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Biyoaerosoller, hava yoluyla bulaşan patojenler, halk sağlığı, iç ortam havası

Year 2015, Volume , Issue 37, 17 - 30, 01.01.2015

Abstract

The air, one of the most important factors needed to sustain the lives of creatures, include a number of essential ingredients for breathing also, harmful foreign substances that may contain particles of different magnitude and microorganisms Indoor air has a huge impact on public health. Today people spend a large portion of their time in closed environments such as schools, homes, workplaces etc. Many research studies show the level of pollutants in the domestic environment, the external environment is higher than indoor spaces can cause serious health problems as a result of the necessary measures were not taken. There are also numerous airborne pathogens. For this reasons, schools, workplaces and homes are areas of great importance to determine the quality of indoor air. Furthermore, to determine the indoor air quality in critical areas such as dental clinics, in hospitals, food processing plants, pharmaceutical plants plays an important role in determining the possible risks and precautions to be taken Nowadays, the methods are used like measurement of the microbial load with test equipment as cfu / m3 (active air sampling), the counting of microorganisms falling on media plates (passive air sampling), measurement of chemical components of the microbial cells (ATP, enzyme) , direct microscopy, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, all these methods are briefly described that including both advantages and disadvantages

References

  • [1] Abbott, S. P. (2002). Mycotoxins and indoor molds. Indoor Environment Connections, 3(4), 14-24.
  • [2] An, H.R., Mainelis, G., White, L.(2006). Development and calibration of real-time PCR for quantification of airborne microorganisms in air samples. Atmospheric Environment, 40(40), 7924-7939.
  • [3] Anonim 1.ASHRAE. “Standard 62- 2001- Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality”, american society of heating, refrigerating and air- conditioning engineers, Atlanta.
  • [4] Anonim 2.(1998).Indoor air quality: Biological contaminants. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization.
  • [5] Anonim 3.(2009). Review of methods to measure bioaerosols from composting sites. Environment Agency.
  • [6] Beijer, L., Thorn, J., & Rylander, R. (2002). Effects after inhalation of (1→ 3)-β-D-glucan and relation to mould exposure in the home. Mediators of inflammation, 11(3), 149-153.
  • [7] Brasel, T. L., Martin, J. M., Carriker, C. G., Wilson, S. C., Straus, D. C. (2005). Detection of airborne Stachybotrys chartarum macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins in the indoor environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(11), 7376-7388.
  • [8] Brodie, E. L., De Santis, T. Z., Parker, J. P. M., Zubietta, I. X., Piceno, Y. M., Andersen, G. L. (2007). Urban aerosols harbor diverse and dynamic bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(1), 299-304.
  • [9] Cox, C. S., Wathes, C. M.(1995). Bioaerosols in the Environment. In Bioaerosols Handbook, Cox, C. S., Wathes, C. M. (Eds.); CRC Press: Boca Raton, Florida. İç Ortam Havası Biyoaerosolleri ve Mikrobiyal Hava Kalitesi Ölçüm Metodları 28
  • [10] Çobanoğlu, N., Pekcan, S., Aslan, A., Kiper, N.(2005). Solunan havada tehlikeler. Astım Allerji İmmünoloji, 3(2), 77-85.
  • [11] Çöl, B.G., Aksu, H.(2007). Gıda işletmelerinde ortam havasının mikrobiyel yükü üzerine etkili faktörler ve hava örnekleme teknikleri, Journal of Istanbul Veterinary Sciences, 2, 24-47.
  • [12] Fiedler, K., Schütz, E., Geh, S. (2001). Detection of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) produced by moulds on various materials. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 204(2), 111-121.
  • [13] Fog Nielsen, K.(2003). “Mycotoxin production by indoor molds”. Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B, 39 (2): 103–17.
  • [14] Güllü, G. (2013).Türkiye’de iç ortam hava kirliliği çalışmaları. Hava Kirliliği Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(2013),146-158.
  • [15] Gorny, R., L., Dutkiewiez, J.(2002). Bacterial and fungal aerosols in indoor environment in central and eastern European countries, Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 9 (1), 17-23.
  • [16] Griffiths, W.D., De Cosemo, G.A.L.(1994). The assesment of bioaerosols: a critical reviews. Journal of Aerosol Science, 25, 1425-1458.
  • [17] Johanning, E., Gareis, M., Nielsen, K., Dietrich, R., Märtlbauer, E.(2002). Airborne mycotoxins sampling and screening analysis. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate (Indoor Air), Monterey, CA, June.
  • [18] Hedidelberg, J.F., Shahamat, M., Levin, M., Rahman, I., Stelma, G., Grim, C.(1997). Effect of aerosolization on culturability and viability of gram-negative bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63, 3585-3588. Ayla ÜNVER ALÇAY, Semiha YALÇIN
  • [19] Jones A. M, Harrison R.M.(2004). The effects of meteorological factors on atmospheric bioaerosol concentrations—a review. Science of The Total Environment. 326, 151-180.
  • [20] Schwarzmeier, K., Knauer, M., Ivleva, N.P., Niessner, R., Haisch, C.(2013). Bioaerosol analysis based on a label-free microarray readout method using surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 405(16), 5387-5392.
  • [21] Kildeso, J., Nielsen, B.H.(1997).Exposure assessment of airborne microorganisms by fluorescence microscopy and image processing. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 41, 201-216.
  • [22] Lange, J.L., Thorne,P.S., Lynch, N.(1997). Application of flow cytometry and fluorescent in situ hybridization for assessment of exposures to airborne bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology,. 63(4), 1557-1563.
  • [23] Leggat, P.A., Kedjarune U.(2001). Bacterial aerosols in the dental clinic: A review. International Dental Journal, 51, 39-44.
  • [24] Menteşe, S., Rad, A.Y., Arısoy, M., Güllü, G.(2009). Ankara şehir atmosferinde biyoaerosol seviyelerinin mekansal değişimi. Ekoloji,19, 73, 21-28.
  • [25] Naruka, K., Gaur, J., Charaya, R.(2014). Bioaerosolos in healthcare settings: A brief review. International Journal of Geology, Earth & Environmental Sciences. 4(3), 59-64.
  • [26] Nielsen, K.F.(2003). Fungal Genetics and Biology 39, 103-117.
  • [27] Pasquarella, C., Pitzurra, O., Savino, A.(2000). The index of microbial air contamination. Journal of Hospital Infection, 46: 241–256.
  • [28] Pastuszka, S.J., Marchwinska-Wyrwal, E., Wlazlo, A.(2005). 30
  • [29] Bacterial aerosol in Silesian Hospitals: Preliminary results. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 14(6), 883-890.
  • [30] Robbins, C.A., Swenson, L.J., Nealley, M.L., Gots, R.E., Kelman, B.J.(2000). Health Effects of Mycotoxins in Indoor Air, Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 15(10), 773-784.
  • [31] Stetzenbach, L., Buttner, M., Cruz, P.(2004). Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 15, 170-174.
  • [32] Tuncer, A., Uysal Soyer, Ö.(2005). Hasta bina sendromu. Astım Allerji İmmünoloji, 3(2), 97-102.
  • [33] Vanhee, L.M.E., H.J. Nelis, Coenye, T.(2009). Rapid Detection and Quantification of Aspergillus fumigatus in Environmental Air Samples Using Solid-Phase Cytometry. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(9), 3233-3239.
  • [34] Wady, L., Bunte, A., Pehrson, C., Larsson, L.(2003). Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction for the identification of MVOCs from moldy building materials. Journal of microbiological methods, 52(3), 325-332.
  • [35] Wirtanen, G., Miettinen, H., Pahkala, S., Seppo, E., Lisa, V.C.(2002). Clear air solutions in food processing. VTT Publications, 309, 47p.

İç Ortam Havası Biyoaerosolleri ve Mikrobiyal Hava Kalitesi Ölçüm Metodları

Year 2015, Volume , Issue 37, 17 - 30, 01.01.2015

Abstract

Canlıların hayatlarını sürdürebilmeleri için gereken en önemli faktörlerden biri olan hava, içerisinde, solunum için gerekli bir takım maddeleri barındırırken, aynı zamanda, sağlığa zararlı olabilecek değişik büyüklükte partiküller halinde yabancı maddeleri ve mikroorganizmaları da içerebilmektedir. İç ortam havasının halk sağlığı üzerinde etkisi büyüktür. Günümüzde insanlar zamanlarının büyük bir bölümünü ev, işyeri ve okul gibi kapalı ortamlarda geçirmektedir. Yapılan birçok araştırmada iç ortamdaki kirleticilerinin seviyesinin, dış ortama göre daha yüksek olduğu, kapalı mekânlarda gerekli tedbirlerin alınmamasının ciddi sağlık sorunlarına neden olabileceği saptanmıştır. Ayrıca hava yoluyla bulaşan çok sayıda patojen vardır. Bu nedenle okullar, işyerleri ve evler iç ortam hava kalitesinin belirlenmesi gereken çok önemli alanlardır. Ayrıca hastaneler, gıda işletmeleri, ilaç fabrikaları, dental klinikler gibi kritik alanlarda iç ortam hava kalitesini saptamak, muhtemel riskleri ve alınacak önlemleri belirlemede önemli rol oynar. Günümüzde test cihazları ile mikrobiyel yükün kob/m3 olarak ölçülmesi (aktif hava örnekleme), besiyeri plakları üzerine düşen mikroorganizmaların sayılması (pasif hava örnekleme), mikroorganizma hücrelerinin kimyasal bileşenlerini (ATP, enzim) ölçme, direk mikroskobi, flow sitometri ve polimeraz zincir reaksiyonu (PCR) gibi bir çok yöntem kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada tüm bu yöntemler, avantaj ve dezavantajlarını içerecek şekilde kısaca açıklanmıştır

References

  • [1] Abbott, S. P. (2002). Mycotoxins and indoor molds. Indoor Environment Connections, 3(4), 14-24.
  • [2] An, H.R., Mainelis, G., White, L.(2006). Development and calibration of real-time PCR for quantification of airborne microorganisms in air samples. Atmospheric Environment, 40(40), 7924-7939.
  • [3] Anonim 1.ASHRAE. “Standard 62- 2001- Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality”, american society of heating, refrigerating and air- conditioning engineers, Atlanta.
  • [4] Anonim 2.(1998).Indoor air quality: Biological contaminants. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization.
  • [5] Anonim 3.(2009). Review of methods to measure bioaerosols from composting sites. Environment Agency.
  • [6] Beijer, L., Thorn, J., & Rylander, R. (2002). Effects after inhalation of (1→ 3)-β-D-glucan and relation to mould exposure in the home. Mediators of inflammation, 11(3), 149-153.
  • [7] Brasel, T. L., Martin, J. M., Carriker, C. G., Wilson, S. C., Straus, D. C. (2005). Detection of airborne Stachybotrys chartarum macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins in the indoor environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(11), 7376-7388.
  • [8] Brodie, E. L., De Santis, T. Z., Parker, J. P. M., Zubietta, I. X., Piceno, Y. M., Andersen, G. L. (2007). Urban aerosols harbor diverse and dynamic bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(1), 299-304.
  • [9] Cox, C. S., Wathes, C. M.(1995). Bioaerosols in the Environment. In Bioaerosols Handbook, Cox, C. S., Wathes, C. M. (Eds.); CRC Press: Boca Raton, Florida. İç Ortam Havası Biyoaerosolleri ve Mikrobiyal Hava Kalitesi Ölçüm Metodları 28
  • [10] Çobanoğlu, N., Pekcan, S., Aslan, A., Kiper, N.(2005). Solunan havada tehlikeler. Astım Allerji İmmünoloji, 3(2), 77-85.
  • [11] Çöl, B.G., Aksu, H.(2007). Gıda işletmelerinde ortam havasının mikrobiyel yükü üzerine etkili faktörler ve hava örnekleme teknikleri, Journal of Istanbul Veterinary Sciences, 2, 24-47.
  • [12] Fiedler, K., Schütz, E., Geh, S. (2001). Detection of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) produced by moulds on various materials. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 204(2), 111-121.
  • [13] Fog Nielsen, K.(2003). “Mycotoxin production by indoor molds”. Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B, 39 (2): 103–17.
  • [14] Güllü, G. (2013).Türkiye’de iç ortam hava kirliliği çalışmaları. Hava Kirliliği Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(2013),146-158.
  • [15] Gorny, R., L., Dutkiewiez, J.(2002). Bacterial and fungal aerosols in indoor environment in central and eastern European countries, Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 9 (1), 17-23.
  • [16] Griffiths, W.D., De Cosemo, G.A.L.(1994). The assesment of bioaerosols: a critical reviews. Journal of Aerosol Science, 25, 1425-1458.
  • [17] Johanning, E., Gareis, M., Nielsen, K., Dietrich, R., Märtlbauer, E.(2002). Airborne mycotoxins sampling and screening analysis. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate (Indoor Air), Monterey, CA, June.
  • [18] Hedidelberg, J.F., Shahamat, M., Levin, M., Rahman, I., Stelma, G., Grim, C.(1997). Effect of aerosolization on culturability and viability of gram-negative bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63, 3585-3588. Ayla ÜNVER ALÇAY, Semiha YALÇIN
  • [19] Jones A. M, Harrison R.M.(2004). The effects of meteorological factors on atmospheric bioaerosol concentrations—a review. Science of The Total Environment. 326, 151-180.
  • [20] Schwarzmeier, K., Knauer, M., Ivleva, N.P., Niessner, R., Haisch, C.(2013). Bioaerosol analysis based on a label-free microarray readout method using surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 405(16), 5387-5392.
  • [21] Kildeso, J., Nielsen, B.H.(1997).Exposure assessment of airborne microorganisms by fluorescence microscopy and image processing. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 41, 201-216.
  • [22] Lange, J.L., Thorne,P.S., Lynch, N.(1997). Application of flow cytometry and fluorescent in situ hybridization for assessment of exposures to airborne bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology,. 63(4), 1557-1563.
  • [23] Leggat, P.A., Kedjarune U.(2001). Bacterial aerosols in the dental clinic: A review. International Dental Journal, 51, 39-44.
  • [24] Menteşe, S., Rad, A.Y., Arısoy, M., Güllü, G.(2009). Ankara şehir atmosferinde biyoaerosol seviyelerinin mekansal değişimi. Ekoloji,19, 73, 21-28.
  • [25] Naruka, K., Gaur, J., Charaya, R.(2014). Bioaerosolos in healthcare settings: A brief review. International Journal of Geology, Earth & Environmental Sciences. 4(3), 59-64.
  • [26] Nielsen, K.F.(2003). Fungal Genetics and Biology 39, 103-117.
  • [27] Pasquarella, C., Pitzurra, O., Savino, A.(2000). The index of microbial air contamination. Journal of Hospital Infection, 46: 241–256.
  • [28] Pastuszka, S.J., Marchwinska-Wyrwal, E., Wlazlo, A.(2005). 30
  • [29] Bacterial aerosol in Silesian Hospitals: Preliminary results. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 14(6), 883-890.
  • [30] Robbins, C.A., Swenson, L.J., Nealley, M.L., Gots, R.E., Kelman, B.J.(2000). Health Effects of Mycotoxins in Indoor Air, Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 15(10), 773-784.
  • [31] Stetzenbach, L., Buttner, M., Cruz, P.(2004). Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 15, 170-174.
  • [32] Tuncer, A., Uysal Soyer, Ö.(2005). Hasta bina sendromu. Astım Allerji İmmünoloji, 3(2), 97-102.
  • [33] Vanhee, L.M.E., H.J. Nelis, Coenye, T.(2009). Rapid Detection and Quantification of Aspergillus fumigatus in Environmental Air Samples Using Solid-Phase Cytometry. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(9), 3233-3239.
  • [34] Wady, L., Bunte, A., Pehrson, C., Larsson, L.(2003). Use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction for the identification of MVOCs from moldy building materials. Journal of microbiological methods, 52(3), 325-332.
  • [35] Wirtanen, G., Miettinen, H., Pahkala, S., Seppo, E., Lisa, V.C.(2002). Clear air solutions in food processing. VTT Publications, 309, 47p.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Science
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Ayla Ünver ALÇAY
İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi, ABMYO, Gıda Teknolojisi Programı
0000-0003-3254-155X


Semiha YALÇIN This is me
Marmara Gıda Analiz Laboratuvarı, İSTANBUL
Palestine, State of

Publication Date January 1, 2015
Application Date May 12, 2014
Acceptance Date
Published in Issue Year 2015, Volume , Issue 37

Cite

APA Alçay, A. Ü. & Yalçın, S. (2015). İç Ortam Havası Biyoaerosolleri ve Mikrobiyal Hava Kalitesi Ölçüm Metodları . Anadolu Bil Meslek Yüksekokulu Dergisi , (37) , 17-30 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/abmyoder/issue/46669/585184



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