Year 2020, Volume 8 , Issue 2, Pages 419 - 439 2020-12-25

Beyond Rural Contexts: Community-Based Tourism for A Better Life in The City

Oliver MTAPURI [1] , Andrea GİAMPİCCOLİ [2]


Community-based tourism (CBT) is most commonly practiced in rural contexts. We focus on CBT in urban areas and argue that it can be practised in poor urban settings such as slums, favelas and townships. In terms of methodology, this paper is conceptual in nature and its aim is to unpack the framing of CBT in urban settings. Literature on CBT in urban contexts is scarce and negligible. CBT which favours disadvantaged contexts has the potential to improve the quality of life of people and enhance community development. Inequality in urban contexts is growing both between and within countries in both developing and developed economies. Against this backdrop, we explore CBT in urban areas (with a nomenclature community-based urban tourism – CBUT), and is specifically meant for poor, disadvantaged, marginalised urban contexts. We suggest that in CBUT, matters of ‘proximity’; infrastructure; and geography are important enablers of tourism development. We argue that universities have an important role to play through skills development for CBUT. Given the scarcity of literature on CBT in urban areas, we contribute to the notion of community in a CBUT context and to the success factors of a CBUT venture.
urban area, community development, universities, poverty, inequality, justice
  • Benneworth, P. (Ed.) (2013). University Engagement with Socially Excluded Communities. Springer: Dordrecht.
  • Bhartiya, S. P. & Masoud, D. (2015). Community Based Tourism: A Trend for Socio-Cultural Development and Poverty Lessening. GJRA – Global Journal for Research Analysis, 4(10), 348-350.
  • Boyle, M-E., & Silver, I. (2005). Poverty, partnerships, and privilege: Elite institutions and community empowerment. City & Community, 4(3), 233-253. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6040.2005.00115.x
  • CBT Vietnam (n.d.). CBT Vietnam - About CBT Vietnam project. Retrieved 11 August, 2017, from http://www.cbtvietnam.com/#cbtvietnam-home-page
  • CBUT (n.d.). Sustainable urban tourism Community-Based Urban Tourism. Retrieved 4 August, 2017, from https://sustainedu.com/system/files/attachments/Sustainable%20Urban%20Tourism%20Lesson%205%20-%20Community-based%20Urban%20Tourism.pdf
  • de Oliveira Rezende, R. (2014). Communitarian tourism and favela tour as expressions of the new dynamics of tourism consumption. Tourism in Analysis, 25(2), 354-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/issn.1984-4867.v25i2p354-372
  • Dürr, E., & Jaffe, R. (2012). Theorizing slum tourism: Performing, negotiating and transforming inequality. European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 93, 113-123. www.jstor.org/stable/23294474.
  • Edwards, D., Griffin, T., Hayllar, B., & Ritchie, B. (2010). Understanding urban tourism impacts: An Australian study. PROJECT # 120011 - CRC for Sustainable Tourism Pty Ltd 200. Retrieved 11 August, 2017, from https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/bitstream/10453/17696/1/2010000008.pdf
  • Frenzel, F. (2013). Slum tourism in the context of the tourism and poverty (relief) debate. Journal of the Geographical Society of Berlin - DIE ERDE, 144(2), 117-128. DOI: 10.12854/erde-144-9
  • Galdini, R. (2007). Tourism and the city: Opportunity for regeneration. Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 2(2), 95-111. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/6370/
  • Giampiccoli, A., & Mtpuri, O. (2017a). Role of external parties in Community-Based Tourism development: Towards a new model. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 6(2/20), 1-12. http://www.ajhtl.com/uploads/7/1/6/3/7163688/article_20_vol_6__2__2017.pdf
  • Giampiccoli, A., & Mtapuri, O. (2017b). Beyond community-based tourism: Towards a new tourism classification system. Gazeta de Antropologia, 33(1), 15-32. http://hdl.handle.net/10481/44467
  • Giampiccoli, A., & Mtapuri, O. (2020). Towards a coalescence of the community-based tourism and ‘AlbergoDifusso’ tourism models for sustainable local economic development. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 9(1/64), 1-20. https://www.ajhtl.com/uploads/7/1/6/3/7163688/article_64_vol_9_1__2020_ukzn-dut.pdf
  • Giampiccoli, A., & Saayman, M. (2017). Community-based tourism, responsible tourism, and infrastructure development and poverty. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 6(2), 1-28. http://www.ajhtl.com/uploads/7/1/6/3/7163688/article_19_vol_6__2__2017.pdf
  • Giampiccoli, A., Saayman, M., & Jugmohan, S. (2014). Developing community-based tourism in South Africa: Addressing the missing link. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 20(3:2), 1139-1161. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC166032
  • Giampiccoli, A., Saayman, M., & Jugmohan, S. (2016). Are ‘Albergo Diffuso’ and community-based tourism the answers to community development in South Africa?. Development Southern Africa, 33(4), 548-561. https://doi.org/10.1080/0376835X.2016.1180968
  • Hamzah, A., & Khalifah, Z. (2009). Handbook on community based tourism: How to develop and sustain CBT. Kuala Lumpur: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat. Retrieved 21 December, 2020, from https://www.apec.org/Publications/2009/12/Handbook-on-Community-Based-Tourism-How-to-Develop-and-Sustain-CBT-December-2009
  • Hussin, R., & Kunjuraman, V. (2014). Sustainable community-based tourism (CBT) through homestay programme in Sabah, East Malaysia. Proceeding of the Social Sciences Research ICSSR 2014 (pp.41-61) (e-ISBN 978-967-11768-7-0). 9-10 June 2014, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
  • Kaur, P., Jawaid, A., & Bt Abu Othman, N. (2016). The impact of community based tourism on community development in Sarawak. Journal of Borneo Kalimantan, 2(1), 15-26. http://www.borneo.unimas.my/images/jbk2016/2_community-tourism_Parveen_ArifNorizan.pdf
  • Kayat, K. (2014). Community-based rural tourism: A proposed sustainability framework. SHS Web of Conferences 12, 01010. https://www.mendeley.com/catalogue/8236696b-f35d-3e54-b93d-4e89ff6d7a5c/
  • Kayat, K., & Zainuddin, N. F. A. (2016). Community-based Tourism Initiative in Rural Malaysia: Is it a success?. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(S7), 242-249. https://econjournals.com/index.php/irmm/article/view/3262/pdf
  • Leksakundilok, A., & Hirsch, P. (2008). Community-based tourism in Thailand. In J. Connell, & B. Rugendyke (Eds.), Tourism at the grassroot. Villagers and visitors in the Asia-Pacific (pp. 214-235). London: Routledge.
  • Lindström, K., & Larson, M. (2016). Community-based tourism in practice: evidence from three coastal communities in Bohuslän, Sweden. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series, 33(33), 71–78. https://doi.org/10.1515/bog-2016-0025
  • Mano, A. D., Mayer, V. F., & Fratucci, A. C. (2017). Community-based tourism in Santa Marta Favela/RJ: Social, economic and cultural opportunities. Revista Brasileira de Pesquisa em Turismo, 11(3), 413-435. https://doi.org/10.7784/rbtur.v11i3.1314
  • Marullo, S., & Edwards, B. (2000). From charity to justice: The potential of university-community collaboration for social change. American Behavioral Scientist, 43, 895-912. https://doi.org/10.1177/00027640021955540
  • Mtapuri, O., & Giampiccoli, A. (2013). Interrogating the role of the state and nonstate actors in community-based tourism ventures: toward a model for spreading the benefits to the wider community. South African Geographical Journal, 95(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/03736245.2013.805078
  • Mtapuri, O., & Giampiccoli, A. (2016). Towards a comprehensive model of community-based tourism development. South African Geographical Journal, 98(1), 154-168. https://doi.org/10.1080/03736245.2014.977813
  • Murphy, A. K., & Allard, S. W. (2015). The changing geography of poverty. Focus, 32(1), 19-23. https://www.irp.wisc.edu/wp/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/foc321d.pdf
  • National Department of Tourism (2016). Operational guidelines for community-based tourism in South Africa. Pretoria: National Department of Tourism. Retrieved 21 December, 2020, from https://tkp.tourism.gov.za/Documents/Community%20Based%20Tourism%20Operational%20Guidelines.pdf
  • Ndlovu, J., Cele, N., Phoofolo, T., Gumede, M., & Marschall, S. (2017). Community based tourism projects as a vehicle for creating entrepreneurial opportunities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences, June (Supplement), 14-31. https://journals.co.za/content/journal/10520/EJC-85b711135
  • Ndlovu, N., & Rogerson, C. M. (2004). The local economic impacts of rural community-based tourism in Eastern Cape. In C. M. Rogerson, & G. Visser (Eds.), Tourism and development issues in contemporary South Africa (pp. 436-451). Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa.
  • Nxumalo M. (2003). Challenges facing black entrepreneurs in the South African tourism industry: A study on bed and breakfast establishments. Unpublished MA Research Report, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
  • Odeku, K. O., & Meyer, E. L. (2014). Knowledge production, community engagement/development and global climate change. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(7), 671–679. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n7p671
  • Olalekan, B. G. (2014). Urbanization, urban poverty, slum and sustainable urban development in Nigerian Cities: Challenges and opportunities. Developing Country Studies, 4(18), 13-19. https://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/DCS/article/view/15980/16153
  • Pavlic, I., Portolan, A., & Butorac, M. (2013). Urban Tourism towards Sustainable Development. International Journal of Multidisciplinarity in Business and Science, 1(1), 72-79. https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/195653
  • Petrovic, F., & Bieliková, H. (2015). Potential of community based tourism in area with dispersed settlement – NováBaňaštál region (Slovakia). Zeszyty Naukowe, 8(IV-2), 5-15. https://www.wste.edu.pl/materialyII/ZESZ_NAUK/zn%208.pdf#page=5
  • RamsaYaman, A., & Mohd, A. (2004). Community-based ecotourism: A New proposition for sustainable development and environmental conservation in Malaysia. Journal of Applied Science, 4(4), 583-589. DOI: 10.3923/jas.2004.583.589
  • Rifai, T. (2012). Foreword. In UNWTO (Ed.), Global Report on City Tourism - Cities 2012 Project (p.4). Madrid: UNWTO. https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284415300
  • Rodin, J. (2007). The University and Urban Revival: Out of the Ivory Tower and into the Streets. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. DOI: 10.1353/rhe.0.0003
  • Rogerson, C. M. (2004a). Tourism, small firm development and empowerment. In R. Thomas (Ed.), Small firms in tourism: International perspectives (pp. 13-33). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Science. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9780080517285/chapters/10.4324/9780080517285-6
  • Rogerson C. M. (2004b). Urban tourism and small tourism enterprise development inJohannesburg: The case of township tourism. GeoJournal, 60, 249-257. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:GEJO.0000034732.58327.b6
  • Saayman, M., & Giampiccoli, A. (2016). Community-based and pro-poor tourism: Initial assessment of their relation to community development. European Journal of Tourism Research, 12, 145-190. http://ejtr.vumk.eu/index.php/volume12/289-v12145community-basedandpro-poortourisminitialassessmentoftheirrelationtocommunitydevelopment
  • Sakata, H., & Prideaux, B. (2013). An alternative approach to community-based ecotourism: A bottom-up locally initiated non-monetised project in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(6), 880-899. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2012.756493
  • Shams, M., Saffari-Raad, A., & Ghasemi, A. (2015). An analysis on urban tourism by SWOT model (Case Study: Boushehr City). Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 2(6), 298-305. https://www.sid.ir/FileServer/JE/1003920150205.pdf
  • Smith, S. (2014). Universities are taking neighbourhood engagement to the next level. Next City. Retrieved 11 August, 2017, from https://nextcity.org/daily/entry/eds-meds-cities-university-community-engagement.
  • Steinbrink, M. (2012) ‘We did the Slum!’ – Urban poverty tourism in historical perspective. Tourism Geographies, 14(2), 213-234. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2012.633216
  • Suansri, P. (2003). Community based tourism handbook. Responsible Ecological Social Tour (REST), Bangkok. https://www.mekongtourism.org/wp-content/uploads/REST-CBT-Handbook-2003.pdf
  • Tasci, A. D. S., Semrad, K. J., & Yilmaz, S. S. (2013). Community based tourism finding the equilibrium in COMCEC context: Setting the Pathway for the Future. Ankara: COMCEC Coordination Office. http://www.sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Community_Based_Tourism_Finding_the_Equilibrium_in_the_COMCEC_Context%E2%80%8B.pdf
  • Twining-Ward, L. (2007). A Toolkit for Monitoring and Managing Community-based Tourism. Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) and University of Hawaii, School of Travel Industry Management. http://www.bibalex.org/Search4Dev/files/283814/115937.pdf
  • UNDP/UNFPA, UNICEF & WFP (2009). Agenda Item 1: Population Growth and Rapid Urbanization: Food Insecurity on the Rise in Urban Settings. Joint Meeting of the Executive Boards of UNDP/UNFPA, UNICEF and WFP, 23 and 26 January 2009, New York. https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/B-8713E-JMB_Jan_09_-_population_growth.pdf
  • United Nations Human Settlements Programme (2016). Urbanization and Development: Emerging Futures. World Cities Report 2016. Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat). https://unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/download-manager-files/WCR-2016-WEB.pdf
  • UNWTO (2012). Global Report on City Tourism - Cities 2012 Project (AM Report nº six). Madrid: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Retrieved 21 December, 2020, from https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284415300
  • VasanthaKumaran, T., DivyaRajeswari, S., Annammadevi, N., Nandhini, J., Bunch, M., Marley, D., & Franklin, B. (2012). Community engagement in Chennai Slums. A reflection from the field. Internationales Asienforum, 43(1-2), 99-113. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11588/iaf.2012.43.214.
Primary Language en
Subjects Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-7698-9482
Author: Oliver MTAPURI
Institution: University of KwaZulu Natal
Country: South Africa


Orcid: 0000-0002-2963-2031
Author: Andrea GİAMPİCCOLİ (Primary Author)
Institution: Durban University of Technology
Country: South Africa


Dates

Application Date : February 17, 2020
Acceptance Date : August 10, 2020
Publication Date : December 25, 2020

Bibtex @research article { ahtr690184, journal = {Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR)}, issn = {2147-9100}, eissn = {2148-7316}, address = {Akdeniz University, Tourism Faculty Dumlupınar Boulevard Post Code: 07058 Campus ANTALYA, TURKEY}, publisher = {Akdeniz University}, year = {2020}, volume = {8}, pages = {419 - 439}, doi = {10.30519/ahtr.690184}, title = {Beyond Rural Contexts: Community-Based Tourism for A Better Life in The City}, key = {cite}, author = {Mtapurı, Oliver and Gi̇ampi̇ccoli̇, Andrea} }
APA Mtapurı, O , Gi̇ampi̇ccoli̇, A . (2020). Beyond Rural Contexts: Community-Based Tourism for A Better Life in The City . Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) , 8 (2) , 419-439 . DOI: 10.30519/ahtr.690184
MLA Mtapurı, O , Gi̇ampi̇ccoli̇, A . "Beyond Rural Contexts: Community-Based Tourism for A Better Life in The City" . Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) 8 (2020 ): 419-439 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ahtr/issue/58625/690184>
Chicago Mtapurı, O , Gi̇ampi̇ccoli̇, A . "Beyond Rural Contexts: Community-Based Tourism for A Better Life in The City". Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) 8 (2020 ): 419-439
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Beyond Rural Contexts: Community-Based Tourism for A Better Life in The City AU - Oliver Mtapurı , Andrea Gi̇ampi̇ccoli̇ Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.30519/ahtr.690184 DO - 10.30519/ahtr.690184 T2 - Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 419 EP - 439 VL - 8 IS - 2 SN - 2147-9100-2148-7316 M3 - doi: 10.30519/ahtr.690184 UR - https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.690184 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) Beyond Rural Contexts: Community-Based Tourism for A Better Life in The City %A Oliver Mtapurı , Andrea Gi̇ampi̇ccoli̇ %T Beyond Rural Contexts: Community-Based Tourism for A Better Life in The City %D 2020 %J Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) %P 2147-9100-2148-7316 %V 8 %N 2 %R doi: 10.30519/ahtr.690184 %U 10.30519/ahtr.690184
ISNAD Mtapurı, Oliver , Gi̇ampi̇ccoli̇, Andrea . "Beyond Rural Contexts: Community-Based Tourism for A Better Life in The City". Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) 8 / 2 (December 2020): 419-439 . https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.690184
AMA Mtapurı O , Gi̇ampi̇ccoli̇ A . Beyond Rural Contexts: Community-Based Tourism for A Better Life in The City. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR). 2020; 8(2): 419-439.
Vancouver Mtapurı O , Gi̇ampi̇ccoli̇ A . Beyond Rural Contexts: Community-Based Tourism for A Better Life in The City. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR). 2020; 8(2): 419-439.
IEEE O. Mtapurı and A. Gi̇ampi̇ccoli̇ , "Beyond Rural Contexts: Community-Based Tourism for A Better Life in The City", Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR), vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 419-439, Dec. 2020, doi:10.30519/ahtr.690184