Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Toplu Ulaşım Sistemlerinin Değerlendirilmesi

Year 2021, Volume 3, Issue 2, 17 - 31, 17.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4972540

Abstract

Günümüzde gelişen teknoloji sayesinde ulaşımda hız ve verimlilik artmıştır. Ulaşım sektöründeki gelişmeler, dünyanın birçok noktasına bir günden daha kısa bir süre içerisinde erişilebilmeyi mümkün hale getirmiştir. Ancak pandemi gibi bir afet söz konusu olduğunda küresel ulaşım ağları önemli tehditler içerebilmektedir. Bunun nedeni uzun mesafeli yolculuklarda bile ulaşım süresinin, birçok hastalığın kuluçka süresinden daha hızlı hale gelmiş olmasıdır. Geçmişte yaşanan tecrübelere bakıldığında salgın hastalıkların öncelikle küresel ulaşım ağlarından, daha sonra merkez ulaşım noktalarından kentlere ve kırsala yayılarak tüm dünyayı etkisi altına aldığı gözlemlenmiştir. Kentler, yapısı itibariyle yüksek nüfusu ve birçok işlevi bir arada bulunduran yerleşim alanlarıdır. Bu nüfusun kentsel hizmetlere en iyi şekilde erişmesinin sağlanması da ulaşımda önemli bir konudur. Özellikle metropollerde, ulaşımda hız ve verimliliğin sağlanması için tek seferde birçok kişinin entegre ulaşım sistemleri ile aktarılarak taşınması daha sürdürülebilir bir kentsel ulaşım için kaçınılmaz bir ihtiyaçtır. Bunun temelini ise toplu taşıma sistemlerinde aktarma odaklı taşıma politikaları oluşturmaktadır. Ancak kentlerdeki aktarma ulaşım noktalarıyla bağlantılı olan ulaşım ağları, salgının kentin diğer noktalarına çok kısa bir sürede yayılmasına neden olmaktadır. Kentlerde adeta bir salgın merkezi haline gelen toplu taşıma araçlarının pandemi süresince yoğunluk olarak düşük gelir grupları tarafından kullanıldığı saptanmıştır. Böylece salgının belirli gruplar üzerinde daha yaygın olması kentin belirli bölgelerinin daha kırılgan olması sonucunu doğurmaktadır. Dirençliliğin sağlanması için kentlerin pandemi sürecini bu gibi tehlike ve risklere uyum sağlayarak en verimli şekilde yönetmesi beklenmektedir. Bu noktadan hareketle, bu çalışmada, ulaşım araçlarının salgın hastalıklar üzerindeki rolü incelenmiş, belirli faaliyetler veya eylemlerin kentlerin dirençliliğine etkisi ve kentlerin direncinin nasıl arttırılabileceği tartışılmıştır.

References

  • Açıklamalı Afet Yönetimi Terimleri Sözlüğü. (n.d.). Retrieved October 1, 2020, from https://www.afad.gov.tr/aciklamali-afet-yonetimi-terimleri-sozlugu
  • Balta, M. Ö. (2013). Kentsel Risklerin Planlama Temelinde Analizi ve Dirençli Kent Planlama Yaklaşımı (Vol. 1, Issue 1). https://doi.org/10.11113/jt.v56.60
  • Charaumilind, S., Craven, M., Lamb, J., & Wilson, M. (2020). Preventing Future Waves of COVID-19. McKinsey & Company, August. https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/risk/our-insights/covid-19-implications-for-business Chechulin, D., Melnikov, L., & Pokotilo, V. (2020). Reopening Cities After COVID-19. McKinsey & Company, July.
  • Dorling, G., Linzer, K., Ramdorai, A., Remes, J., Rutter, K., & Singhal, S. (2020). How Prioritizing Health Could Help Rebuild Economies. McKinsey & Company, July.
  • Emergency response preparedness (ERP) and disaster risk management (DRM) | United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs - occupied Palestinian territory. (n.d.). Retrieved October 1, 2020, from https://www.ochaopt.org/content/emergency-response-preparedness-erp-and-disaster-risk-management-drm
  • Harris, J. E., Boarnet, M., Boynton, K., Brodsky, G., Cardone, P., Cohen-gould, L., Cooley, P., Cragg, M., Diamond, P., Everett, D., Florida, R., Fulgitini, M., Gerstenblüth, M., Geselowitz, D., Girouard, R., López-valcarcel, B. G., Grovak, M., Hanlon, R., Harris, A., … Welch, W. (2020). The Subways Seeded the Massive Coronavirus Epidemic in New York City.
  • Khodabakhsh, P., Mashayekhi, S., & Malekpour Asl, B. (2015). An Analytical View on Resilience Urban Planning, Focusing on Urban Transport Systems and Climate Change. Athens Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3), 213–228. https://doi.org/10.30958/ajss.2-3-5
  • Lak, A., Shakouri Asl, S., & Maher, A. (2020). Resilient Urban Form to Pandemics: Lessons From COVID-19. Medical Journal of The Islamic Republic of Iran (MJIRI), 34(1), 502–509. https://doi.org/10.34171/MJIRI.34.71
  • Litman, T. (2020). Pandemic - Resilient Community Planning. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 27p. https://www.vtpi.org/PRCP.pdf
  • Medimorec, N., Enriquez, A., Hosek, E., & Peet, K. (2020). Impacts of COVID-19 on Mobility on urban mobility. May, 1–23. https://slocat.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/SLOCAT_2020_COVID-19-Mobility-Analysis.pdf
  • Meyer, M., & Elrahman, O. (2019). Transportation and Public Health. In Transportation and Public Health (pp. 201–253). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-816774-8.00008-6
  • OECD. (2020). Re-spacing Our Cities For Resilience. International Transport Forum, May, 1–10. https://www.itf-oecd.org/covid-19
  • Pinner, D., Rogers, M., & Samandari, H. (2020). Addressing Climate Change in a Post-Pandemic World. McKinsey Quarterly, April, 1–6. https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business Functions/Sustainability/Our Insights/Addressing climate change in a post pandemic world/Addressing-climate-change-in-a-post-pandemic-world-v3.ashx
  • Qian, X., Sun, L., & Ukkusuri, S. V. (2020). Scaling of Contact Networks for Epidemic Spreading in Urban Transit Systems. 24–26. http://arxiv.org/abs/2002.03564
  • Resilience | UN-Habitat. (n.d.). Retrieved October 1, 2020, from https://unhabitat.org/resilience
  • Rodrigue, J.-P., Comtois, C., & Slack, B. (2013). The Geography of Transport Systems. In The Geography of Transport Systems. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315618159-8
  • Transit Oriented Development. (n.d.). Retrieved October 1, 2020, from http://www.tod.org/
  • Tuğaç, Ç. (2019). Kentsel Dirençlilik Perspektifinden Yerel Yönetimlerin Görevleri ve Sorumlulukları. İdealkent, 10(28), 984–1019. https://doi.org/10.31198/idealkent.634144
  • Vaughan, E., & Tinker, T. (n.d.). Effective Health Risk Communication About Pandemic Influenza for Vulnerable Populations. Retrieved October 1, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4504362/
  • Wallace, D., & Wallace, R. (2008). Urban Systems During Disasters: Factors for Resilience. Ecology and Society, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-02386-130118

AN EVALUATION OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Year 2021, Volume 3, Issue 2, 17 - 31, 17.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4972540

Abstract

Speed and efficiency in transportation have increased through the developing technology. Developments in the transportation sector have made it possible to reach many points of the world in less than a day. However, if there is a disaster like a pandemic, global transportation networks may contain significant threats. This is because transportation time is faster than the incubation time of many diseases, even on long-distance journeys. Considering the past experiences, it has been observed that epidemic diseases have affected the whole world by first spreading from global transportation networks then from central transportation points to cities and rural areas. Cities are regions that host high population and various functions. Providing the citizens with the most proper solutions to access to the urban services is also an important issue in the field of transportation. Especially in metropolises, transporting mass groups of people at once via integrated transportation systems in order to ensure speed and efficiency is an inevitable requirement to provide sustainable urban transportation services. The basis of this is the transit-oriented development (TOD) policies in public transportation systems. However, the transportation networks connected with the transfer transportation points in the cities cause the epidemic to spread to other areas in the city in a short time. It has been determined that public transportation, which has become an “epidemic centre” in cities, is used mainly by low income groups during the pandemic. Thus, the fact that the epidemic is more prevalent on certain groups results in certain parts of the city to become more vulnerable. Cities are expected to adapt to such hazards and risks and manage the pandemic process efficiently to build resilience. From this point of view, in this study the role of transportation vehicles on epidemic diseases is examined. Moreover, the impacts of particular activities or actions on the urban resilience and the approaches to increase the urban resilience are also discussed.

References

  • Açıklamalı Afet Yönetimi Terimleri Sözlüğü. (n.d.). Retrieved October 1, 2020, from https://www.afad.gov.tr/aciklamali-afet-yonetimi-terimleri-sozlugu
  • Balta, M. Ö. (2013). Kentsel Risklerin Planlama Temelinde Analizi ve Dirençli Kent Planlama Yaklaşımı (Vol. 1, Issue 1). https://doi.org/10.11113/jt.v56.60
  • Charaumilind, S., Craven, M., Lamb, J., & Wilson, M. (2020). Preventing Future Waves of COVID-19. McKinsey & Company, August. https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/risk/our-insights/covid-19-implications-for-business Chechulin, D., Melnikov, L., & Pokotilo, V. (2020). Reopening Cities After COVID-19. McKinsey & Company, July.
  • Dorling, G., Linzer, K., Ramdorai, A., Remes, J., Rutter, K., & Singhal, S. (2020). How Prioritizing Health Could Help Rebuild Economies. McKinsey & Company, July.
  • Emergency response preparedness (ERP) and disaster risk management (DRM) | United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs - occupied Palestinian territory. (n.d.). Retrieved October 1, 2020, from https://www.ochaopt.org/content/emergency-response-preparedness-erp-and-disaster-risk-management-drm
  • Harris, J. E., Boarnet, M., Boynton, K., Brodsky, G., Cardone, P., Cohen-gould, L., Cooley, P., Cragg, M., Diamond, P., Everett, D., Florida, R., Fulgitini, M., Gerstenblüth, M., Geselowitz, D., Girouard, R., López-valcarcel, B. G., Grovak, M., Hanlon, R., Harris, A., … Welch, W. (2020). The Subways Seeded the Massive Coronavirus Epidemic in New York City.
  • Khodabakhsh, P., Mashayekhi, S., & Malekpour Asl, B. (2015). An Analytical View on Resilience Urban Planning, Focusing on Urban Transport Systems and Climate Change. Athens Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3), 213–228. https://doi.org/10.30958/ajss.2-3-5
  • Lak, A., Shakouri Asl, S., & Maher, A. (2020). Resilient Urban Form to Pandemics: Lessons From COVID-19. Medical Journal of The Islamic Republic of Iran (MJIRI), 34(1), 502–509. https://doi.org/10.34171/MJIRI.34.71
  • Litman, T. (2020). Pandemic - Resilient Community Planning. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 27p. https://www.vtpi.org/PRCP.pdf
  • Medimorec, N., Enriquez, A., Hosek, E., & Peet, K. (2020). Impacts of COVID-19 on Mobility on urban mobility. May, 1–23. https://slocat.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/SLOCAT_2020_COVID-19-Mobility-Analysis.pdf
  • Meyer, M., & Elrahman, O. (2019). Transportation and Public Health. In Transportation and Public Health (pp. 201–253). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-816774-8.00008-6
  • OECD. (2020). Re-spacing Our Cities For Resilience. International Transport Forum, May, 1–10. https://www.itf-oecd.org/covid-19
  • Pinner, D., Rogers, M., & Samandari, H. (2020). Addressing Climate Change in a Post-Pandemic World. McKinsey Quarterly, April, 1–6. https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business Functions/Sustainability/Our Insights/Addressing climate change in a post pandemic world/Addressing-climate-change-in-a-post-pandemic-world-v3.ashx
  • Qian, X., Sun, L., & Ukkusuri, S. V. (2020). Scaling of Contact Networks for Epidemic Spreading in Urban Transit Systems. 24–26. http://arxiv.org/abs/2002.03564
  • Resilience | UN-Habitat. (n.d.). Retrieved October 1, 2020, from https://unhabitat.org/resilience
  • Rodrigue, J.-P., Comtois, C., & Slack, B. (2013). The Geography of Transport Systems. In The Geography of Transport Systems. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315618159-8
  • Transit Oriented Development. (n.d.). Retrieved October 1, 2020, from http://www.tod.org/
  • Tuğaç, Ç. (2019). Kentsel Dirençlilik Perspektifinden Yerel Yönetimlerin Görevleri ve Sorumlulukları. İdealkent, 10(28), 984–1019. https://doi.org/10.31198/idealkent.634144
  • Vaughan, E., & Tinker, T. (n.d.). Effective Health Risk Communication About Pandemic Influenza for Vulnerable Populations. Retrieved October 1, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4504362/
  • Wallace, D., & Wallace, R. (2008). Urban Systems During Disasters: Factors for Resilience. Ecology and Society, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-02386-130118

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Elif ERKEK> (Primary Author)
Eskişehir Teknik Üniversitesi
0000-0002-4381-3867
Türkiye


Saye Nihan ÇABUK>
Eskişehir Teknik Üniversitesi
0000-0003-4859-2271
Türkiye

Publication Date June 17, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 3, Issue 2

Cite

APA Erkek, E. & Çabuk, S. N. (2021). COVID-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Toplu Ulaşım Sistemlerinin Değerlendirilmesi . GSI Journals Serie B: Advancements in Business and Economics , 3 (2) , 17-31 . DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4972540