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Year 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, 47 - 62, 29.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.52114/apjhad.1024396

Abstract

References

  • [1] L. Kotek, P. Trávníček, P. Blecha, Accident analysis of european biogas stations, Chemical Engineering Transactions. 43 (2015) 1933–1938. doi:10.3303/CET1543323.
  • [2] A.M. Nassimi, M. Jafari, H. Farrokhpour, M.H. Keshavarz, Constants of explosive limits, Chemical Engineering Science. 173 (2017) 384–389. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2017.08.011.
  • [3] F. Van den Schoor, F. Norman, K. Vandermeiren, F. Verplaetsen, J. Berghmans, E. Van den Bulck, Flammability limits, limiting oxygen concentration and minimum inert gas/combustible ratio of H2/CO/N2/air mixtures, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 34 (2009) 2069–2075. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.12.038.
  • [4] G. Shu, B. Long, H. Tian, H. Wei, X. Liang, Evaluating upper flammability limit of low hydrocarbon diluted with an inert gas using threshold temperature, Chemical Engineering Science. 138 (2015) 810–813. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2015.09.013.
  • [5] H. Miao, L. Lu, Z. Huang, Flammability limits of hydrogen-enriched natural gas, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 36 (2011) 6937–6947. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.02.126.
  • [6] Y.E.L. Tes, M. Sivilarin, A. Patlamalarinin, V.E. Uygulamali, O. Hesap, ÖMER AHMET USLU Yüksek Lisans Tezi Kimya Anabilim Dalı Nisan-2019, (2019).
  • [7] N.D.D. Carareto, C.Y.C.S. Kimura, E.C. Oliveira, M.C. Costa, A.J.A. Meirelles, Flash points of mixtures containing ethyl esters or ethylic biodiesel and ethanol, 96 (2012) 319–326. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2012.01.025.
  • [8] J. Telmo Miranda, E. Muñoz Camacho, J.A. Fraguela Formoso, J. de D. Rodríguez García, Comparative study of the methodologies based on Standard UNE 60079/10/1 and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine zonal reach of gas-generated Atex explosive atmospheres, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 26 (2013) 839–850. doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2013.02.015.
  • [9] L.C. RUIZ, T. KOVACS, BIOMETRIC SCREENINGS: THE ROUTE TO OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, Journal of Scientific Perspectives. (2021). doi:10.26900/jsp.5.1.03.
  • [10] M.M. Van der Voort, R.M.M. van Wees, J.M. Ham, M.P.N. Spruijt, A.C. van den Berg, P.C.J. de Bruijn, P.G.A. van Ierschot, An experimental study on the temperature dependence of CO2 explosive evaporation, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 26 (2013) 830–838. doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2013.02.016.
  • [11] E.E. Layık, Gida sektöründe toz patlamalarinin araştirilmasi ve patlamadan korunma dokümaninin hazirlanmasi bi̇r uygulama örneği̇, (2016).
  • [12] M.E.M. Engenharia, D.E.S.E. Higiene, A. Maria, T. Guedes, a Software Application To Define and Rank Atex Zones, (n.d.).
  • [13] U. MEVLEVIOGLU, M.A.N. KADIRGAN, G. ALEV ÇİFTÇİOĞLU, Kimya Endüstrilerinde Patlama ve Yangınların Önlenmesi ve İlgili Vaka Çalışmaları, International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Pure Sciences. (2019) 36–46. doi:10.7240/jeps.457561.
  • [14] P. Trávníček, L. Kotek, P. Junga, T. Vítěz, K. Drápela, J. Chovanec, Quantitative analyses of biogas plant accidents in Europe, Renewable Energy. 122 (2018) 89–97. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2018.01.077.
  • [15] P.L. Barros, A.M. Luiz, C.A. Nascimento, A.T.P. Neto, J.J.N. Alves, On the non-monotonic wind influence on flammable gas cloud from CFD simulations for hazardous area classification, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 68 (2020). doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2020.104278.
  • [16] BSI British Standards, (2009). [17] F. Ferrero, R. Meyer, M. Kluge, V. Schröder, T. Spoormaker, Study of the spontaneous ignition of stoichiometric tetrafluoroethylene-air mixtures at elevated pressures, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 26 (2013) 759–765. doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2013.02.008.
  • [18] M.H. Keshavarz, S. Moradi, A.R. Madram, H.R. Pouretedal, K. Esmailpour, A. Shokrolahi, Reliable method for prediction of the flash point of various classes of amines on the basis of some molecular moieties for safety measures in industrial processes, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 26 (2013) 650–659. doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2013.01.005.

The Risk Calculation of Hazardous Zones Created By Flammable And Explosive Chemicals, LPG Tank Example

Year 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, 47 - 62, 29.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.52114/apjhad.1024396

Abstract

The determining of hazardous areas created by flammable and explosive chemicals is important to obtain a safe working environment. Taking precautions and prevent explosions require detailed investigations and accurate calculations instead of superficial and personal experience. In this context, possible leakages and leaks occurring around the LPG tank and its connections in a real enterprise were evaluated and the border of possible explosive atmosphere areas was calculated by the ALOAH program according to the TS 60079-10-1 standard. Based on the secondary discharge of the LPG from the bottom of the tank, the discharge characteristics were calculated as 4.946578 3.926692 m3/s at sonic and subsonic conditions respectively, and region radii, 10.8 m. The explosive atmosphere of the LPG tank was concluded that matched well the definition of Zone 2. The risk severity score of explosive atmospheres was calculated as 12 by using the risk assessment method of matrix system with approximations, possible in a week (3P), and the effect that could cause serious injury (4P). Serious threats and devastating effects were fictionalized clearly by explosion scenarios of the LPG tank. The calculations of explosive borders for flammable chemicals are necessary to prevent explosions, fires, and toxic effects of leaked chemicals by taking measurements on time. It is also necessary to calculate explosive areas and possible sceneries for each chemical separately for accurate results and effective control.

References

  • [1] L. Kotek, P. Trávníček, P. Blecha, Accident analysis of european biogas stations, Chemical Engineering Transactions. 43 (2015) 1933–1938. doi:10.3303/CET1543323.
  • [2] A.M. Nassimi, M. Jafari, H. Farrokhpour, M.H. Keshavarz, Constants of explosive limits, Chemical Engineering Science. 173 (2017) 384–389. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2017.08.011.
  • [3] F. Van den Schoor, F. Norman, K. Vandermeiren, F. Verplaetsen, J. Berghmans, E. Van den Bulck, Flammability limits, limiting oxygen concentration and minimum inert gas/combustible ratio of H2/CO/N2/air mixtures, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 34 (2009) 2069–2075. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.12.038.
  • [4] G. Shu, B. Long, H. Tian, H. Wei, X. Liang, Evaluating upper flammability limit of low hydrocarbon diluted with an inert gas using threshold temperature, Chemical Engineering Science. 138 (2015) 810–813. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2015.09.013.
  • [5] H. Miao, L. Lu, Z. Huang, Flammability limits of hydrogen-enriched natural gas, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 36 (2011) 6937–6947. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.02.126.
  • [6] Y.E.L. Tes, M. Sivilarin, A. Patlamalarinin, V.E. Uygulamali, O. Hesap, ÖMER AHMET USLU Yüksek Lisans Tezi Kimya Anabilim Dalı Nisan-2019, (2019).
  • [7] N.D.D. Carareto, C.Y.C.S. Kimura, E.C. Oliveira, M.C. Costa, A.J.A. Meirelles, Flash points of mixtures containing ethyl esters or ethylic biodiesel and ethanol, 96 (2012) 319–326. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2012.01.025.
  • [8] J. Telmo Miranda, E. Muñoz Camacho, J.A. Fraguela Formoso, J. de D. Rodríguez García, Comparative study of the methodologies based on Standard UNE 60079/10/1 and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine zonal reach of gas-generated Atex explosive atmospheres, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 26 (2013) 839–850. doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2013.02.015.
  • [9] L.C. RUIZ, T. KOVACS, BIOMETRIC SCREENINGS: THE ROUTE TO OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH, Journal of Scientific Perspectives. (2021). doi:10.26900/jsp.5.1.03.
  • [10] M.M. Van der Voort, R.M.M. van Wees, J.M. Ham, M.P.N. Spruijt, A.C. van den Berg, P.C.J. de Bruijn, P.G.A. van Ierschot, An experimental study on the temperature dependence of CO2 explosive evaporation, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 26 (2013) 830–838. doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2013.02.016.
  • [11] E.E. Layık, Gida sektöründe toz patlamalarinin araştirilmasi ve patlamadan korunma dokümaninin hazirlanmasi bi̇r uygulama örneği̇, (2016).
  • [12] M.E.M. Engenharia, D.E.S.E. Higiene, A. Maria, T. Guedes, a Software Application To Define and Rank Atex Zones, (n.d.).
  • [13] U. MEVLEVIOGLU, M.A.N. KADIRGAN, G. ALEV ÇİFTÇİOĞLU, Kimya Endüstrilerinde Patlama ve Yangınların Önlenmesi ve İlgili Vaka Çalışmaları, International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Pure Sciences. (2019) 36–46. doi:10.7240/jeps.457561.
  • [14] P. Trávníček, L. Kotek, P. Junga, T. Vítěz, K. Drápela, J. Chovanec, Quantitative analyses of biogas plant accidents in Europe, Renewable Energy. 122 (2018) 89–97. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2018.01.077.
  • [15] P.L. Barros, A.M. Luiz, C.A. Nascimento, A.T.P. Neto, J.J.N. Alves, On the non-monotonic wind influence on flammable gas cloud from CFD simulations for hazardous area classification, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 68 (2020). doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2020.104278.
  • [16] BSI British Standards, (2009). [17] F. Ferrero, R. Meyer, M. Kluge, V. Schröder, T. Spoormaker, Study of the spontaneous ignition of stoichiometric tetrafluoroethylene-air mixtures at elevated pressures, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 26 (2013) 759–765. doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2013.02.008.
  • [18] M.H. Keshavarz, S. Moradi, A.R. Madram, H.R. Pouretedal, K. Esmailpour, A. Shokrolahi, Reliable method for prediction of the flash point of various classes of amines on the basis of some molecular moieties for safety measures in industrial processes, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 26 (2013) 650–659. doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2013.01.005.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Civil Engineering
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Bülent BÜYÜKKIDAN
DUMLUPINAR UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9619-3246
Türkiye


Hüseyin GÜMÜŞ (Primary Author)
Bilecik Seyh Edebali University, Osmaneli Vocational School, , 11500, Osmaneli, Bilecik/Turkey
0000-0002-2029-7978
Türkiye


Ömer Ahmet USLU
DUMLUPINAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2761-5411
Türkiye

Publication Date December 29, 2021
Application Date November 16, 2021
Acceptance Date December 16, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2

Cite

IEEE B. Büyükkıdan , H. Gümüş and Ö. A. Uslu , "The Risk Calculation of Hazardous Zones Created By Flammable And Explosive Chemicals, LPG Tank Example", Academic Platform Journal of Natural Hazards and Disaster Management, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 47-62, Dec. 2021, doi:10.52114/apjhad.1024396
Academic Platform Journal of Natural Hazards and Disaster Management (APJHAD)