Year 2020, Volume 10 , Issue 2, Pages 265 - 290 2020-12-31

When do Civil Wars Breed Ethnic Cleansing? The Cases of Lebanon and Yugoslavia
İç Savaşlar Ne Zaman Etnik Temizlik Doğurur? Lübnan ve Yugoslavya Vakaları

M. Tahir KILAVUZ [1]


Civil wars are episodes when ethnic violence is likely to be observed. However,
while some civil wars lead to extreme forms of violence such as ethnic cleansing,
this is not always the case for every civil war. Then why do some civil wars breed
ethnic cleansing and not others? What sort of factors that are related to the context
of the civil war and the involved actors shape the likelihood of an ethnic cleansing?
Which theories of political conflict explain these diverging outcomes better? Based
on two prominent civil wars of the last century, the Lebanese Civil War and the Yugoslav
Wars, this article tests the hypotheses on political opportunities and grievances
in order to explain why the latter led to an ethnic cleansing while the former
did not. Based on the systematic tests of these theories in comparative case studies,
the study finds that factors related to political opportunities such as regime change
and political and military dominance are more useful in explaining the variation
between the two cases whereas the factors that correspond with grievances such
as economic dominance and hatred do not explain the outcomes.
İç savaşlar etnik şiddetin potansiyel olarak görülebildiği süreçlerdir. Ancak, bazı iç savaşların
sonucu olarak etnik temizlik gibi aşırı şiddet olayları görülse de bu durum her
iç savaş için geçerli değildir. Öyleyse, neden bazı iç savaşlar etnik temizliği doğururken
diğerleri doğurmaz? İç savaş ve ona dahil olan aktörlerle ilgili hangi faktörler bir etnik
temizlik olma olasılığını şekillendirir. Siyasal çatışma teorilerinin hangileri bu farklı
sonuçları daha iyi açıklar? Geçtiğimiz yüzyılın iki önemli iç savaşı, Lübnan İç Savaşı ve
Yugoslav Savaşları, üzerinden bu makale, bu savaşların ikincisinin bir etnik temizliğe
yol açarken ilkinin yol açmamış olduğunu açıklamak amacıyla, siyasal fırsatlar ve toplumsal
sıkıntılar ile ilgili hipotezleri test etmektedir. Bu teorilerin karşılaştırmalı vaka
analizleri çerçevesinde sistematik testlerinden hareketle bu çalışma, rejim değişimi ve
siyasal ve askeri hakimiyet gibi fırsatlarla ilintili faktörlerin iki vaka arasındaki farklılığı
açıklayabildiğini, ancak ekonomik hakimiyet ve nefret gibi toplumsal sıkıntılarla
alakalı faktörlerin sonuçları açıklayamadığını bulmaktadır.
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Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-3827-3827
Author: M. Tahir KILAVUZ (Primary Author)
Institution: Harvard University
Country: United States


Dates

Publication Date : December 31, 2020

APA Kılavuz, M . (2020). When do Civil Wars Breed Ethnic Cleansing? The Cases of Lebanon and Yugoslavia . Adam Akademi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , 10 (2) , 265-290 . DOI: 10.31679/adamakademi.684177