Kur'an yorumunda nakil ile aklı birlikte kullanan Mâtürîdî Ehl-i sünnet kelamının sistemleşmesine katkı sunduğu gibi onun tefsir anlayışına da farklı bir soluk getirmiştir. Mâtürîdî tefsirde nakil ile birlikte aklı dengeli bir şekilde kullanarak, Kur'an'a rasyonel yaklaşımın sembolü olmuş olan Mu'tezile ile nakle sıkı sıkıya bağlı olan selef âlimleri arasında mutedil bir düşünce sistemi inşa etmeyi başarmıştır.
Kur'an ayetlerinin yorumuna ilişkin kendi görüşünü birtakım kriterlere göre doğrudan ortaya koyan Mâtürîdî, pek çok ayetin tefsirinde ise kendisinden önceki müfessirlerin yaklaşımlarını aktarıp bunlar arasında tercihte bulunurken ya da ayetin anlamına ilişkin birden fazla ihtimalin söz konusu olduğu durumlarda Kur'an, sünnet, sahabe sözleri, kıraatler, dil ve Arap şiiri gibi kıstaslara göre tercihini belirlemiştir.
Mâtürîdî’nin Kur'an yorumları arasında seçim yaparken esas aldığı kriterlerden birisi de akıldır. Müfessir, farklı görüşler/ihtimaller arasında aklı bir kriter olarak kabul ederken Kur'an'ın bütünlüğüne dikkat etmiştir. Kur'an'ın bütünlüğünü esas alma imkânı olmayan yerlerde ise arka planında ait olduğu kelâmî paradigmanın izleri olan yorumlar yaptığı görülmektedir. Mâtürîdînin akli izahlarının gerisinde kelamın temel konularından olan Allah’ın fiilleri, halku ef‘ali’l-‘ibâd, Allah’ın sıfatları, özellikle de, irade ve meşiet meselesi, Peygamberlerin sıfatları ve lütuf vb. meseleler yer almaktadır.
Gerek müfessirlerin yorumları arasında tercihte bulunurken, gerekse doğru olması muhtemel anlamlar arasından seçimini yaparken ortaya koyduğu akli gerekçelerinde genel olarak isabetli yaklaşımlar sergileyen Mâtürîdî, bazen de sadece akıl zaviyesinden bakması neticesinde lafızların zahirini ve bağlamını dikkatten kaçırmış ve hatalı tercihlerde bulunmuştur. Bu çalışmada Mâtürîdî‘nin Te’vîlâtü’l-Kur'an’da naklettiği görüşler arasında aklı esas alarak yaptığı tercihlerin arka planı tartışmaya açılarak onun Kur'an yorumuna ilişkin yaptığı yorumlar eleştirel bir bakışla ele alınacaktır.
Al-Mâturîdî who combined the revelation (an-nakl) with the reason (al-‘akl) in his exegesis of Koran contributed to systematization of kalam of Ahlu’s-Sunnah. In his exegesis, using in balance the revelation and the reason, he accomplished to build a more moderate system of thought between that of Mu’tazila that is regarded as symbol of rational approach to Koran and that of the scholars of first generations (as-Salaf) who adhere strictly to the revelation. This accomplishment of him breathed new life into koranic exegesis of Ahlu’s-Sunnah.
In Te’vîlâtü’l-Kur'an making interpretation of verses of Koran on the basis of reason as explaining his own opinions, al-Mâturîdî used reason as criterion as choosing the most correct among the interpretations, as well. Because, according to him, interpretation is an al-ictihâd and reasoning. This can be seen in his distinction between the concept of exegesis and the concept of interpretation and in his thought that the revelation endorses what is put forward by reason. Moreover, according to him Koran is a light (an-noor) and enlightens reasons. Enlighting reason like a light, which makes things visible, it uncovers the veracity of all things, the doubts in hearts and secrets.
In this paper I will discuss thoughts of Mâturîdî, who contributed to the systematization and the establishment of the method of reason (ad-dirâyah) in koranic exegesis, about interpretation of Koran and place of the reason that is an important criterion, in these thoughts with in the frame of his Te’vîlatü’l-Kur'an. I will try to present the opinions, which are conveyed by him, or what result he came to after examining possible different meanings of verses of Koran and to what extent these results are accurate.
I will also discuss that Mâturîdî uses reason as decisive criterion in his thoughts on koranic interpretation, and in order to contribute to make this well understood I will give information about other criterions which he uses in his exegesis as choosing among the possibilities; thereafter, the reason, the main topic of this paper, will be discussed thoroughly as the most efficient criterion. Because of elucidative contribution of the examples which used by him, of being criterion of reason, I will categorize these examples as follows: “Integrity of Koran”, “Paradigm of Kalam”, and “Absolute Rational Explanations”. Under every category, three examples are included and Mâturîdî’s choices pertain to these examples, in company with Koranic exegesises, particularly exegesises of the early period, will be analized and then I will put forward my relevant opinions.
Explaining his own interpretation of koranic verses in accord with some criterions, Mâturîdî interprets most of verses within the scope of the interpretations of the predecessor al-Mufassirûn and make his choices according to the criterions like Koran, sunnah, remarks of the companions of the Prophet, the recitations, the language and poem of Arabs. It can be seen in many places that he uses frequently these methods as conveying the interpretations of al-Mufassirûn and raising objection to the interpretations of them. Besides, the most important references of him are traditions of the Prophet and remarks of the companions of the Prophet.
One of the criterions that Mâturîdî uses as interpreting the verses of Koran is the reason. While using reason as a criterion in his choices, he take into consideration the integrity of Koran. While he explaines his interpretations pertain to possible meanings of the verses, it is seen that the paradigm of kalam of him effects his interpretation as well as the integrity of Koran. It is evident in the examples that acts of God, creation of acts of human, attributes of God, will and predestination, immunity of prophets and beneficence and other main topics of kalam influence his interpretations.
In some places of his exegesis, narrating more opinion than one, he picks up one of these opinions as truth and defends that opinion with argumentations. In other places, however, not approving one of these opinions, he comes up with a new opinion through the instrument of reasoning; and sometimes he mentions possibility of truthness of another opinion as choosing one opinion that he defends it with rational argumentations and explanations. In addition to this, giving place in a considerable amount opinions of scholars of Mu’tazila among the opinions which he narrates in his exegesis, Mâturîdî replies their approchs in a reflextive manner in accord with his paradigm of kalam.
He has mostly reasonable justifications both in making choices among interpretations of al-Mufassirûn and in making choices among possible meanings of verses. However, in some places, due to ignoring the contexts of verses and unequivocal meanings of them, Mâturîdî made wrong choices among the possible interpretation of verses, as a result of his ablosute rational based approch to the verses of Koran. For instance in interpretation of Kahf 18/17, where his approchs wholly rational, Mâturîdî criticizes relevant in-hand opinions and comes up with a new different opinion in assistance of rational argumentation, as interpreting the phrase of the verse that mentions reaching of sunshines to the cave of seven sleepers: “Turning away from them to the left, while they lay in the midst of the cave”. According to him parable of seven sleepers is a miraculous event and for this miracle can be take place it is necessary that the sunshines should touch the youngs but should not harm them. However, the words and literary style that are used in the verse are conspicous and curios: the phrase of “takriduhum” which is used as referring the turning away of sunshines from them without touching them, means lexically “touch slightly”, “distinguish”, “deviate/move away”, and “abandon”; this is a fact that most of linguist al-Mufassirûn lay emphasis on it. Another conspicous aspect of aforementioned phrase is usage of pronoun of “هُمْ”; this shows undoubtfully that the sunshines didn’t touch them. Other al-Mufassirûn also adopted same approch as Mâturîdî’s approch and indicated, as he did, that this event is a miracle. According to al-Mufassirûn the miracle in this event is that God, may He be glorified, inspired them to take shelter in a cave where sunshines can not enter or inspite of possibity of entering of sunshine into the cave God decreed to not enter or even though they stayed inside the cave highly long time for a human life, their fleshs and garments did not decay; these are some of the explanations of al-Mufassirûn about what aspects of this event are miraculous.
As a result it can be said that the inferences which are deduced by Mâturîdî considering integrity of Koran and paradigm of kalam adopted by him, or justifications put forward by him as propounding absolute rational proofs and explanations made by him, are mostly reasonable. Yet, it is a fact that because of ignoring, in some examples, the contexts of verses and unequivocal meanings of them, Mâturîdî made wrong choices among the possible interpretation of verses, as a result of his ablosute rational based approch to the verses.
|APA||Narol, S . (2019). Mâtürîdî'nin Kur'an Yorumuna İlişkin Tercihlerinde Akıl Kriteri. Bilimname, 2019 (37), 915-951. DOI: 10.28949/bilimname.532366|
|MLA||Narol, S . "Mâtürîdî'nin Kur'an Yorumuna İlişkin Tercihlerinde Akıl Kriteri". Bilimname 2019 (2019): 915-951 <http://dergipark.org.tr/bilimname/issue/43606/532366>|
|Chicago||Narol, S . "Mâtürîdî'nin Kur'an Yorumuna İlişkin Tercihlerinde Akıl Kriteri". Bilimname 2019 (2019): 915-951|
|RIS||TY - JOUR T1 - Mâtürîdî'nin Kur'an Yorumuna İlişkin Tercihlerinde Akıl Kriteri AU - Süleyman Narol Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.532366 DO - 10.28949/bilimname.532366 T2 - Bilimname JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 915 EP - 951 VL - 2019 IS - 37 SN - 1304-1878-2148-5860 M3 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.532366 UR - https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.532366 Y2 - 2019 ER -|
|EndNote||%0 Bilimname Mâtürîdî'nin Kur'an Yorumuna İlişkin Tercihlerinde Akıl Kriteri %A Süleyman Narol %T Mâtürîdî'nin Kur'an Yorumuna İlişkin Tercihlerinde Akıl Kriteri %D 2019 %J Bilimname %P 1304-1878-2148-5860 %V 2019 %N 37 %R doi: 10.28949/bilimname.532366 %U 10.28949/bilimname.532366|
|ISNAD||Narol, Süleyman . "Mâtürîdî'nin Kur'an Yorumuna İlişkin Tercihlerinde Akıl Kriteri". Bilimname 2019 / 37 (April 2019): 915-951. https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.532366|