Year 2021, Volume 16 , Issue 1, Pages 73 - 91 2021-04-15

Turkish-Greek Rapprochement in the 1930s: The British Factor as a Third Party
1930’larda Türk-Yunan Yakınlaşması: Üçüncü Taraf Olarak İngiliz Faktörü

Emine Tutku VARDAĞLI [1]


The third party effect in international relations gained popularity in 1990s in the context of conflict resolution. However, the Turkish-Greek relations in the modern era have always been discussed in reference to a third party involvement and Britain has always prevailed over the other countries as the most prominent third party. This study searches for the British influence on the Turkish-Greek rapprochement in 1930s. The British factor influence is usually taken as a matter of Great Power dominance or the “provocateur of rivalries between the two nations” from the Turkish point of view or “cooperation of allies” from the Greek point of view. Whereas, this study focuses on a specific conjuncture in which Britain acted neither as a “provocateur” nor as an “ally” for any party. In reference to the historical sources, it is documented that from the late 1920s the British approach to the Turkish-Greek affairs was altered dramatically, parallel to the overarching systemic changes in the interwar period Specifically, it is argued that the revision of British financial policy in response to the Great Depression and its retreat from the Eastern Mediterranean as a naval power directed Greece to change its foreign policy orientations with a sudden demarche and offer Turkey a peace settlement. Rather than attributing this rapprochement to the efforts of charismatic leaders, this study analyses the issue with a realist mind in reference to the British policies modified in parallel to the systemic changes during the interwar years.
Uluslararası ilişkilerde üçüncü taraf etkisi 1990’larda çatışma çözümü bağlamında popülerite kazanmıştır. Ancak, modern dönem Türk-Yunan ilişkileri daima bir üçüncü taraf etkisi üzerinden tartışılmıştır ve İngiltere diğer ülkeler arasında daima en önemli üçüncü taraf olarak öne plana çıkmıştır. Bu çalışma, İngiltere’nin 1930’lardaki Türk-Yunan yakınlaşmasına etkisini incelemektedir. İngiliz etkisi, Türk bakış açısından genelllikle bir Büyük Güç baskısı ya da “iki millet arasındaki ihtilafların kışkırtıcısı” olarak algılanırken, Yunan bakış açısından “müttefiklerin işbirliği” olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Oysaki bu çalışma İngiltere’nin tarafların herhangi biri açısından “provakatör” ya da “müttefik” rolü üstlenmediği özel bir konjonktüre odaklanmaktadır. Tarihsel kaynaklara referansla, İngiltere’nin Türk-Yunan meselelerine yaklaşımının İki Savaş arası dönemde gerçekleşen kapsamlı dönüşümlere parelel olarak 1920’lerin sonlarından itibaren dramatik bir biçimde değiştiği ortaya konulmaktadır. Spesifik olarak, İngiltere’nin Büyük Buhrana yanıt olarak finansal politikalarını revize etmesinin ve bir deniz gücü olarak Doğu Akdeniz’den çekilmesinin Yunanistan’nın ani bir diplomatik girişimle dış politika yönünü değiştirerek Türkiye’ye barışçıl bir uzlaşı önermesine neden olduğu iddia edilmektedir. Bu çalışma, söz konusu yakınlaşma girişimini karizmatik liderlerin çabalarına bağlamaktan ziyade, konuyu realistik bir bakış açısıyla iki savaş arası dönemde uluslararası sistemik unsurlara paralel olarak değişen İngiliz politikaları çerçevesinde analiz etmektedir.
  • League of Nations Archives (LNA), Greek Refuges Settlement Scheme, 29.9.1923, 48/36829X/294.
  • LNA, Thirtieth Session of the Council Minutes, 13.9.1924, 48/39042/29451.
  • LNA, Personal and Confidential Letter from the Bank of England to Sir John. H. Simpson (Chairman of the RSC), 24.2.1927, 48/39042/29451.
  • LNA, Letter from Bank of England (Mr. Norman) to John H. Simpson (Chairman of the RSC), 9.6.1927, 48/39042/29451.
  • LNA, Notes of a Conversation with Mr. Royall Tyler (Economic and Financial Section of the LN) and Mr. Felkin (Representative of Greek bondholders) in Paris, 5.6.1929, 48/39042/29451.
  • LNA, Personal Letter from John H. Simpson to Mr. Norman, 22.6.1927, 48/39042/29451.
  • LNA, Report on the Operations of the Refugee Settlement Commission for the Third Three Months, 25.8.1924, 48/37468/29457.
  • Agriantoni, Christine. “Venizelos and Economic Policy”. In: Kitromilides PM Eleftherios Venizelos: The Trials of Statesmanship. (Edinburgh: Edinburg University Press, 2008), 284–318.
  • Alım, Eray. "Tarihsel Bir Perspektiften Türk-Yunan İlişkileri Üzerinde Üçüncü Aktörlerin Etkisi." İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi 9.3 (2020): 2796-2824.
  • Arndt, H.W. Economic Lessons of the 1930s. (New York, London: Routledge, 2014).
  • Barlas, Dilek - Serhat Güvenç. “To Build a Navy with the Help of Adversary: Italian-Turkish Naval Arms Trade, 1929-32”. Middle Eastern Studies, 38/4 (2002), 143-169.
  • Blanchard, Raoul. “The Exchange of Populations between Greece and Turkey”. Geographical Review, 15/3 (1925), 449-456.
  • Bowden, Sue - Michael Collins. “The Bank of England, Industrial Regeneration and Hire Purchase between the Wars”. Economic History Review, 45/1 (1992), 120-136.
  • Bordo, Michael D. - Anna J. Schwartz. A Retrospective on the Classical Gold Standard, 1821-1931. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009).
  • Bölükbaşı, Deniz. Turkey and Greece: the Aegean disputes: a unique case in international law. (London: Routledge, 2004).
  • Christodoulakis, Nicos. “Currency Crisis and Collapse in Interwar Greece: predicament or policy failure?” European Review of Economic History, 17/3 (2013), 272-293.
  • Çakmak, Zafer. “Yunanistan Başbakanı Panagis Tsaldaris’in Türkiye’yi Ziyareti (10-17 Eylül 1933)”. Electronic Turkish Studies, 2/4 (2007), 1271-1282.
  • Çakmak, Zafer. “Venizelos' un Atatürk'ü Nobel Barış Ödülü'ne Aday Göstermesi”. Erdem, 52 (2008), 91-110.
  • Dalby, Andrew. Eleftherios Venizelos. (London: Haus Publishing, 2010).
  • Demirözü, Damla. “The Greek–Turkish Rapprochement of 1930 and the Repercussions of the Ankara Convention in Turkey”. Journal of Islamic Studies, 19/3 (2008), 309-324.
  • Eichengreen, Barry - Marc Flandreau. “The Federal Reserve, the Bank of England and the Rise of the Dollar as an International Currency, 1914–1939”. Open Economies Review, 23/1 (2012), 57-87.
  • Eichengreen, Barry, Kevin H. O’Rourke and Gisela Rua. “From Great Depression to Great Credit Crisis: similarities, differences and lessons”. Economic Policy, 25/62 (2010), 219-265.
  • Erdem, Nilüfer. “Yunan Tarihçilerinin Gözüyle 1930 Türk-Yunan Dostluk Antlaşması ve Venizelos’un Bu Sürece Katkıları”. Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi, 23 (2013), 93-128.
  • Fishlow, Albert. “Lessons from the Past: capital markets during the 19th century and the interwar period”. International Organization, 39/3 (1985), 383-439.
  • Fouskas, Vassilis K. - Constantine Dimoulas. Greece Financialization and the EU. (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).
  • Goldstein, Erik. "Great Britain and Greater Greece 1917-1920." The Historical Journal, 32/2 (1989), 339-356.
  • Gökçen, Salim. “Atatürk Döneminde Türkiye-Yugoslavya İlişkileri ve Kral Alexander’in Türkiye Ziyareti”. Journal of International Social Research, 9/42 (2016), 667-678.
  • Gönlübol, Mehmet -Cem Sar. Atatürk ve Türkiye’nin Dış Politikası:(1919-1938).Ankara: Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi, 1990.
  • Hatzivassiliou, Evanthis. "The 1930 Greek‐Turkish naval protocol." Diplomacy and Statecraft 9, no. 1 (1998): 89-111.p.97-98
  • Işın, Ekrem, ed. Osmanlı Donanmasının Seyir Defteri| The Logbook of the Ottoman Navy. Vol. 35. İstanbul: Pera Müzesi, 2009.
  • Kalelioğlu, Oğuz. "Türk-yunan ilişkileri ve megali idea." Atatürk Yolu Dergisi, 41, (2008): 105-123.
  • Keiger, John. "Wielding Finance as a Weapon of Diplomacy: France and Britain in the 1920s." Contemporary British History 25.01 (2011): 29-47.
  • Koçak, Cemil. Muhalif Sesler: Tek-Parti Döneminde. İletişim Yayınları, 2019.
  • Köylü, Murat. "Batı Anadolu’nun İşgalinin Türk-Yunan ve İngiliz Siyasi Tarihine Etkisi” Toros Üniversitesi İİSBF Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 3.6: 147-169.
  • Lampe, John R and Marvin R. Jackson. Balkan Economic History, 1550-1950: from imperial borderlands to developing nations. Vol. 10. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982.
  • Laue, James H. "The Emergence and Institutionalization of Third-party Roles in Conflict." In Conflict: Readings in management and resolution, pp. 256-272. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 1990.
  • Lawrence R. Pratt. East of Malta, West of Suez: Britain's Mediterranean Crisis, 1936-1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.
  • Lazaretou, Sophia. "The Drachma, Foreign Creditors, and the International Monetary System: tales of a currency during the 19th and the early 20th centuries." Explorations in Economic History 42.2 (2005): 202-236.
  • Marovich-Old, Iliya. "Challenges to British Imperial Hegemony in the Mediterranean 1919-1940." PhD diss., Flinders University, School of History and International Relations., 2017.
  • Pepelasis, Ioanna-Sapfo, Stefanos Zarkos, and Constantine Aivalis. "Why Leverage does not Always Deliver: Lessons from the performance of the top 50 industrial firms in Greece during the Great Depression." Business History (2018):663-685.
  • Raditsa, Bogdan. "Venizelos and the Struggle around the Balkan Pact." Balkan Studies 6.1 (1965): 119-130.
  • Rappas, Alexis. "The Transnational Formation of Imperial Rule on the Margins of Europe: British Cyprus and the Italian Dodecanese in the interwar period”. European History Quarterly, 45/ 3 (2015), 467-505.
  • Rizou, Maria. "The National Bank of Greece and the International Dimension of the Greek Refugee Crisis, 1917-1928”. PhD diss., (King's College London, 2018).
  • Saygı, Tarık. “Lozan Antlaşması’nda Musul Sorunu ve Hatay Meselesi”. Yalova Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 5/10 (2015), 157-174.
  • Sonyel, Salahi R. Minorities and the Destruction of the Ottoman Empire. (Ankara: Turkish Historical Society Printing House, 1993).
  • Svolopoulos, Konstantinos. "The Greek Foreign Policy 1945–1981. In: Svolopoulos K. et. al. Konstantinos Karamanlis in the 21st century, (Athens: Konstantinos Karamanlis Foundation, 2008), 310-330.
  • Şimşir, Bilal. Atatürk Dönemi-İncelemeler. (Ankara: Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi, (2006).
  • Türegün, Adnan. “Policy response to the Great Depression of the 1930s: Turkish neomercantilism in the Balkan context”. Turkish Studies, 17/4 (2016), 666-690.
  • Türkeş, Mustafa. "The Balkan Pact and its Immediate Implications for the Balkan States, 1930–34”. Middle Eastern Studies, 30/1 (1994), 123-144.
  • Wechsberg, Joseph. The Merchant Bankers. (New York: Dover Publications, 2014).
  • Williams, Manuela. Mussolini's Propaganda Abroad: subversion in the Mediterranean and the Middle East, 1935-1940. (London: Routledge, 2006).
  • Yıldırım, Onur. Diplomacy and Displacement: reconsidering the Turco-Greek exchange of populations, 1922–1934. (London: Routledge, 2007).
Primary Language en
Subjects Humanities, Multidisciplinary
Journal Section Reserch Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-6466-7881
Author: Emine Tutku VARDAĞLI (Primary Author)
Institution: İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi
Country: Turkey


Supporting Institution TÜBİTAK
Project Number 2219
Dates

Publication Date : April 15, 2021

Bibtex @research article { akademikincelemeler849369, journal = {Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi}, issn = {1306-7885}, eissn = {2602-3016}, address = {}, publisher = {Sakarya University}, year = {2021}, volume = {16}, pages = {73 - 91}, doi = {10.17550/akademikincelemeler.849369}, title = {Turkish-Greek Rapprochement in the 1930s: The British Factor as a Third Party}, key = {cite}, author = {Vardağlı, Emine Tutku} }
APA Vardağlı, E . (2021). Turkish-Greek Rapprochement in the 1930s: The British Factor as a Third Party . Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi , 16 (1) , 73-91 . DOI: 10.17550/akademikincelemeler.849369
MLA Vardağlı, E . "Turkish-Greek Rapprochement in the 1930s: The British Factor as a Third Party" . Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi 16 (2021 ): 73-91 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/akademikincelemeler/issue/61282/849369>
Chicago Vardağlı, E . "Turkish-Greek Rapprochement in the 1930s: The British Factor as a Third Party". Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi 16 (2021 ): 73-91
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Turkish-Greek Rapprochement in the 1930s: The British Factor as a Third Party AU - Emine Tutku Vardağlı Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.17550/akademikincelemeler.849369 DO - 10.17550/akademikincelemeler.849369 T2 - Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 73 EP - 91 VL - 16 IS - 1 SN - 1306-7885-2602-3016 M3 - doi: 10.17550/akademikincelemeler.849369 UR - https://doi.org/10.17550/akademikincelemeler.849369 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi Turkish-Greek Rapprochement in the 1930s: The British Factor as a Third Party %A Emine Tutku Vardağlı %T Turkish-Greek Rapprochement in the 1930s: The British Factor as a Third Party %D 2021 %J Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi %P 1306-7885-2602-3016 %V 16 %N 1 %R doi: 10.17550/akademikincelemeler.849369 %U 10.17550/akademikincelemeler.849369
ISNAD Vardağlı, Emine Tutku . "Turkish-Greek Rapprochement in the 1930s: The British Factor as a Third Party". Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi 16 / 1 (April 2021): 73-91 . https://doi.org/10.17550/akademikincelemeler.849369
AMA Vardağlı E . Turkish-Greek Rapprochement in the 1930s: The British Factor as a Third Party. Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi. 2021; 16(1): 73-91.
Vancouver Vardağlı E . Turkish-Greek Rapprochement in the 1930s: The British Factor as a Third Party. Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi. 2021; 16(1): 73-91.
IEEE E. Vardağlı , "Turkish-Greek Rapprochement in the 1930s: The British Factor as a Third Party", Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 73-91, Apr. 2021, doi:10.17550/akademikincelemeler.849369