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Examining the Social Anxiety of University Students in Synchronous Online Learning Environments

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 2, 435 - 443, 30.12.2021

Abstract

This study examines the social anxiety of university students in online live lessons in terms of their digital literacy levels, gender, previous distance education experiences, and the way they interact with the teacher in live lessons. The study was conducted with a causal-comparative and correlational research design. Data was obtained from 167 university students with an online questionnaire. The instruments used in the study were the general information form, the student-teacher interaction subscale of the social anxiety scale in e-learning environments, and the digital literacy scale. The data analysis was carried out with correlation analysis and an independent sample t-test. Results of the research showed that the social anxiety of students in synchronous learning environments has a negative relationship with their digital skills. The social anxiety of female students was found to be higher than male students. Also, students who did not actively listen to the lesson and interact with the teacher through live chat were more anxious. The social anxiety did not differ according to previous distance education experience and the use of microphones in lessons.

References

  • Ağırtaş, A., & Güler, Ç. (2020). Sosyal Medya Kullanan Üniversite Öğrencilerinin İnternet Bağımlılığı ve Sosyal Kaygı Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi. Çağ Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 17(1), 76–89.
  • Ajmal, M., & Ahmad, S. (2019). Exploration of Anxiety Factors among Students of Distance Learning: A Case Study of Allama Iqbal Open University. Bulletin of Education and Research, 41(2), 67-78. Aktan, E. (2018). Sosyal medya ve sosyal kaygı: Sosyal medya kullanıcıları üzerine bir araştırma. Selçuk İletişim, 11(2), 35–53.
  • Alhabeeb, A., & Rowley, J. (2018). E-learning critical success factors: Comparing perspectives from academic staff and students. Computers & Education, 127, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.08.007
  • Amichai-Hamburger, Y., & Furnham, A. (2007). The positive net. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(2), 1033–1045.
  • Chen, C. M., & Lee, T. H. (2011). Emotion recognition and communication for reducing second‐language speaking anxiety in a web‐based one‐to‐one synchronous learning environment. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(3), 417-440.
  • Chou, C. (2003). Interactivity and interactive functions in web‐based learning systems: a technical framework for designers. British journal of educational technology, 34(3), 265-279. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8535.00326
  • Coryell, J. E., & Clark, M. C. (2009). One right way, intercultural participation, and language learning anxiety: A qualitative analysis of adult online heritage and nonheritage language learners. Foreign Language Annals, 42(3), 483–504.
  • D’Errico, F., Paciello, M., & Cerniglia, L. (2016). When emotions enhance students’ engagement in e-learning processes. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 12(4).
  • Fawaz, M., & Samaha, A. (2021). E-learning: Depression, anxiety, and stress symptomatology among Lebanese university students during COVID-19 quarantine. Nursing Forum, 56(1), 52-57. https://doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12521
  • Fuller, R. M., Vician, C., & Brown, S. A. (2006). E-learning and individual characteristics: The role of computer anxiety and communication apprehension. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 46(4), 103-115.
  • Grieve, R., Kemp, N., Norris, K., & Padgett, C. R. (2017). Push or pull? Unpacking the social compensation hypothesis of Internet use in an educational context. Computers & Education, 109, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.02.008
  • Gündüz, A., Aydemir, M., & Karaman, S. (2018). Eş-Zamanlı sanal sınıf ortamındaki uzaktan eğitim öğrencilerinin sosyal bulunuşluk düzeylerinin demografik değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 8(2), 83–95.
  • Gürbüz, S., & Şahin, F. (2018). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri Felsefe-Yöntem-Analiz (5th ed.). Seçkin.
  • Havelka, D., Beasley, F., & Broome, T. (2004). A study of computer anxiety among business students. American Journal of Business, 19(1), 63-71. https:// doi.org/10.1108/19355181200400007
  • Hill, J. R., Song, L., & West, R. E. (2009). Social learning theory and web-based learning environments: A review of research and discussion of implications. American Journal of Distance Education, 23(2), 88–103. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923640902857713
  • Hillman, D. C. A., Willis, D. J., & Gunawardena, C. N. (1994). Learner-Interface interaction in distance education: An extension of contemporary models and strategies for practitioners. American Journal of Distance Education. 8(2), 30-42 https://doi.org/10.1080/08923649409526853
  • Hutchins, N., Allen, A., Curran, M., & Kannis-Dymand, L. (2021). Social anxiety and online social interaction. Australian Psychologist, 56(2), 142–153. https://dx.doi.org/10.1089%2Fcyber.2011.0015
  • JASP Team. (2020). JASP (Version 0.14.1)[Computer software].
  • Johnson, G. M. (2006). Synchronous and asynchronous text-based CMC in educational contexts: A review of recent research. TechTrends, 50(46). https:// doi.org/10.1007/s11528-006-0046-9
  • Keskin, S., Şahin, M., Uluç, S., & Yurdugul, H. (2020). Online learners’ interactions and social anxiety: The social anxiety scale for e-learning environments (SASE). Interactive Learning Environments, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1769681
  • Korucu, A. T., & Gürkez, Ş. (2019). An analysis of online privacy concerns of teacher candidates. Participatory Educational Research, 6(2), 15–25.
  • Kumar Basak, S., Wotto, M., & Bélanger, P. (2018). E-learning, M-learning and D-learning: Conceptual definition and comparative analysis. E-Learning and Digital Media, 15(4), 191-216. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042753018785180
  • McLean, C. P., & Anderson, E. R. (2009). Brave men and timid women? A review of the gender differences in fear and anxiety. Clinical psychology review, 29(6), 496-505. Mertens, D., 2010. Research and evaluation in education and psychology. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Sage, pp.151-152.
  • Moore, M. (1997). Theory of transactional distance. In D. Keegan (Eds.), Theoretical Principles of Distance Education (pp. 22-38). Routledge.
  • Morrison, J. (2016). DSM-5’i Kolaylaştıran: Klinisyenler İçin Tanı Rehberi (M. Şahin, Ed. & H. Uğur Kural, Trans.), Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık (Original work published 2014).
  • Orhan, G., & Beyhan, Ö. (2020). Teachers’ perceptions and teaching experiences on distance education through synchronous video conferencing during covid-19 pandemic. Social Sciences and Education Research Review, 7(1), 8–44.
  • Park, Y. J., & Bonk, C. J. (2007). Synchronous learning experiences: Distance and residential learners’ perspectives in a blended graduate course. Journal of Interactive Online Learning. 6 (3), 245-264.
  • Persons, J. B., & Tompkins, M. A. (2011). Cognitive-Behavioral Case Formulation. In T. D. Eells (Ed.), Handbook of Psychotherapy Case Formulation (Second Edition, p. 307). Guilford Publications.
  • Pierce, T. (2009). Social anxiety and technology: Face-to-face communication versus technological communication among teens. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(6), 1367–1372.
  • Privitera, G. J. (2012). Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Radha, R., Mahalakshmi, K., Kumar, V. S., & Saravanakumar, A. R. (2020). E-Learning during Lockdown of Covid-19 Pandemic: A Global Perspective. International Journal of Control and Automation. 13(4), 1088-1099.
  • Rapp-McCall, L. A., & Anyikwa, V. (2016). Active learning strategies and instructor presence in an online research methods course: Can we decrease anxiety and enhance knowledge? Advances in Social Work, 17(1), 1–14.
  • Reagan, A. R. (2018). Teaching Undergraduate Social Statistics Online: A Classroom Assessment of Instructional Interventions to Reduce Statistics Anxiety and Facilitate Student Success. J. Educ. Soc. Policy, 5.
  • Saadé, R. G., & Kira, D. (2009). Computer anxiety in e-learning: The effect of computer self-efficacy. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 8(1), 177–191.
  • Saadé, R. G., Kira, D., Mak, T., & Nebebe, F. (2017, June). Anxiety & Performance in Online Learning. In In SITE 2017: Informing Science+ IT Education Conferences: Vietnam (pp. 147-157).
  • Satar, H. M., & Özdener, N. (2008). The effects of synchronous CMC on speaking proficiency and anxiety: Text versus voice chat. The Modern Language Journal, 92(4), 595-613.
  • Sharifrazi, F. (2012). The Investigation of a Synchronous Engagement System (SES) to Alleviate Anxiety Among eLearning Students in an MBA Program [Doctoral dissertation]. Nova Southeastern University.
  • Song, L. (2005). Self-directed learning in online environments process, personal attribute, and context [Doctoral dissertation]. The University of Georgia.
  • Song, L., Singleton, E. S., Hill, J. R., & Koh, M. H. (2004). Improving online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging characteristics. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(1), 59–70.
  • Stewart, A. R., Harlow, D. B., & DeBacco, K. (2011). Students’ experience of synchronous learning in distributed environments. Distance Education, 32(3), 357-381. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2011.610289
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed). Pearson Education.
  • Üstündağ, M. T., Güneş, E., & Bahçivan, E. (2017). Turkish adaptation of digital literacy scale and investigating pre-service science teachers’ digital literacy. Journal of Education and Future, 12, 19–29.
  • Warden, C. A., Stanworth, J. O., Ren, J. B., & Warden, A. R. (2013). Synchronous learning best practices: An action research study. Computers and Education, 63, 197-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.11.010
  • Wongwatkit, C., Panjaburee, P., Srisawasdi, N., & Seprum, P. (2020). Moderating effects of gender differences on the relationships between perceived learning support, intention to use, and learning performance in a personalized e-learning. Journal of Computers in Education, 7(2), 229-255. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s40692-020-00154-9
  • Yang, H., Lay, Y., Tsao, W., & Lay, J. S. (2010). The impact of Internet on social anxiety and learning adaptability for young adult Internet users. International Conference on e-Business (ICE-B), Greece,1-4.

Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Senkron Öğrenme Ortamlarındaki Sosyal Kaygılarının İncelenmesi

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 2, 435 - 443, 30.12.2021

Abstract

Bu çalışmada üniversite öğrencilerinin çevrimiçi canlı derslerdeki sosyal kaygılarının dijital okur-yazarlık düzeyleri, cinsiyetleri, önceki uzaktan eğitim deneyimleri ve canlı derslerde öğretmenle etkileşime geçme şekilleri açısından incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Nedensel karşılaştırmalı ve ilişkisel araştırma deseninde gerçekleştirilen çalışmanın katılımcılarını 167 Üniversite öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Veriler online anket şeklinde elde edilmiştir. Çalışmada genel bilgi formu, e-öğrenme ortamlarında sosyal kaygı ölçeğinin öğrenci-öğretmen etkileşimi alt ölçeği ve dijital okur yazarlık ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizi korelasyon analizi ve bağımsız t-testi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları öğrencilerin senkron öğrenme ortamlarındaki sosyal kaygılarının dijital becerileri arttıkça azaldığını, kız öğrencilerin erkek öğrencilere göre daha kaygılı olduklarını, dersi aktif dinlemeyen ve canlı sohbet yoluyla öğretmenle etkileşime geçmeyen öğrencilerin daha kaygılı olduğu göstermektedir. Ayrıca sosyal kaygı önceki uzaktan eğitim deneyimi ve derslerde mikrofon kullanımına göre farklılaşmadığı bulunmuştur.

References

  • Ağırtaş, A., & Güler, Ç. (2020). Sosyal Medya Kullanan Üniversite Öğrencilerinin İnternet Bağımlılığı ve Sosyal Kaygı Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi. Çağ Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 17(1), 76–89.
  • Ajmal, M., & Ahmad, S. (2019). Exploration of Anxiety Factors among Students of Distance Learning: A Case Study of Allama Iqbal Open University. Bulletin of Education and Research, 41(2), 67-78. Aktan, E. (2018). Sosyal medya ve sosyal kaygı: Sosyal medya kullanıcıları üzerine bir araştırma. Selçuk İletişim, 11(2), 35–53.
  • Alhabeeb, A., & Rowley, J. (2018). E-learning critical success factors: Comparing perspectives from academic staff and students. Computers & Education, 127, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.08.007
  • Amichai-Hamburger, Y., & Furnham, A. (2007). The positive net. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(2), 1033–1045.
  • Chen, C. M., & Lee, T. H. (2011). Emotion recognition and communication for reducing second‐language speaking anxiety in a web‐based one‐to‐one synchronous learning environment. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(3), 417-440.
  • Chou, C. (2003). Interactivity and interactive functions in web‐based learning systems: a technical framework for designers. British journal of educational technology, 34(3), 265-279. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8535.00326
  • Coryell, J. E., & Clark, M. C. (2009). One right way, intercultural participation, and language learning anxiety: A qualitative analysis of adult online heritage and nonheritage language learners. Foreign Language Annals, 42(3), 483–504.
  • D’Errico, F., Paciello, M., & Cerniglia, L. (2016). When emotions enhance students’ engagement in e-learning processes. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 12(4).
  • Fawaz, M., & Samaha, A. (2021). E-learning: Depression, anxiety, and stress symptomatology among Lebanese university students during COVID-19 quarantine. Nursing Forum, 56(1), 52-57. https://doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12521
  • Fuller, R. M., Vician, C., & Brown, S. A. (2006). E-learning and individual characteristics: The role of computer anxiety and communication apprehension. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 46(4), 103-115.
  • Grieve, R., Kemp, N., Norris, K., & Padgett, C. R. (2017). Push or pull? Unpacking the social compensation hypothesis of Internet use in an educational context. Computers & Education, 109, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.02.008
  • Gündüz, A., Aydemir, M., & Karaman, S. (2018). Eş-Zamanlı sanal sınıf ortamındaki uzaktan eğitim öğrencilerinin sosyal bulunuşluk düzeylerinin demografik değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 8(2), 83–95.
  • Gürbüz, S., & Şahin, F. (2018). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri Felsefe-Yöntem-Analiz (5th ed.). Seçkin.
  • Havelka, D., Beasley, F., & Broome, T. (2004). A study of computer anxiety among business students. American Journal of Business, 19(1), 63-71. https:// doi.org/10.1108/19355181200400007
  • Hill, J. R., Song, L., & West, R. E. (2009). Social learning theory and web-based learning environments: A review of research and discussion of implications. American Journal of Distance Education, 23(2), 88–103. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923640902857713
  • Hillman, D. C. A., Willis, D. J., & Gunawardena, C. N. (1994). Learner-Interface interaction in distance education: An extension of contemporary models and strategies for practitioners. American Journal of Distance Education. 8(2), 30-42 https://doi.org/10.1080/08923649409526853
  • Hutchins, N., Allen, A., Curran, M., & Kannis-Dymand, L. (2021). Social anxiety and online social interaction. Australian Psychologist, 56(2), 142–153. https://dx.doi.org/10.1089%2Fcyber.2011.0015
  • JASP Team. (2020). JASP (Version 0.14.1)[Computer software].
  • Johnson, G. M. (2006). Synchronous and asynchronous text-based CMC in educational contexts: A review of recent research. TechTrends, 50(46). https:// doi.org/10.1007/s11528-006-0046-9
  • Keskin, S., Şahin, M., Uluç, S., & Yurdugul, H. (2020). Online learners’ interactions and social anxiety: The social anxiety scale for e-learning environments (SASE). Interactive Learning Environments, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1769681
  • Korucu, A. T., & Gürkez, Ş. (2019). An analysis of online privacy concerns of teacher candidates. Participatory Educational Research, 6(2), 15–25.
  • Kumar Basak, S., Wotto, M., & Bélanger, P. (2018). E-learning, M-learning and D-learning: Conceptual definition and comparative analysis. E-Learning and Digital Media, 15(4), 191-216. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042753018785180
  • McLean, C. P., & Anderson, E. R. (2009). Brave men and timid women? A review of the gender differences in fear and anxiety. Clinical psychology review, 29(6), 496-505. Mertens, D., 2010. Research and evaluation in education and psychology. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Sage, pp.151-152.
  • Moore, M. (1997). Theory of transactional distance. In D. Keegan (Eds.), Theoretical Principles of Distance Education (pp. 22-38). Routledge.
  • Morrison, J. (2016). DSM-5’i Kolaylaştıran: Klinisyenler İçin Tanı Rehberi (M. Şahin, Ed. & H. Uğur Kural, Trans.), Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık (Original work published 2014).
  • Orhan, G., & Beyhan, Ö. (2020). Teachers’ perceptions and teaching experiences on distance education through synchronous video conferencing during covid-19 pandemic. Social Sciences and Education Research Review, 7(1), 8–44.
  • Park, Y. J., & Bonk, C. J. (2007). Synchronous learning experiences: Distance and residential learners’ perspectives in a blended graduate course. Journal of Interactive Online Learning. 6 (3), 245-264.
  • Persons, J. B., & Tompkins, M. A. (2011). Cognitive-Behavioral Case Formulation. In T. D. Eells (Ed.), Handbook of Psychotherapy Case Formulation (Second Edition, p. 307). Guilford Publications.
  • Pierce, T. (2009). Social anxiety and technology: Face-to-face communication versus technological communication among teens. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(6), 1367–1372.
  • Privitera, G. J. (2012). Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Radha, R., Mahalakshmi, K., Kumar, V. S., & Saravanakumar, A. R. (2020). E-Learning during Lockdown of Covid-19 Pandemic: A Global Perspective. International Journal of Control and Automation. 13(4), 1088-1099.
  • Rapp-McCall, L. A., & Anyikwa, V. (2016). Active learning strategies and instructor presence in an online research methods course: Can we decrease anxiety and enhance knowledge? Advances in Social Work, 17(1), 1–14.
  • Reagan, A. R. (2018). Teaching Undergraduate Social Statistics Online: A Classroom Assessment of Instructional Interventions to Reduce Statistics Anxiety and Facilitate Student Success. J. Educ. Soc. Policy, 5.
  • Saadé, R. G., & Kira, D. (2009). Computer anxiety in e-learning: The effect of computer self-efficacy. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 8(1), 177–191.
  • Saadé, R. G., Kira, D., Mak, T., & Nebebe, F. (2017, June). Anxiety & Performance in Online Learning. In In SITE 2017: Informing Science+ IT Education Conferences: Vietnam (pp. 147-157).
  • Satar, H. M., & Özdener, N. (2008). The effects of synchronous CMC on speaking proficiency and anxiety: Text versus voice chat. The Modern Language Journal, 92(4), 595-613.
  • Sharifrazi, F. (2012). The Investigation of a Synchronous Engagement System (SES) to Alleviate Anxiety Among eLearning Students in an MBA Program [Doctoral dissertation]. Nova Southeastern University.
  • Song, L. (2005). Self-directed learning in online environments process, personal attribute, and context [Doctoral dissertation]. The University of Georgia.
  • Song, L., Singleton, E. S., Hill, J. R., & Koh, M. H. (2004). Improving online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging characteristics. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(1), 59–70.
  • Stewart, A. R., Harlow, D. B., & DeBacco, K. (2011). Students’ experience of synchronous learning in distributed environments. Distance Education, 32(3), 357-381. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2011.610289
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed). Pearson Education.
  • Üstündağ, M. T., Güneş, E., & Bahçivan, E. (2017). Turkish adaptation of digital literacy scale and investigating pre-service science teachers’ digital literacy. Journal of Education and Future, 12, 19–29.
  • Warden, C. A., Stanworth, J. O., Ren, J. B., & Warden, A. R. (2013). Synchronous learning best practices: An action research study. Computers and Education, 63, 197-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.11.010
  • Wongwatkit, C., Panjaburee, P., Srisawasdi, N., & Seprum, P. (2020). Moderating effects of gender differences on the relationships between perceived learning support, intention to use, and learning performance in a personalized e-learning. Journal of Computers in Education, 7(2), 229-255. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s40692-020-00154-9
  • Yang, H., Lay, Y., Tsao, W., & Lay, J. S. (2010). The impact of Internet on social anxiety and learning adaptability for young adult Internet users. International Conference on e-Business (ICE-B), Greece,1-4.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Computer Science, Information System
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Ekrem BAHÇEKAPILI> (Primary Author)
Karadeniz Technical University
0000-0002-7538-1712
Türkiye

Early Pub Date September 13, 2021
Publication Date December 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { acin934636, journal = {Acta Infologica}, eissn = {2602-3563}, address = {İstanbul Üni. Enformatik Böl. Kalenderhane Mah. 16 Mart Şehitleri Cad. No: 8 Vezneciler Fatih İstanbul}, publisher = {Istanbul University}, year = {2021}, volume = {5}, number = {2}, pages = {435 - 443}, title = {Examining the Social Anxiety of University Students in Synchronous Online Learning Environments}, key = {cite}, author = {Bahçekapılı, Ekrem} }
APA Bahçekapılı, E. (2021). Examining the Social Anxiety of University Students in Synchronous Online Learning Environments . Acta Infologica , 5 (2) , 435-443 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/acin/issue/64878/934636
MLA Bahçekapılı, E. "Examining the Social Anxiety of University Students in Synchronous Online Learning Environments" . Acta Infologica 5 (2021 ): 435-443 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/acin/issue/64878/934636>
Chicago Bahçekapılı, E. "Examining the Social Anxiety of University Students in Synchronous Online Learning Environments". Acta Infologica 5 (2021 ): 435-443
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Examining the Social Anxiety of University Students in Synchronous Online Learning Environments AU - EkremBahçekapılı Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - Acta Infologica JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 435 EP - 443 VL - 5 IS - 2 SN - -2602-3563 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Acta Infologica Examining the Social Anxiety of University Students in Synchronous Online Learning Environments %A Ekrem Bahçekapılı %T Examining the Social Anxiety of University Students in Synchronous Online Learning Environments %D 2021 %J Acta Infologica %P -2602-3563 %V 5 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Bahçekapılı, Ekrem . "Examining the Social Anxiety of University Students in Synchronous Online Learning Environments". Acta Infologica 5 / 2 (December 2021): 435-443 .
AMA Bahçekapılı E. Examining the Social Anxiety of University Students in Synchronous Online Learning Environments. ACIN. 2021; 5(2): 435-443.
Vancouver Bahçekapılı E. Examining the Social Anxiety of University Students in Synchronous Online Learning Environments. Acta Infologica. 2021; 5(2): 435-443.
IEEE E. Bahçekapılı , "Examining the Social Anxiety of University Students in Synchronous Online Learning Environments", Acta Infologica, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 435-443, Dec. 2021