Research Article
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Physical Activity Level and Barriers of Second and Third Trimester Pregnant Women

Year 2019, Volume 5, Issue 3, 1731 - 1745, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.30569/adiyamansaglik.643369

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the physical activity level and barriers, the factors affecting them of healthy pregnant women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.

Material and Method: The research was descriptive and cross-sectional. The study was carried out with 246 healthy pregnant women at the antenatal care  of a public university hospital in İzmir between February-May 2016. Descriptive Characteristic Form, Physical Activity Barriers Form and Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPA) was used for data collect. The analysis of data was analyzed by Spearman Correlation, Kruskal-Wallis Variance, and Mann-Whitney U test.

Result: The women age mean in the study was 27.85+4.01. Women participating in our study were expressed as active 78% of the physical activity  perception before pregnancy and this rate was declared as active 54.1% in pregnancy according to Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire Physical activity barriers experienced by the participants were as follows; lack of motivation / request (50.4%), lack of information (32.5%), lack of time (30.1%), lack of family / spouse support (28.5%), inappropriate weather conditions (26%) and working life (24%). Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire median values were statistically significantly increased in women with low-income status, living in nuclear family, having multigravida, having an unplanned pregnancy and perceived motionless the activity before pregnancy.

Conclusion: About half of pregnant women are inactive. Personal barriers such as lack of motivation are the main obstacles in physical activity. Health professionals should advise pregnant women about the physical activity  and  benefits, and motivate them to do.

References

  • 1. Nascimento SL, Surita FG, Godoy AC, Kasawara KT, Morais SS. Correction: Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study. PLoS One [Internet]. 15 Temmuz 2015 [kaynak 31 Ocak 2019];10(7):e0133564. Available at: https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133564
  • 2. Evenson KR, Barakat R, Brown WJ, Dargent-Molina P, Haruna M, Mikkelsen EM, vd. Guidelines for Physical Activity During Pregnancy: Comparisons From Around the World. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2014;8(2):102–21.
  • 3. Cioffi J, Schmied V, Dahlen H, Mills A, Thornton C, Duff M, vd. Physical activity in pregnancy: Women’s perceptions, practices, and influencing factors. J Midwifery Women’s Heal. 2010;55(5):455–61.
  • 4. Prather H, Spitznagle T, Hunt D. Benefits of exercise during pregnancy. PM R [Internet]. 2012;4(11):845–50. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.07.012
  • 5. Daşıkan Z. Teori̇ temelli̇ bi̇reysel danışmanlık gi̇ri̇şi̇mi̇ni̇n gebeli̇kte ki̇lo yöneti̇mi̇ne etki̇si̇. Ege Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Kadın Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Hemşireliği AD., Doktora programı, 2012, İzmir.
  • 6. Downs DS, Chasan-Taber L, Evenson KR, Leiferman J, Yeo S. Physical Activity and Pregnancy. Res Q Exerc Sport [Internet]. Aralık 2012 [kaynak 31 Ocak 2019];83(4):485–502. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23367811
  • 7. Evenson KR, Moos M-K, Carrier K, Siega-Riz AM. Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women. Matern Child Health J [Internet]. 14 Mayıs 2009 [kaynak 31 Ocak 2019];13(3):364–75. Available at: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10995-008-0359-8
  • 8. Cramp AG, Bray SR. A prospective examination of exercise and barrier self-efficacy to engage in leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy. Ann Behav Med. 2009;37(3):325–34.
  • 9. Hui A, Back L, Ludwig S, Gardiner P, Sevenhuysen G, Dean H, vd. Lifestyle intervention on diet and exercise reduced excessive gestational weight gain in pregnant women under a randomised controlled trial. BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012;119(1):70–7.
  • 10. Nascimento SL, Surita FG, Cecatti JG. Physical exercise during pregnancy: A systematic review. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2012;24(6):387–94.
  • 11. Gaston A, Cramp A. Exercise during pregnancy: A review of patterns and determinants. J Sci Med Sport [Internet]. 2011;14(4):299–305. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.02.006
  • 12. Gaston A, Vamos CA. Leisure-time physical activity patterns and correlates among pregnant women in Ontario, Canada. Matern Child Health J. 2013;17(3):477–84.
  • 13. Dashti S, Joseph HL, Esfehani AJ, Su TT, Latiff LA, Esfehani RJ. Perceived barriers to physical activity among Iranian women. World Appl Sci J. 2014;32(3):422–8.
  • 14. Harrison AL, Taylor NF, Shields N, Frawley HC. Attitudes, barriers and enablers to physical activity in pregnant women: a systematic review. J Physiother. 2018;64(1).
  • 15. Joseph RP., Ainsworth BE., Keller C. & Dodgson JE. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature, Women & Health, 2015; 55:6, 679-699, DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2015.1039184
  • 16. Godin G, Shephard JH. Leisure-time Exercise Questionnaire. MedSci Sport Exerc. 1997;29 June Su:36-38.
  • 17. Sarı E, Erdoğan S. Adaptation of the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire into Turkish: The Validity and Reliability Study. Adv Public Heal [Internet]. 2016;2016:1– 7. Available at: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aph/2016/3756028.
  • 18. Seneviratne SN, McCowan LME, Cutfield WS, Derraik JGB, Hofman PL. Exercise in pregnancies complicated by obesity: Achieving benefits and overcoming barriers. Am J Obstet Gynecol. April 2015;442-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2014.06.009
  • 19. Berghella V. Saccone G. Exercise in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Aprıl 2017; 335-37, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2017.01.023
  • 20. Mottola MF, Davenport MH, Ruchat SM, Davies GA, Poitras VJ, Gray CE, vd. 2019 Canadian guideline for physical activity throughout pregnancy. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2018.
  • 21. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. ACOG Committee opinion. Number 267. ACOG Committee Obstetric Practice. Obstet. Gynecol. 2002; 99(1):171-3.
  • 22. Clarke PE, Gross H, Lecturer CP. Women ’ s behaviour , beliefs and information sources about physical exercise in pregnancy. Midwifery. 2004;133–41.
  • 23. Wallace A, Boyer D, Dan A, Holm K. Aerobic exercise, maternal self-esteem, and physical discomforts during pregnancy. J Nurse Midwifery [Internet]. 12 Kasım 1986 [kaynak 10 Şubat 2019];31(6):255–62. Available at: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0091218286900340
  • 24. Lynch KE, Landsbaugh JR, Whitcomb BW, Pekow P, Markenson G, Chasan-Taber L. Physical Activity of Pregnant Hispanic Women. 2012 [kaynak 10 Şubat 2019];43(4):434–439. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491652/pdf/nihms401964.pdf
  • 25. Tavares J de S, Melo AS de O, Amorim MMR de, Barros VO, Takito MY, Benício MHD, vd. Padrão de atividade física entre gestantes atendidas pela estratégia saúde da família de Campina Grande - PB. Rev Bras Epidemiol [Internet]. Mart 2009 [kaynak 10 Şubat 2019];12(1):10–9. Available at: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-790X2009000100002&lng=pt&tlng=pt
  • 26. Duncombe D, Wertheim EH, Skouteris H, Paxton SJ, Kelly L. Factors related to exercise over the course of pregnancy including women’s beliefs about the safety of exercise during pregnancy. Midwifery [Internet]. 2009;25(4):430–8. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2007.03.002
  • 27. Coll CVN, Domingues MR, Gonçalves H, Bertoldi AD. Perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy: A literature review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. J Sci Med Sport. 2017;20(1):17–25.

İkinci ve Üçüncü Trimester Gebelerin Fiziksel Aktivite Düzeyi ve Fiziksel Aktivite Engelleri

Year 2019, Volume 5, Issue 3, 1731 - 1745, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.30569/adiyamansaglik.643369

Abstract

Amaç:  Gebeliğin ikinci ve üçüncü trimestirinde olan sağlıklı gebe kadınların fiziksel aktivite düzeyi ve engelleri ile etkileyen faktörlerin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır.

Gereç ve Yöntem: Araştırma tanımlayıcı ve kesitsel niteliktedir. Çalışma Şubat-Mayıs  2016 tarihleri arasında İzmir de kamusal bir üniversite hastanesinin gebe izlem polikliniğine başvuran ve sağlıklı 246 gebe ile yürütülmüştür. Verilerin toplanmasında Tanıtıcı Özellikler Formu, Fiziksel Aktivite Engelleri Formu ve Egzersiz Davranışları Anketi (EDA) kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde; spearman korelasyon analizi, kruskal-wallis varyansı ve mann-whitney U testi kullanılmıştır

Bulgular: Araştırmaya katılan kadınların yaş ortalaması 27.85+4.01 ve gebelik haftası ortalaması 26.33+3.69’dur. Kadınların  %78’i gebelik öncesi Fiziksel Aktivite algısını aktif ifade etmiş, gebelikte ise bu oran Egzersiz Davranışları Anketine göre %54.1’i aktif olarak saptanmıştır.Araştırmaya katılan gebe kadınların en fazla yaşadıkları fiziksel aktivite engelleri sırasıyla;  motivasyon/ istek eksikliği (%50.4),  bilgi eksikliği (%32.5) zaman yokluğu (%30.1), aile/eş desteğinin olmaması (%28.5)  uygun olmayan hava koşulları (%26) ve bir işte çalışmak (%24) olarak belirlenmiştir. Gelir durumu düşük olan, çekirdek ailede yaşayan, multigravida, plansız gebeliği olan ve gebelik öncesi aktivitesini hareketsiz algılayan kadınların Egzersiz Davranışları Anketi  medyan değeri yüksek saptanmıştır (p<0.05).

Sonuç: Gebe kadınların yaklaşık yarısı inaktifdir. Fiziksel aktivite yapmadaki engellerin başında motivasyon eksikliği gibi kişisel engeller yer almaktadır.  Sağlık profesyonelleri gebe kadınlara, fiziksel aktivite ve yararları hakkında danışmalık yapmalı ve davranışa dönüştürmesi konusunda destekleyici olmalıdır.

References

  • 1. Nascimento SL, Surita FG, Godoy AC, Kasawara KT, Morais SS. Correction: Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study. PLoS One [Internet]. 15 Temmuz 2015 [kaynak 31 Ocak 2019];10(7):e0133564. Available at: https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133564
  • 2. Evenson KR, Barakat R, Brown WJ, Dargent-Molina P, Haruna M, Mikkelsen EM, vd. Guidelines for Physical Activity During Pregnancy: Comparisons From Around the World. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2014;8(2):102–21.
  • 3. Cioffi J, Schmied V, Dahlen H, Mills A, Thornton C, Duff M, vd. Physical activity in pregnancy: Women’s perceptions, practices, and influencing factors. J Midwifery Women’s Heal. 2010;55(5):455–61.
  • 4. Prather H, Spitznagle T, Hunt D. Benefits of exercise during pregnancy. PM R [Internet]. 2012;4(11):845–50. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2012.07.012
  • 5. Daşıkan Z. Teori̇ temelli̇ bi̇reysel danışmanlık gi̇ri̇şi̇mi̇ni̇n gebeli̇kte ki̇lo yöneti̇mi̇ne etki̇si̇. Ege Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Kadın Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Hemşireliği AD., Doktora programı, 2012, İzmir.
  • 6. Downs DS, Chasan-Taber L, Evenson KR, Leiferman J, Yeo S. Physical Activity and Pregnancy. Res Q Exerc Sport [Internet]. Aralık 2012 [kaynak 31 Ocak 2019];83(4):485–502. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23367811
  • 7. Evenson KR, Moos M-K, Carrier K, Siega-Riz AM. Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Among Pregnant Women. Matern Child Health J [Internet]. 14 Mayıs 2009 [kaynak 31 Ocak 2019];13(3):364–75. Available at: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10995-008-0359-8
  • 8. Cramp AG, Bray SR. A prospective examination of exercise and barrier self-efficacy to engage in leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy. Ann Behav Med. 2009;37(3):325–34.
  • 9. Hui A, Back L, Ludwig S, Gardiner P, Sevenhuysen G, Dean H, vd. Lifestyle intervention on diet and exercise reduced excessive gestational weight gain in pregnant women under a randomised controlled trial. BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012;119(1):70–7.
  • 10. Nascimento SL, Surita FG, Cecatti JG. Physical exercise during pregnancy: A systematic review. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2012;24(6):387–94.
  • 11. Gaston A, Cramp A. Exercise during pregnancy: A review of patterns and determinants. J Sci Med Sport [Internet]. 2011;14(4):299–305. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.02.006
  • 12. Gaston A, Vamos CA. Leisure-time physical activity patterns and correlates among pregnant women in Ontario, Canada. Matern Child Health J. 2013;17(3):477–84.
  • 13. Dashti S, Joseph HL, Esfehani AJ, Su TT, Latiff LA, Esfehani RJ. Perceived barriers to physical activity among Iranian women. World Appl Sci J. 2014;32(3):422–8.
  • 14. Harrison AL, Taylor NF, Shields N, Frawley HC. Attitudes, barriers and enablers to physical activity in pregnant women: a systematic review. J Physiother. 2018;64(1).
  • 15. Joseph RP., Ainsworth BE., Keller C. & Dodgson JE. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature, Women & Health, 2015; 55:6, 679-699, DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2015.1039184
  • 16. Godin G, Shephard JH. Leisure-time Exercise Questionnaire. MedSci Sport Exerc. 1997;29 June Su:36-38.
  • 17. Sarı E, Erdoğan S. Adaptation of the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire into Turkish: The Validity and Reliability Study. Adv Public Heal [Internet]. 2016;2016:1– 7. Available at: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aph/2016/3756028.
  • 18. Seneviratne SN, McCowan LME, Cutfield WS, Derraik JGB, Hofman PL. Exercise in pregnancies complicated by obesity: Achieving benefits and overcoming barriers. Am J Obstet Gynecol. April 2015;442-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2014.06.009
  • 19. Berghella V. Saccone G. Exercise in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Aprıl 2017; 335-37, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2017.01.023
  • 20. Mottola MF, Davenport MH, Ruchat SM, Davies GA, Poitras VJ, Gray CE, vd. 2019 Canadian guideline for physical activity throughout pregnancy. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2018.
  • 21. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. ACOG Committee opinion. Number 267. ACOG Committee Obstetric Practice. Obstet. Gynecol. 2002; 99(1):171-3.
  • 22. Clarke PE, Gross H, Lecturer CP. Women ’ s behaviour , beliefs and information sources about physical exercise in pregnancy. Midwifery. 2004;133–41.
  • 23. Wallace A, Boyer D, Dan A, Holm K. Aerobic exercise, maternal self-esteem, and physical discomforts during pregnancy. J Nurse Midwifery [Internet]. 12 Kasım 1986 [kaynak 10 Şubat 2019];31(6):255–62. Available at: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0091218286900340
  • 24. Lynch KE, Landsbaugh JR, Whitcomb BW, Pekow P, Markenson G, Chasan-Taber L. Physical Activity of Pregnant Hispanic Women. 2012 [kaynak 10 Şubat 2019];43(4):434–439. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491652/pdf/nihms401964.pdf
  • 25. Tavares J de S, Melo AS de O, Amorim MMR de, Barros VO, Takito MY, Benício MHD, vd. Padrão de atividade física entre gestantes atendidas pela estratégia saúde da família de Campina Grande - PB. Rev Bras Epidemiol [Internet]. Mart 2009 [kaynak 10 Şubat 2019];12(1):10–9. Available at: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-790X2009000100002&lng=pt&tlng=pt
  • 26. Duncombe D, Wertheim EH, Skouteris H, Paxton SJ, Kelly L. Factors related to exercise over the course of pregnancy including women’s beliefs about the safety of exercise during pregnancy. Midwifery [Internet]. 2009;25(4):430–8. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2007.03.002
  • 27. Coll CVN, Domingues MR, Gonçalves H, Bertoldi AD. Perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy: A literature review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. J Sci Med Sport. 2017;20(1):17–25.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Zeynep DAŞIKAN (Primary Author)
Ege Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Fakültesi
0000-0002-0933-9647
Türkiye


Özlem GÜNER
sinop üniversitesi sağlık yüksekokulu
0000-0002-8302-9073
Türkiye


Tuğçe BOZKURT This is me
Babaeski Devlet Hastanesi
0000-0003-1792-2864
Türkiye

Supporting Institution -
Project Number -
Thanks -
Publication Date December 31, 2019
Application Date November 5, 2019
Acceptance Date November 16, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 5, Issue 3

Cite

AMA Daşıkan Z. , Güner Ö. , Bozkurt T. İkinci ve Üçüncü Trimester Gebelerin Fiziksel Aktivite Düzeyi ve Fiziksel Aktivite Engelleri. ADYÜ Sağlık Bilimleri Derg. 2019; 5(3): 1731-1745.