur’an’ın mahluk olup-olmadığı hususunun, siyasallaştırılarak devlet politikası haline dönüştürüldüğü anlamına geldi.
In the history of mankind, God has addressed to mankind through the divine books which He has sent through His prophets from time to time. Mankind has always wondered about the nature of the books bearing this address. As a matter of fact, their reflection can be seen in Jewish and Christian societies. In the same way, this curiosity is felt in the Islamic society. In this frame, Muslims have debated whether or not the Qur'an was created as a creature (Khalqu'l-Qur'an) at certain periods of history, and the extent of these debates reached even the dimensions that could affect the masses of society.
It is known that the discussions taking place around the Khalqu'l-Qur'an have come to the fore especially during the Umayyad and Abbasid periods. In this respect, it is important to investigate the social reasons of the discussion in these periods and societies in order to reach correct results. As a matter of fact, Arap-Mavali relation which forms the social doctrine of Arap society in particular and the social class struggle in this context are remarkable. In this context, it can be argued that the social class-based struggle continued its existence by evolving through an argumentation of the Quran on the controversies of the Quran in certain sections of history, mainly conjunctural reasons. As a matter of fact, it is striking that the members of Mu'tazilah and Murji’ah, who expressed and defended the view that the Qur'an is a creature, and the ones who advocated more are based on the Arab masses of the Qur'an, and the social class struggle in the background of the debate.
It is known that during the Abbasids period, this debate was brought to the agenda by Bishr al-Marisi during the reign of Harun Rashid, but the Caliph threatened him by reacting to this debate. For this reason, Bishr could not show the courage to appear around during his sovereignity and he had to hide for about 20 years.
The process of moving the debate of Khalqu'l-Qur'an to the social strata and the process of politicization corresponds to the period of the Caliphate of Ma’mun. The reasons for this should be sought in the socio-political structure of the period in which Ma’mun came to the scribe. As a matter of fact, it is known that the social and political structure started to show differentiation to the caliphs of the earlier caliphs, and that in this context, the polarizations were felt in the society and sociological structures with the potential to threaten the central authority began to be seen in the society. Under these circumstances, it is the priority of the Caliph Ma’mun as a responsible manager to secure the future of the state.
Therefore, the new caliph needs to adopt new policies that are centered on the future of the country. For this reason, noteworthy political practices, especially the debates on the people of Qur'an, which took place during this period, should be evaluated within this framework. It is important to remember that, as a substructure of these policies, Ma’mun reached the caliphate office after a struggle with his brother al-Amin who had reached the caliphate before him.
When Ma’mun was a Caliph, he first moved the central of the caliphate to Merv. After about six years there, he returned to Baghdad. The Caliph known as a science enthusiast, in Baghdad, formed scientific assemblies where the issues of discussion in the society were discussed by the competent and reached a conclusion and in this context, the aim of clarifying the world of mind was clarified. In these assemblies, he gathered scholars and thinkers who were accepted in society. However, it was noteworthy that these scholars were mostly of Mu’tazilî or Mürciî thought. These people were discussing the issues that society or politics needed, reaching a conclusion, and sometimes discussing what they wanted. As a matter of fact, one of the issues raised by them was the issue of the Qur'an, which centered on whether the Qur'an was created or not.
It is known that this issue is an agenda in the councils for a while. The issues discussed here were reflected to the public. Therefore, there were people who declared these views, as well as those who declared opposing views. As a matter of fact, it is known that Kinanî el-Mekkî comes from Mecca in order to challenge the issue of the people and the Qur'an, and they discuss with Bişr al-Marisî in the presence of the caliph.
In this very long discussion, many issues around the subject came to the agenda. During the discussion, however, it is known that Kinanî revealed the contradictions of Bishr because of his knowledge of the subtleties of the Qur'an and Arabic language, while he won Ma'mun's appreciation and countenance, and even rewarded him for the pleasure he received from the discussion and for the satisfying style of Kinanî's argument.
It is assumed that this debate took place in the presence of Caliph Ma’mun in 208/824. It is known that the effects of these and similar discussions continue in the following process, and that this issue is discussed and discussed in both the public and management levels. Probably with this, the subject was intended to mature in the minds.
One of the most noteworthy points of the discussion is that Kinanî's dominance over the subject and his influence on the subject are ignored by Bishr. However, it is meaningful that, after a four-year period through discussion, the Caliph Ma’mun officially declared that he believes the Qur'an was created in 212/827. Undoubtedly, this situation can be explained by the fact that the caliph was persuaded by the opposing viewers in the last period, but it can also be explained as a responsible state manager who pays attention the conjuncture with future-centered concerns.
In the light of the resources we have available, we see that the Caliph Ma’mun has no belief that Qur'an has the belief that he is a creature. The actual process of politicization of the subject of Khalqu’l-Qur'an was over six years after this official declaration, while in 218/833 the Caliph Ma’mun was on the road against Byzantium, he sent some letters to Ishaq b. Ibrahim. This situation is undoubtedly remarkable for the politicization of the debate of Qur'anic conception. As a matter of fact, it is noteworthy that a subject that is seen at the academic or scientific level is being initiated during a period when social unity must be taken as a result of a political experience at a time when the caliph is far from the center and about twenty years of experience. In our opinion, this gives the impression that political concerns are prioritized rather than academic concerns. Although the details of this are outside of our context, it can be stated that the social unity concern arising from the previous experiences of the caliph had a significant effect on this decision.
The Caliph orders to Ishak b. Ibrahim that he must gather the Qadıs and bureaucrats around him, to test them consept of the letter he has sent him, whether the Qur'an is a creature. With this order, perhaps a subject that should remain in the academic platform is the issue of the Qur'an, which was transformed into a state policy by moving to political ground and started the process of politicization.
Publication Date: April 30, 2019
|APA||Akoğlu, M . (2019). Siyasallaşma Sürecinde Halku’l-Kur’an Tartışmaları. Bilimname, 2019 (37), 353-382. DOI: 10.28949/bilimname.469726|
|MLA||Akoğlu, M . "Siyasallaşma Sürecinde Halku’l-Kur’an Tartışmaları". Bilimname 2019 (2019): 353-382 <http://dergipark.org.tr/bilimname/issue/43606/469726>|
|Chicago||Akoğlu, M . "Siyasallaşma Sürecinde Halku’l-Kur’an Tartışmaları". Bilimname 2019 (2019): 353-382|
|RIS||TY - JOUR T1 - Siyasallaşma Sürecinde Halku’l-Kur’an Tartışmaları AU - Muharrem Akoğlu Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.469726 DO - 10.28949/bilimname.469726 T2 - Bilimname JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 353 EP - 382 VL - 2019 IS - 37 SN - 1304-1878-2148-5860 M3 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.469726 UR - https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.469726 Y2 - 2019 ER -|
|EndNote||%0 Bilimname Siyasallaşma Sürecinde Halku’l-Kur’an Tartışmaları %A Muharrem Akoğlu %T Siyasallaşma Sürecinde Halku’l-Kur’an Tartışmaları %D 2019 %J Bilimname %P 1304-1878-2148-5860 %V 2019 %N 37 %R doi: 10.28949/bilimname.469726 %U 10.28949/bilimname.469726|
|ISNAD||Akoğlu, Muharrem . "Siyasallaşma Sürecinde Halku’l-Kur’an Tartışmaları". Bilimname 2019 / 37 (April 2019): 353-382. https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.469726|
|AMA||Akoğlu M . Siyasallaşma Sürecinde Halku’l-Kur’an Tartışmaları. Bilimname. 2019; 2019(37): 353-382.|
|Vancouver||Akoğlu M . Siyasallaşma Sürecinde Halku’l-Kur’an Tartışmaları. Bilimname. 2019; 2019(37): 382-353.|