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Açık Teizmde İlahi Zamansallık

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 335 - 348, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.34247/artukluakademi.982407

Abstract

Bu makale, analitik din felsefesinde Tanrı’nın bilgisi ve insan özgürlüğünün bağdaştırılması meselesinde önemli bir
tartışma alanı açan ve temelde Tanrı’nın zamansal ve bilgisel olarak açıklığına işaret eden “açık teizm”de ezeliliğin nasıl
anlaşıldığıyla ilgilidir. Açık teizm ezeliliği, ilahi zamansallık şeklinde yorumlar. İlahi zamansallıkta Tanrı; zamansız bir
varlık değildir, zamanın içindedir, geçmiş, şimdi ve gelecek Tanrı için de geçerlidir. Açık teizme göre ilahi zamansızlık
yerine bu görüşü kabul etmenin makul sebepleri vardır. Bu çalışmada açık teistlerin ilahi zamansızlığı neden kabul
etmedikleri incelenmiştir. Bunun için öncelikle açık teistlerin zaman konusunda kabul ettikleri A-teoriyi nasıl
savundukları ele alınmıştır. Daha sonra teizmde temel olan Tanrı’nın zat olması ve eylemde bulunması niteliklerinin ilahi
zamansallıkla daha tutarlı olduğu ve zamansızlık kabul edilirse Tanrı’nın bilgisi konusunda bazı anlaşılmazlıkların
olacağı iddiaları değerlendirilmiştir. Felsefede zaman ve Tanrı’nın nitelikleri gibi iki zor meseleyi içeren bu çalışmada
açık teistlerin iddialarının dayanakları irdelenirken temel meselenin; problemlerin ve çözümlerin şekillenmesinde en
başta kabul edilen zaman anlayışının etkili olduğu görülmüştür. 

References

  • Alston, William. “Does God Have Beliefs?”. Religious Studies 22/3-4 (1986), 287-306.
  • Asay, Jamin. “Truthmaker Theory”. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Erişim 06 Temmuz 2021. https://iep.utm.edu/truth-ma/#H7
  • Boethius. Felsefenin Tesellisi. çev. Çiğdem Dürüşken. İstanbul: Kabalcı Yayınları, 2011.
  • Chisholm, Roderick M.- Zimmerman, Dean W. “Theology and Tense”. Noûs 31/2 (1997), 262-265.
  • Craig, William Lane. “Divine Timelessness and Personhood”. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 43 (1998), 109-124.
  • Doko, Enis. Metafiziğin Temelleri: Analitik Metafiziğe Giriş. İstanbul: Mona, 2019.
  • Nina, Emery- Markosian, Ned- Sullivan, Meghan. “Time”. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Erişim 13 Temmuz 2021. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/time/#PresEterGrowBlocTheo
  • Ganssle, Gregory E. “Introduction”. God and Time: Essays on the Divine Nature. ed. Gregory E. Ganssle. David M. Woodruff. 3-18. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Ganssle, Gregory E. “Leftow on Direct Awareness and Atemporality”. Sophia 34/2 (1995), 30-37.
  • Gören Bayam, Emine. “Açık Teizmin Geleneksel Tanrı Tasavvuru ve Süreç Teizmi ile İlişkisi”. Sosyal Bilimler Araştırma Dergisi 13/25 (2015), 253-269.
  • Hasker, William. God, Time and Knowledge. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1989.
  • Hasker, William. “A Philosophical Perspective”. The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God. ed. Clarck Pinnock vd. 126-154. Downers Grove IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994.
  • Hasker, William. “Can Eternity Be Saved? A Comment on Stump and Rogers”. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (2020), 137-148.
  • Hasker, William. “Concerning the Intelligibility of ‘God is Timeless’”. The New Scholasticisim 57 (1983), 170-195.
  • Hasker, William. “The Absence of a Timeless God”. God and Time: Essays on the Divine Nature. ed. Gregory E. Ganssle, David M. Woodruff. 182-206. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Hasker, William. “Yes, God Has Beliefs!”. Religious Studies 24/3 (1988), 385-394.
  • Helm, Paul. “Timelessness and Foreknowledge”. Mind 84/336 (1975), 516-527.
  • Kneale, William. “Time and Eternity in Theology”. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series 61 (1960-1961), 87-108.
  • Kretzmann, Norman. “Omniscience and Immutability”. The Journal of Philosophy 63/14 (1966), 409-421.
  • Leftow, Brian. “Timelessness and Divine Experience”. Sophia 30 (1992), 43-53.
  • Lewis, Delmas. “Eternity, Time and Tenselessness”. Faith and Philosophy 5/1 (1988), 72-86.
  • Lewis, Delmas. “Timelessness and Divine Agency”. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 21/3 (1987), 143-159.
  • McTaggart, J. Ellis. “The Unreality of Time”. Mind 17/68 (1908), 457-474.
  • Peterson, M., Hasker, W., Reichenbach, B., Basinger, D. Akıl ve İnanç: Din Felsefesine Giriş. çev. Rahim Acar. İstanbul: Küre Yayınları, 2006.
  • Pike, Nelson. God and Timelessness. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970.
  • Prior, Arthur N. “The Formalities of Omniscience”. Philosophy 37/140 (1962), 114-129.
  • Rhoda, Alan R. “Presentism, Truthmakers, and God”. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (2009), 41-62.
  • Stump, Eleonore- Kretzmann, Norman. “Eternity”. The Journal of Philosophy 78/8 (1981), 429-458
  • Stump, Eleonore- Kretzmann, Norman. “Eternity, Awareness and Action”. Faith and Philosophy 9/4 (1992), 463-482.
  • Swinburne, Richard. The Coherence of Theism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.
  • Tanış, Abdulkadir. “William Alston’da İlâhî Bilginin Doğası ve Zaman”. Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18/36 (2019), 437-462.
  • Uygur, Nermi. “Bertrand Russel’ın Doğruluk Anlayışı”. Felsefe Arkivi 14 (1963), 3-35.
  • Wolterstroff, Nicholas. “Tanrı Süreklidir (Everlasting)”. çev. Rahim Acar. Din Felsefesi Seçme Metinler. ed. M. Peterson vd. 207-217. İstanbul: Küre Yayınları, 2013.
  • Woodruff, David M.. “Presentism and the Problem of Special Relativity”. God in Open Universe: Science, Metaphysics and Open Theism. ed. William Hasker, Thomas Jay Oord, Dean Zimmerman. 94-124. Eugene OR: Pickwick Publications, 2011.
  • Yavuz, Zikri. Tanrı, Ezelilik ve Zaman. Ankara: İlâhiyat Yayınları, 2018.
  • Zimmerman, Dean. “The A-Theory of Time, Presentism, and Open Theism”. Science and Religion in Dialogue. ed. Melville Stewart. 789-809. Malden Mass.:Wiley Blackwell, 2010.

Divine Temporality in Open Theism

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 335 - 348, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.34247/artukluakademi.982407

Abstract

This article is about how eternity is understood in "open theism", which opens an important area of discussion in the analytical philosophy of religion on the compatibility of the God’s knowledge and human freedom, and basically points to the temporal openness of God. Open theism interprets eternity as divine temporality. In divine temporality, God is not a timeless being as in classical theism, he is also in time, past, present and future also apply to God. According to open theism, there are plausible reasons to accept this view rather than the divine timelessness. In this study, it is examined why open theists do not accept divine timelessness. For this, firstly, how open theists defend the A-theory about time is discussed. Then, the view that God's personality and acting qualities, which are fundamental in theism, are more consistent with divine temporality, and that there are some incomprehensible views about God's knowledge if timelessness is accepted, were evaluated. In this study, which includes two difficult issues such as time and the qualities of God, it is understood that the basic issue is that the problems and solutions are shaped according to the understanding of time, which is accepted in the first place.

References

  • Alston, William. “Does God Have Beliefs?”. Religious Studies 22/3-4 (1986), 287-306.
  • Asay, Jamin. “Truthmaker Theory”. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Erişim 06 Temmuz 2021. https://iep.utm.edu/truth-ma/#H7
  • Boethius. Felsefenin Tesellisi. çev. Çiğdem Dürüşken. İstanbul: Kabalcı Yayınları, 2011.
  • Chisholm, Roderick M.- Zimmerman, Dean W. “Theology and Tense”. Noûs 31/2 (1997), 262-265.
  • Craig, William Lane. “Divine Timelessness and Personhood”. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 43 (1998), 109-124.
  • Doko, Enis. Metafiziğin Temelleri: Analitik Metafiziğe Giriş. İstanbul: Mona, 2019.
  • Nina, Emery- Markosian, Ned- Sullivan, Meghan. “Time”. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Erişim 13 Temmuz 2021. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/time/#PresEterGrowBlocTheo
  • Ganssle, Gregory E. “Introduction”. God and Time: Essays on the Divine Nature. ed. Gregory E. Ganssle. David M. Woodruff. 3-18. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Ganssle, Gregory E. “Leftow on Direct Awareness and Atemporality”. Sophia 34/2 (1995), 30-37.
  • Gören Bayam, Emine. “Açık Teizmin Geleneksel Tanrı Tasavvuru ve Süreç Teizmi ile İlişkisi”. Sosyal Bilimler Araştırma Dergisi 13/25 (2015), 253-269.
  • Hasker, William. God, Time and Knowledge. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1989.
  • Hasker, William. “A Philosophical Perspective”. The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God. ed. Clarck Pinnock vd. 126-154. Downers Grove IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994.
  • Hasker, William. “Can Eternity Be Saved? A Comment on Stump and Rogers”. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 87 (2020), 137-148.
  • Hasker, William. “Concerning the Intelligibility of ‘God is Timeless’”. The New Scholasticisim 57 (1983), 170-195.
  • Hasker, William. “The Absence of a Timeless God”. God and Time: Essays on the Divine Nature. ed. Gregory E. Ganssle, David M. Woodruff. 182-206. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Hasker, William. “Yes, God Has Beliefs!”. Religious Studies 24/3 (1988), 385-394.
  • Helm, Paul. “Timelessness and Foreknowledge”. Mind 84/336 (1975), 516-527.
  • Kneale, William. “Time and Eternity in Theology”. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series 61 (1960-1961), 87-108.
  • Kretzmann, Norman. “Omniscience and Immutability”. The Journal of Philosophy 63/14 (1966), 409-421.
  • Leftow, Brian. “Timelessness and Divine Experience”. Sophia 30 (1992), 43-53.
  • Lewis, Delmas. “Eternity, Time and Tenselessness”. Faith and Philosophy 5/1 (1988), 72-86.
  • Lewis, Delmas. “Timelessness and Divine Agency”. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 21/3 (1987), 143-159.
  • McTaggart, J. Ellis. “The Unreality of Time”. Mind 17/68 (1908), 457-474.
  • Peterson, M., Hasker, W., Reichenbach, B., Basinger, D. Akıl ve İnanç: Din Felsefesine Giriş. çev. Rahim Acar. İstanbul: Küre Yayınları, 2006.
  • Pike, Nelson. God and Timelessness. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970.
  • Prior, Arthur N. “The Formalities of Omniscience”. Philosophy 37/140 (1962), 114-129.
  • Rhoda, Alan R. “Presentism, Truthmakers, and God”. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (2009), 41-62.
  • Stump, Eleonore- Kretzmann, Norman. “Eternity”. The Journal of Philosophy 78/8 (1981), 429-458
  • Stump, Eleonore- Kretzmann, Norman. “Eternity, Awareness and Action”. Faith and Philosophy 9/4 (1992), 463-482.
  • Swinburne, Richard. The Coherence of Theism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.
  • Tanış, Abdulkadir. “William Alston’da İlâhî Bilginin Doğası ve Zaman”. Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18/36 (2019), 437-462.
  • Uygur, Nermi. “Bertrand Russel’ın Doğruluk Anlayışı”. Felsefe Arkivi 14 (1963), 3-35.
  • Wolterstroff, Nicholas. “Tanrı Süreklidir (Everlasting)”. çev. Rahim Acar. Din Felsefesi Seçme Metinler. ed. M. Peterson vd. 207-217. İstanbul: Küre Yayınları, 2013.
  • Woodruff, David M.. “Presentism and the Problem of Special Relativity”. God in Open Universe: Science, Metaphysics and Open Theism. ed. William Hasker, Thomas Jay Oord, Dean Zimmerman. 94-124. Eugene OR: Pickwick Publications, 2011.
  • Yavuz, Zikri. Tanrı, Ezelilik ve Zaman. Ankara: İlâhiyat Yayınları, 2018.
  • Zimmerman, Dean. “The A-Theory of Time, Presentism, and Open Theism”. Science and Religion in Dialogue. ed. Melville Stewart. 789-809. Malden Mass.:Wiley Blackwell, 2010.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Emine GÖREN BAYAM (Primary Author)
DİCLE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2464-1008
Türkiye

Publication Date December 31, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { artukluakademi982407, journal = {Artuklu Akademi}, issn = {2148-3264}, eissn = {2687-427X}, address = {}, publisher = {Mardin Artuklu University}, year = {2021}, volume = {8}, pages = {335 - 348}, doi = {10.34247/artukluakademi.982407}, title = {Açık Teizmde İlahi Zamansallık}, key = {cite}, author = {Gören Bayam, Emine} }
APA Gören Bayam, E. (2021). Açık Teizmde İlahi Zamansallık . Artuklu Akademi , 8 (2) , 335-348 . DOI: 10.34247/artukluakademi.982407
MLA Gören Bayam, E. "Açık Teizmde İlahi Zamansallık" . Artuklu Akademi 8 (2021 ): 335-348 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/artukluakademi/issue/67296/982407>
Chicago Gören Bayam, E. "Açık Teizmde İlahi Zamansallık". Artuklu Akademi 8 (2021 ): 335-348
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Açık Teizmde İlahi Zamansallık AU - Emine Gören Bayam Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.34247/artukluakademi.982407 DO - 10.34247/artukluakademi.982407 T2 - Artuklu Akademi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 335 EP - 348 VL - 8 IS - 2 SN - 2148-3264-2687-427X M3 - doi: 10.34247/artukluakademi.982407 UR - https://doi.org/10.34247/artukluakademi.982407 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Artuklu Akademi Açık Teizmde İlahi Zamansallık %A Emine Gören Bayam %T Açık Teizmde İlahi Zamansallık %D 2021 %J Artuklu Akademi %P 2148-3264-2687-427X %V 8 %N 2 %R doi: 10.34247/artukluakademi.982407 %U 10.34247/artukluakademi.982407
ISNAD Gören Bayam, Emine . "Açık Teizmde İlahi Zamansallık". Artuklu Akademi 8 / 2 (December 2021): 335-348 . https://doi.org/10.34247/artukluakademi.982407
AMA Gören Bayam E. Açık Teizmde İlahi Zamansallık. Mardin Artuklu Üniversitesi İslami İlimler Fakültesi. 2021; 8(2): 335-348.
Vancouver Gören Bayam E. Açık Teizmde İlahi Zamansallık. Artuklu Akademi. 2021; 8(2): 335-348.
IEEE E. Gören Bayam , "Açık Teizmde İlahi Zamansallık", Artuklu Akademi, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 335-348, Dec. 2021, doi:10.34247/artukluakademi.982407