Research Article
PDF BibTex RIS Cite

Gıda Tüketiminde Eşitsizlik ve Beslenme Çeşitliliği: Türkiye'den Bulgular

Year 2022, Volume: 24 Issue: 1, 328 - 359, 27.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.26745/ahbvuibfd.1005377

Abstract

Açlık dünyadaki yıkıcı sorunlardan birisidir. Dünyada sekiz yüz milyondan fazla insan yetersiz düzeyde beslenmektedir. Ancak açlık dünyadaki gıda güvencesi sorunun sadece bir parçasıdır. Yetersiz düzeydeki beslenmeye ek olarak, dünyada iki milyar insan yüksek kilo ve obeziteye bağlı sağlık sorunları yaşamaktadır. Bu yüzden gıda güvencesi konusu tüketim dağılımı kapsamına değerlendirilmelidir. Bu çalışma Türkiye’de gıda tüketim eşitsizliğini hesaplamaktadır. 150 binden fazla haneye ait aylık harcamalar kullanılarak 2003-2017 döneminde gıda eşitsizliğinin nasıl değiştiği gösterilmektedir. Gıda tüketim eşitsizliğine ek olarak, beslenme çeşitliliğinin eşitsizliği de değerlendirilmiş ve bu konular üzerinde gelirin etkisi gösterilmiştir. Bu çalışma Türkiye’de 2007 gıda krizinden sonra gıda tüketim eşitsizliğinin arttığını bulmuştur. Gıda tüketim eşitsizliği özellikle kırsal alanlarda daha fazla yoğunlaşmaktadır. Ayrıca çalışma kapsamında gelir, eğitim ve işgücüne bağlı olarak eşitsizliğin değişmediği bulunmuş, sadece zengin hanelerin yoksul hanelerden daha çeşitli bir beslenmeye sahip olduğu gösterilmiştir. Ancak son beş yılda beslenme çeşitliliğinin bütün hane grupları için arttığı tespit edilmiştir. Gelirin beslenme çeşitliliği üzerinde zengin hanelerde negatif, yoksul hanelerde pozitif etki yaptığı bulunmuştur. Böylelikle gelirin beslenme eşitsizliğini azalttığı tespit edilmiştir. Çalışma bulguları gıda dağılımının gıda güvencesi politikaları tartışmalarında dikkate alınması gerekliliğine işaret etmiştir.

References

  • Acemoglu, D., & Ucer, M. (2015). The ups and downs of Turkish growth, 2002-2015: Political dynamics, the European Union and the institutional slide. National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Allcott, H., Diamond, R., Dubé, J.-P., Handbury, J., Rahkovsky, I., & Schnell, M. (2019). Food Deserts and the Causes of Nutritional Inequality. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 134(4), 1793-1844. doi:10.1093/qje/qjz015
  • Anand, S., & Segal, P. (2008). What Do We Know about Global Income Inequality? Journal of Economic Literature, 46(1), 57-94. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27646947
  • Annim, S. K., & Frempong, R. B. (2018). Effects of access to credit and income on dietary diversity in Ghana. Food Security, 10(6), 1649-1663. doi:10.1007/s12571-018-0862-8
  • Aryal, J. P., Mottaleb, K. A., & Rahut, Dil B. (2018). Untangling gender differentiated food security gaps in Bhutan: An application of exogenous switching treatment regression. Review of Development Economics, 23(2), 782-802. doi:10.1111/rode.12566
  • Attanasio, O., Hurst, E., & Pistaferri, L. (2014). The evolution of income, consumption, and leisure inequality in the United States, 1980–2010. In Improving the Measurement of Consumer Expenditures (pp. 100-140): University of Chicago Press.
  • Attanasio, O., & Pistaferri, L. (2016). Consumption Inequality. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(2), 3-28. doi:10.1257/jep.30.2.3
  • Blundell, R., & Etheridge, B. (2010). Consumption, income and earnings inequality in Britain. Review of Economic Dynamics, 13(1), 76-102. doi:10.1016/j.red.2009.10.004
  • Blundell, R., & Preston, I. (1998). Consumption inequality and income uncertainty. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(2), 603-640. doi:10.1162/003355398555694
  • Brown, C., Ravallion, M., & van de Walle, D. (2019). Most of Africa's Nutritionally Deprived Women and Children are Not Found in Poor Households. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 101(4), 631-644. doi:10.1162/rest_a_00800
  • Chege, C. G. K., Andersson, C. I. M., & Qaim, M. (2015). Impacts of Supermarkets on Farm Household Nutrition in Kenya. World Development, 72, 394-407. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.03.016
  • Clements, K. W., & Si, J. W. (2018). Engel's Law, Diet Diversity, and the Quality of Food Consumption. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 100(1), 1-22. doi:10.1093/ajae/aax053
  • De, K., & Lastrapes, W. D. (2017). The Food Price Channel: Effects of Monetary Policy on the Poor in India. Working Paper.
  • Dedehouanou, S. F. A., & Araar, A. (2020). Gender, entrepreneurship and food security in Niger. Review of Development Economics, n/a(n/a). doi:10.1111/rode.12657
  • Ding, H., & He, H. (2018). A tale of transition: An empirical analysis of economic inequality in urban China, 1986–2009. Review of Economic Dynamics, 29, 106-137.
  • Dzanku, F. M. (2019). Food security in rural sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring the nexus between gender, geography and off-farm employment. World Development, 113, 26-43. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.08.017
  • FAO. (2019a). Food Price Index. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/foodpricesindex/en/
  • FAO. (2019b). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  • FAO. (2019c). Suite of Food Security Indicators. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/FS
  • Fuchs-Schundeln, N., Krueger, D., & Sommer, M. (2010). Inequality trends for Germany in the last two decades: A tale of two countries. Review of Economic Dynamics, 13(1), 103-132. doi:10.1016/j.red.2009.09.004
  • Gerbens-Leenes, P. W., Nonhebel, S., & Krol, M. S. (2010). Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources. Appetite, 55(3), 597-608. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.09.013
  • Heathcote, J., Perri, F., & Violante, G. L. (2010). Unequal we stand: An empirical analysis of economic inequality in the United States, 1967–2006. Review of Economic Dynamics, 13(1), 15-51. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1094202509000659?via%3Dihub
  • Hoang, T. X., Pham, C. S., & Ulubasoglu, M. A. (2014). Non-Farm Activity, Household Expenditure, and Poverty Reduction in Rural Vietnam: 2002-2008. World Development, 64, 554-568. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.06.027
  • Jappelli, T., & Pistaferri, L. (2010). The Consumption Response to Income Changes. Annual Review of Economics, 2(1), 479-506. doi:10.1146/annurev.economics.050708.142933
  • Kassie, M., Ndiritu, S. W., & Stage, J. (2014). What Determines Gender Inequality in Household Food Security in Kenya? Application of Exogenous Switching Treatment Regression. World Development, 56, 153-171. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.10.025
  • Kirk, A., Kilic, T., & Carletto, C. (2018). Composition of Household Income and Child Nutrition Outcomes Evidence from Uganda. World Development, 109, 452-469. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.03.023
  • Krueger, D., & Perri, F. (2006). Does income inequality lead to consumption inequality? Evidence and theory. The Review of Economic Studies, 73(1), 163-193.
  • Lamidi, E. O. (2019). Household composition and experiences of food insecurity in Nigeria: the role of social capital, education, and time use. Food Security, 11(1), 201-218. doi:10.1007/s12571-019-00886-2
  • Moomaw, W., Griffin, T., Kurczak, K., & Lomax, J. (2012). The Critical Role of Global Food Consumption Patterns in Achieving Sustainable Food Systems and Food for All. UNEP Discussion Paper.
  • Morioka, M., & Kondo, T. (2017). Agricultural Productivity Growth and Household Food Security Improvement in Nepal. Review of Development Economics, 21(4), e220-e240. doi:10.1111/rode.12325
  • Ogutu, S. O., Godecke, T., & Qaim, M. (2019). Agricultural Commercialisation and Nutrition in Smallholder Farm Households. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 55. doi:10.1111/1477-9552.12359
  • Omidvar, N., Ahmadi, D., Sinclair, K., & Melgar-Quinonez, H. (2019). Food security in selected Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries: an inter-country comparison. Food Security, 11(3), 531-540. doi:10.1007/s12571-019-00935-w
  • Park, J. Y., Saint Ville, A., Schwinghamer, T., & Melgar-Quinonez, H. (2019). Heterogeneous factors predict food insecurity among the elderly in developed countries: insights from a multi-national analysis of 48 countries. Food Security, 11(3), 541-552. doi:10.1007/s12571-019-00934-x
  • Rammohan, A., & Pritchard, B. (2014). The Role of Landholding as a Determinant of Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Rural Myanmar. World Development, 64, 597-608. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.06.029
  • Sala-I-Martin, X. (2006). The world distribution of income: Falling poverty and ... convergence, period. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 121(2), 351-397. doi:DOI 10.1162/qjec.2006.121.2.351
  • Santaeulàlia-Llopis, R., & Zheng, Y. (2016). Missing consumption inequality: direct evidence from individual food data. EUI Working Paper.
  • Sarmiento, O. L., Parra, D. C., Gonzalez, S. A., Gonzalez-Casanova, I., Forero, A. Y., & Garcia, J. (2014). The dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia. Am J Clin Nutr, 100(6), 1628S-1635S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.083816
  • Slesnick, D. T. (1994). Consumption, Needs and Inequality. International Economic Review, 35(3), 677-703. doi:Doi 10.2307/2527080
  • Sseguya, H., Mazur, R. E., & Flora, C. B. (2018). Social capital dimensions in household food security interventions: implications for rural Uganda. Agriculture and Human Values, 35(1), 117-129. doi:10.1007/s10460-017-9805-9
  • Stifel, D., & Minten, B. (2017). Market Access, Well-being, and Nutrition: Evidence from Ethiopia. World Development, 90, 229-241. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.09.009
  • Tibesigwa, B., & Visser, M. (2016). Assessing Gender Inequality in Food Security among Small-holder Farm Households in urban and rural South Africa. World Development, 88, 33-49. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.07.008
  • Unnevehr, L., Eales, J., Jensen, H., Lusk, J., McCluskey, J., & Kinsey, J. (2010). Food and Consumer Economics. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 92(2), 506-521. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://WOS:000276398300010
  • WHO. (2017a). Double-duty actions for nutrition: policy brief. World Health Organization.
  • WHO. (2017b). The double burden of malnutrition: policy brief. World Health Organization.
  • You, J., Imai, K. S., & Gaiha, R. (2016). Declining Nutrient Intake in a Growing China: Does Household Heterogeneity Matter? World Development, 77, 171-191. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.08.016
  • Zereyesus, Y. A., Embaye, W. T., Tsiboe, F., & Amanor-Boadu, V. (2017). Implications of Non-Farm Work to Vulnerability to Food Poverty-Recent Evidence From Northern Ghana. World Development, 91, 113-124. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.10.015

Inequality in Food Consumption and Diet Diversity: Evidence from Turkey

Year 2022, Volume: 24 Issue: 1, 328 - 359, 27.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.26745/ahbvuibfd.1005377

Abstract

Hunger is one of the devastating problems in the world. More than eight hundred million people are undernourished. However, hunger is one part of the food security problem. In addition to the undernourished people, two billion people have also health problems due to overweight, and obesity. Therefore, the topic of food security needs to be discussed in the context of consumption distribution. This paper estimates food consumption inequality in Turkey. Using more than 150 thousand households’ monthly expenditures, it shows how food inequality changes throughout 2003-2017. In addition to food consumption inequality, we estimate diet diversity inequality and show the impact of income on it. Our study finds that food consumption inequality increased after the food crisis of 2007. Food consumption inequality is mostly intensified in rural areas. We do not find any differentiated effects of income, education, and employment. Rich households have a more diversified diet than poor households. However, diet diversity increased for all households, especially in the last five years. Income has a negative impact on diet diversity in rich households, positive impact in poor households. Therefore, income decreases diet diversity inequality. Our results show the importance of food distribution in the discussion of food security policies.

References

  • Acemoglu, D., & Ucer, M. (2015). The ups and downs of Turkish growth, 2002-2015: Political dynamics, the European Union and the institutional slide. National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Allcott, H., Diamond, R., Dubé, J.-P., Handbury, J., Rahkovsky, I., & Schnell, M. (2019). Food Deserts and the Causes of Nutritional Inequality. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 134(4), 1793-1844. doi:10.1093/qje/qjz015
  • Anand, S., & Segal, P. (2008). What Do We Know about Global Income Inequality? Journal of Economic Literature, 46(1), 57-94. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27646947
  • Annim, S. K., & Frempong, R. B. (2018). Effects of access to credit and income on dietary diversity in Ghana. Food Security, 10(6), 1649-1663. doi:10.1007/s12571-018-0862-8
  • Aryal, J. P., Mottaleb, K. A., & Rahut, Dil B. (2018). Untangling gender differentiated food security gaps in Bhutan: An application of exogenous switching treatment regression. Review of Development Economics, 23(2), 782-802. doi:10.1111/rode.12566
  • Attanasio, O., Hurst, E., & Pistaferri, L. (2014). The evolution of income, consumption, and leisure inequality in the United States, 1980–2010. In Improving the Measurement of Consumer Expenditures (pp. 100-140): University of Chicago Press.
  • Attanasio, O., & Pistaferri, L. (2016). Consumption Inequality. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(2), 3-28. doi:10.1257/jep.30.2.3
  • Blundell, R., & Etheridge, B. (2010). Consumption, income and earnings inequality in Britain. Review of Economic Dynamics, 13(1), 76-102. doi:10.1016/j.red.2009.10.004
  • Blundell, R., & Preston, I. (1998). Consumption inequality and income uncertainty. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(2), 603-640. doi:10.1162/003355398555694
  • Brown, C., Ravallion, M., & van de Walle, D. (2019). Most of Africa's Nutritionally Deprived Women and Children are Not Found in Poor Households. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 101(4), 631-644. doi:10.1162/rest_a_00800
  • Chege, C. G. K., Andersson, C. I. M., & Qaim, M. (2015). Impacts of Supermarkets on Farm Household Nutrition in Kenya. World Development, 72, 394-407. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.03.016
  • Clements, K. W., & Si, J. W. (2018). Engel's Law, Diet Diversity, and the Quality of Food Consumption. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 100(1), 1-22. doi:10.1093/ajae/aax053
  • De, K., & Lastrapes, W. D. (2017). The Food Price Channel: Effects of Monetary Policy on the Poor in India. Working Paper.
  • Dedehouanou, S. F. A., & Araar, A. (2020). Gender, entrepreneurship and food security in Niger. Review of Development Economics, n/a(n/a). doi:10.1111/rode.12657
  • Ding, H., & He, H. (2018). A tale of transition: An empirical analysis of economic inequality in urban China, 1986–2009. Review of Economic Dynamics, 29, 106-137.
  • Dzanku, F. M. (2019). Food security in rural sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring the nexus between gender, geography and off-farm employment. World Development, 113, 26-43. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.08.017
  • FAO. (2019a). Food Price Index. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/foodpricesindex/en/
  • FAO. (2019b). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  • FAO. (2019c). Suite of Food Security Indicators. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/FS
  • Fuchs-Schundeln, N., Krueger, D., & Sommer, M. (2010). Inequality trends for Germany in the last two decades: A tale of two countries. Review of Economic Dynamics, 13(1), 103-132. doi:10.1016/j.red.2009.09.004
  • Gerbens-Leenes, P. W., Nonhebel, S., & Krol, M. S. (2010). Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources. Appetite, 55(3), 597-608. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.09.013
  • Heathcote, J., Perri, F., & Violante, G. L. (2010). Unequal we stand: An empirical analysis of economic inequality in the United States, 1967–2006. Review of Economic Dynamics, 13(1), 15-51. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1094202509000659?via%3Dihub
  • Hoang, T. X., Pham, C. S., & Ulubasoglu, M. A. (2014). Non-Farm Activity, Household Expenditure, and Poverty Reduction in Rural Vietnam: 2002-2008. World Development, 64, 554-568. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.06.027
  • Jappelli, T., & Pistaferri, L. (2010). The Consumption Response to Income Changes. Annual Review of Economics, 2(1), 479-506. doi:10.1146/annurev.economics.050708.142933
  • Kassie, M., Ndiritu, S. W., & Stage, J. (2014). What Determines Gender Inequality in Household Food Security in Kenya? Application of Exogenous Switching Treatment Regression. World Development, 56, 153-171. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.10.025
  • Kirk, A., Kilic, T., & Carletto, C. (2018). Composition of Household Income and Child Nutrition Outcomes Evidence from Uganda. World Development, 109, 452-469. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.03.023
  • Krueger, D., & Perri, F. (2006). Does income inequality lead to consumption inequality? Evidence and theory. The Review of Economic Studies, 73(1), 163-193.
  • Lamidi, E. O. (2019). Household composition and experiences of food insecurity in Nigeria: the role of social capital, education, and time use. Food Security, 11(1), 201-218. doi:10.1007/s12571-019-00886-2
  • Moomaw, W., Griffin, T., Kurczak, K., & Lomax, J. (2012). The Critical Role of Global Food Consumption Patterns in Achieving Sustainable Food Systems and Food for All. UNEP Discussion Paper.
  • Morioka, M., & Kondo, T. (2017). Agricultural Productivity Growth and Household Food Security Improvement in Nepal. Review of Development Economics, 21(4), e220-e240. doi:10.1111/rode.12325
  • Ogutu, S. O., Godecke, T., & Qaim, M. (2019). Agricultural Commercialisation and Nutrition in Smallholder Farm Households. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 55. doi:10.1111/1477-9552.12359
  • Omidvar, N., Ahmadi, D., Sinclair, K., & Melgar-Quinonez, H. (2019). Food security in selected Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries: an inter-country comparison. Food Security, 11(3), 531-540. doi:10.1007/s12571-019-00935-w
  • Park, J. Y., Saint Ville, A., Schwinghamer, T., & Melgar-Quinonez, H. (2019). Heterogeneous factors predict food insecurity among the elderly in developed countries: insights from a multi-national analysis of 48 countries. Food Security, 11(3), 541-552. doi:10.1007/s12571-019-00934-x
  • Rammohan, A., & Pritchard, B. (2014). The Role of Landholding as a Determinant of Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Rural Myanmar. World Development, 64, 597-608. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.06.029
  • Sala-I-Martin, X. (2006). The world distribution of income: Falling poverty and ... convergence, period. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 121(2), 351-397. doi:DOI 10.1162/qjec.2006.121.2.351
  • Santaeulàlia-Llopis, R., & Zheng, Y. (2016). Missing consumption inequality: direct evidence from individual food data. EUI Working Paper.
  • Sarmiento, O. L., Parra, D. C., Gonzalez, S. A., Gonzalez-Casanova, I., Forero, A. Y., & Garcia, J. (2014). The dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia. Am J Clin Nutr, 100(6), 1628S-1635S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.083816
  • Slesnick, D. T. (1994). Consumption, Needs and Inequality. International Economic Review, 35(3), 677-703. doi:Doi 10.2307/2527080
  • Sseguya, H., Mazur, R. E., & Flora, C. B. (2018). Social capital dimensions in household food security interventions: implications for rural Uganda. Agriculture and Human Values, 35(1), 117-129. doi:10.1007/s10460-017-9805-9
  • Stifel, D., & Minten, B. (2017). Market Access, Well-being, and Nutrition: Evidence from Ethiopia. World Development, 90, 229-241. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.09.009
  • Tibesigwa, B., & Visser, M. (2016). Assessing Gender Inequality in Food Security among Small-holder Farm Households in urban and rural South Africa. World Development, 88, 33-49. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.07.008
  • Unnevehr, L., Eales, J., Jensen, H., Lusk, J., McCluskey, J., & Kinsey, J. (2010). Food and Consumer Economics. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 92(2), 506-521. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://WOS:000276398300010
  • WHO. (2017a). Double-duty actions for nutrition: policy brief. World Health Organization.
  • WHO. (2017b). The double burden of malnutrition: policy brief. World Health Organization.
  • You, J., Imai, K. S., & Gaiha, R. (2016). Declining Nutrient Intake in a Growing China: Does Household Heterogeneity Matter? World Development, 77, 171-191. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.08.016
  • Zereyesus, Y. A., Embaye, W. T., Tsiboe, F., & Amanor-Boadu, V. (2017). Implications of Non-Farm Work to Vulnerability to Food Poverty-Recent Evidence From Northern Ghana. World Development, 91, 113-124. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.10.015

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Main Section
Authors

Alper DEMİRDÖĞEN
Ankara Üniversitesi
0000-0001-9729-8779
Türkiye


Prof.dr.emine OLHAN
ANKARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Gokhan AYKAC
ANKARA HACI BAYRAM VELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Publication Date April 27, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022 Volume: 24 Issue: 1

Cite

APA
DEMİRDÖĞEN, A., OLHAN, P., & AYKAC, G. (2022). Inequality in Food Consumption and Diet Diversity: Evidence from Turkey. Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli Üniversitesi İktisadi Ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 24(1), 328-359. https://doi.org/10.26745/ahbvuibfd.1005377