Year 2019, Volume 19 , Issue , Pages 174 - 206 2019-10-25

Avustralya’nın Antarktika Politikası
Australia’s Antarctica Policy

Sanem ÖZER [1]


Antarktika politikası Avustralya dış politikasının önemli ögelerinden biridir. Avustralya, Antarktika’da yumuşak güç kaynaklarından özellikle kültür, diplomasi, teknoloji ve bilimsel faaliyetlerin desteklediği bir politika yürütmektedir. Bu politikanın devamlılığı açısından Antarktika Antlaşmalar Sistemi’nin uluslararası kabulü ve uygulanması çok önemlidir. Avustralya Antarktika Antlaşması sayesinde bölgede silahsızlanmayı, bilimsel işbirliklerini, ve çevre korumayı kapsayan bir uluslararası rejimin tasarlayıcısı ve lideri olmuştur. 

Antarctic policy is an important element of Australian foreign policy. Australia maintains a policy in Antarctica supported by soft power policy, particularly resting on culture, diplomacy, technology and scientific activities. For the continuity of this policy, international support and implementation of the Antarctic Treaties System is necessary. Australia today leads an international regime that has governed disarmament, scientific cooperation, and environmental protection in the region for almost 60 years, thanks to the Antarctic Treaty.

  • Australia’s Science Channel. (2018). “Waves Hasten Antarctic Ice Shelves Collapse”. https://australiascience.tv/waves-hasten-antarctic-ice-shelves-collapse/ (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition. (2019a). “The Antarctic Oil Myth”. https://www.asoc.org/component/content/article/9-blog/1184-the-antarctic-oil-myth (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition. (2019b). “Aviation and Vessel Incidents in Antarctica and Southern Oceans”. https://www.asoc.org/explore/google-earth-layer/682 (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Atvur, S. (2017). “Ekolojik Perspektifte Antarktika’da Güvenlik”, Küresel Bakışla Kutup Çağı-3. Harun Gümrükçü, Güneş Ersoy, Aybüke İnan Şimşek ve Fatma Cande Yaşar Dinçer (drl.). Efil Yayınevi, Ankara, 90-106.
  • Australian Government. (2019a). “Australian Antarctic Territory”. http://www.ga.gov.au/scientific-topics/national-location-information/dimensions/remote-offshore-territories/australian-antarctic-territory (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Australian Government. (2019b). “Australian Antarctic Division: Leading Australia’s Antactic Program, About Us”. http://www.antarctica.gov.au/about-us (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Australian Government. (2019c). “Australian Antarctic Division: Leading Australia’s Antactic Program, Research Stations”. http://www.antarctica.gov.au/living-and-working/stations (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Australian Government. (2019d). “Australian Antarctic Division: Leading Australia’s Antactic Program, The Press Report: 20 Year Australian Antarctic Strategic Plan, 2014”. http://www.antarctica.gov.au/about-us/publications/20-year-australian-antarctic-strategic-plan (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Australian Government. (2019e). “Australian Antarctic Division: Leading Australia’s Antactic Program, Antarctic Strategy and Action Plan”. http://www.antarctica.gov.au/about-us/antarctic-strategy-and-action-plan (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Australian Government. (2019f). “Australian Antarctic Division: Leading Australia’s Antactic Program, Australian Antarctic Strategy and 20 Year Action Plan”. http://www.antarctica.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/180827/20YearStrategy_final.pdf (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Barnes, D. K. A. (2015). “Antarctic Sea Ice Losses Drive Gains In Benthic Carbon Drawdown”. Current Biology, 25. https://www.cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0960-9822%2815%2900876-3 (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Beck, P. J. (1984). “Antarctica: A Case for the UN?”. The World Today. 40(4): 165-172. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40395602 (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Behrendt, J. (1983). “Petroleum and Mineral Resources of Antarctica”. Geological Survey Circular, 909. https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1983/0909/report.pdf (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Brady, A. (2012). “Polar Stakes: China’s Polar Activities as a Benchmark for Intentions”. China Brief, 12 (14), https://jamestown.org/program/polar-stakes-chinas-polar-activities-as-a-benchmark-for-intentions/ (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Brady, A. (2013). “Diplomatic Chill: Politics Trumps Science in Antarctic Treaty System”. World Politics Review. https://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/12802/diplomatic-chill-politics-trumps-science-in-antarctic-treaty-system (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Brady, A. (2014). “Evaluating China as an Antarctic State”. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/event/china-and-antarctica (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Brady, A. (2017). “China’s Expanding Antarctic Interests: Implications For New Zealand”. https://www.canterbury.ac.nz/media/documents/research/China%27s-expanding-Antarctic-interests.pdf (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Bray, D. (2016). “The Geopolitics of Antarctic Governance: Sovereignty and Strategic Denial in Australia’s Antarctic Policy”. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 70(3): 256-274.
  • Brown, J. L. (2012). “Eco-Warriors: An Invisible Line?”. Australian and New Zealand Maritime Law Journal, 26: 152-162. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&ved=2ahUKEwi9tebc6NXiAhV9wcQBHVuuBiEQFjAJegQIBxAC&url=https%3A%2F%2Fssl.law.uq.edu.au%2Fjournals%2Findex.php%2Fmaritimejournal%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F184%2F231&usg=AOvVaw2Juo98uGLbcyNYJkrSp0wF (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • British Antarctic Survey. (2019a). “The Antarctic Treaty Explained”. https://www.bas.ac.uk/about/antarctica/the-antarctic-treaty/the-antarctic-treaty-explained/ (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • British Antarctic Survey. (2019b). “Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty 1991”. https://www.bas.ac.uk/about/antarctica/the-antarctic-treaty/environmental-protocol/protocol-on-environmental-protection-to-the-antarctic-treaty-1991/ (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Brooks, S.T., Jabour, J., van den Hoff, J. ve Bergstrom, D. M. (2019). “Our Footprint on Antarctica Competes with Nature for Rare Ice-Free Land”. Nature Sustainability, 2: 185–190.
  • Bryrne, C. ve Hall. R. (2011). “Australia’s International Education as Public Diplomacy: Soft Power Potential”. Clingendael Discussion Paper, Clingendael, The Hague. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/20110700_cdsp_discussion_paper_cbryne_rhall.pdf (erişim tarihi:08.06.2019).
  • Cassese, A. (2005). International Law, Second Edition, Oxford University Press.
  • Dastidar, P. B. (2007). “National and Institutional Productivity and Collaboration in Antarctic Science: An Analysis of 25 Years of Journal Publications (1980–2004)”. Polar Research, 26: 175–180.
  • Dastidar, P. B. ve Ramachandran, S. (2008). “Intellectual Structure of Antarctic Science: A 25-years Analysis”. Scientometrics, 77(3): 389–414.
  • Davies, B. (2018). “Ice Shelves, Ice Bergs and Sea Ice”. AntarcticGlaciers.org. http://www.antarcticglaciers.org/glacier-processes/types-of-glacier-2/ice-shelves-sea-ice-icebergs/ (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Department of Defence. (2009). “Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific century: Force 2030 – Defence White Paper 2009”. Australian Government. http://www.defence.gov.au/whitepaper/2009/docs/defence_white_paper_2009.pdf (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism. (2009). “National Energy Security Assessment 2009”. Australian Government. https://www.energy.gov.au/sites/default/files/national-energy-security-assessment-2009.pdf (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Dodds, K. ve Hemmings, A. (2013). “Britain and the British Antarctic Territory in the wider geopolitics of the Antarctic and the Southern Ocean”. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), 89(6): 1429-1444. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24538450 (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Elliott L.M. (1994). “Regime Building: the Antarctic Treaty System”, International Environmental Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057%2F9780230372344_3 (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Fogarty, E. (2011). “Antarctica: Assessing and Protecting Australia’s National Interests”. Policy Brief. Lowry Institute for International Policy, Sydney. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/132284/Fogarty,%20Antarctica_web.pdf (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Greenwood, G. (1957). “Australia's Triangular Foreign Policy”. Foreign Affairs, 35(4): 689-703. doi:10.2307/20031263
  • Gray, A. D. ve Hughes, K. A. (2016). “Demonstration of “substantial research activity” to acquire consultative status under the Antarctic Treaty”. Polar Research, 35(1): 34061. doi:10.3402/polar.v35.34061
  • Gothe-Snape, J. (2019). “China’s Antarctic Bases, within Australia’s Claim are Going Unchecked”. ABC News. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-03-30/china-in-antarctica-inspection-regime/10858486 (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Haward, M., Hall, R. ve Kellow. A. (2007). “Setting and Implementing the Agenda: Australian Antarctic Policy”, Looking South: Australia’s Antarctic Agenda. L. K Kriwoken, J. Jabour ve A. D. Hemmings (drl.). Federation Press, Annandale, 21–37.
  • Haward, M. ve Cooper. N. (2014). “Australian Bipartisanship and the Antarctic Treaty System”. Polar Record, 50(252): 60–71.
  • Hayashi, M. (1986). “The Antarctica Question in the United Nations”. Cornell International Law Journal, 19(2): 275-290.
  • https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1165&context=cilj (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Hoffman, P. (1973). “Diplomacy and the Papal Donation 1493 – 1585”. The Americas, 30(2) 151-183. doi:10.2307/980555
  • IMAS. (2019). “Totten Glacier Ice Shelf Melting: Natural Variability or Climate Change?”. https://www.imas.utas.edu.au/news/news-items/totten-glacier-ice-shelf-melting-natural-variability-or-climate-change (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Jabour, J. and Brooks, S. (2019). “For the First Time, We Can Measure the Human Footprint on Antarctica”. World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/03/for-the-first-time-we-can-measure-the-human-footprint-on-antarctica/ (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Jennings, R. Y. (1917). Acquisition of New Territory: With a New Introduction by Marcelo G. Cohen, Manchester University Press.
  • Joyner, C. (1984). “Anglo-Argentine Rivalry after the Falklands/Malvinas War: Laws, Geopolitics, and the Antarctic Connection”. Lawyer of the Americas, 15(3) 467-502. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40176036 (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Joyner, C. (1989). “Nonmilitarization of the Antarctic: The Interplay of Law and Geopolitics”. Naval War College Review, 42(4): 83-104. http://www.jstor.org/stable/44637112 (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Khadilkar, J. P. (2017). Antarctica: The Frozen Continent’s Environment, Changing Logistics and Relevance to India, Bloombury Publishing India Pvt. Ltd., London and New Delhi.
  • Liu, N. (2018). “What does China’s Fifth Research Station Mean for Antarctic Governance?”, The Diplomat, https://thediplomat.com/2018/06/what-does-chinas-fifth-research-station-mean-for-antarctic-governance/(erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Liu, N. (2019). The rise of China and the Antarctic Treaty System?, Australian Journal of Maritime & Ocean Affairs, 11:2, 120-131, DOI: 10.1080/18366503.2019.1589897.
  • Lukin, V.V. (2014). “Russia’s current Antarctic policy”. The Polar Journal, 4(1): 199-222.
  • Massom, R. A., Scambos, T.A., Bennetts, L. G., Reid, P., Squire, V. A. ve Stammerjohn S. E. (2018). “Antarctic Ice Shelf Disintegration Triggered by Sea Ice Loss and Ocean Swell”. Nature, 558: 383–389.
  • MacDonald, D. I. M. (2007). Coal, Oil and Gas, Encyclopedia of the Antarctic. B. Riffenburgh (drl.). Cilt 1, Routledge, 268-269.
  • McDougal, M., Lasswell, H., Vlasic, I., ve Smith, J. (1963). “The Enjoyment and Acquisition of Resources in Outer Space”. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 111(5): 521-636. doi:10.2307/3310802
  • McGee, J. ve Haward, M. (2019). “Australia-China Relations in the Frozen South”, Australian Institute of International Relations, https://www.internationalaffairs.org.au/australianoutlook/australia-china-antarctica/ (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Nye, J. S. (1990). “Soft Power.” Foreign Policy, 80: 153–171. doi:10.2307/1148580.
  • O’Keeffe, A. ve Oliver, A. (2010). “International Broadcasting and its contribution to public diplomacy”. Lowy Institute Working Paper, Lowy Institute for International Policy, Sydney.
  • Rehm, J. (2019). “Warm, Dry Winds May Be Straining Antarctica’s Larsen C Ice Shelf”, ScienceNews. https://www.sciencenews.org/article/warm-dry-winds-melting-antarctica-larsen-c-ice-shelf (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Reilly, B. (2015). “Australia as a southern hemisphere ‘soft power’”. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 69(3): 253-265. doi: 10.1080/10357718.2014.989809
  • Robinson, E. (2016). “International Scientific Collaboration through the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR)”. Supervised Project Report (ANTA604). https://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10092/14099/Emily%20Robinson_Supervised%20Project.pdf?sequence=1 (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Rothwell, D. R. (1990). “The Antarctic Treaty System: Resource Development, Environmental Protection or Disintegration?”. Arctic, 43(3): 284-291.
  • Russian Federation. (2010). On Strategy For The Development Of The Russian Federation Activities In The Antarctic For The Period Until 2020 And Longer-Term Perspective Instruction No. 1926-r. https://documents.ats.aq/ATCM34/wp/ATCM34_wp055_e.doc (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Scott, S. V. (2017). “What Lessons does the Antarctic Treaty System offer for the future of peaceful relations in the South China Sea?”. Marine Policy, 87: 295-300.
  • Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty. (2016). Resolution 6 (2016) - ATCM XXXIX - CEP XIX, Santiago. https://www.ats.aq/devAS/info_measures_listitem.aspx?lang=e&id=642 (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty. (2019). “Parties”. https://www.ats.aq/devAS/ats_parties.aspx?lang=e (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Shaw, M. N. (2008). International Law. 6th edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • St John, B. (1986) “Antarctica -- geology and hydrocarbon potential”. Future Petroleum Provinces of the World. M. Halbouty (drl.) Am. Ass. Petrol. GeoL Mere. 40, 55-100.
  • T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı. (2019). “Antarktika Antlaşması”. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/antarktika-antlasmasi.tr.mfa (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Triggs, G. (1985). “The Antarctic Treaty Regime: A Workable Compromise or a Purgatory of Ambiguity”. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 17(2): 195-228. https://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1754&context=jil (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • U.S. Indo-Pacific Command. (2019) “History of United States Indo-Pacific Command”. https://www.pacom.mil/About-USINDOPACOM/History/ (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Uysal Oğuz, C. ve Ersoy, G. (2016) “Kutuplardaki İklim Değişikliğinin Bölgesel ve Küresel Etkileri”, Küresel Bakışla Kutup Çağı. Harun Gümrükçü, Aybüke İnan Şimşek ve Güneş Ersoy (drl.). Efil Yayınevi, Ankara, 157-171.
  • Wilson, R. (1964). “National Interests and Claims in the Antarctic”. Arctic, 17(1): 15-31. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40507108
  • Winfield-Hayes, R. (2018). “Japonya balina avcılığına neden hâlâ devam ediyor?”. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler-dunya-46685719 (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Witze, A. (2019). “The Southern Ocean may be less of a carbon sink than we thought”. ScienceNews. https://www.sciencenews.org/article/southern-ocean-antarctica-absorbs-less-carbon-expected (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Wright, N. A. and Williams, P. L. (1974). “Mineral Resources of Antarctica”. Geological Survey Circular, 705. https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1974/0705/report.pdf (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
  • Zhu, J. (2011), “Icebreaker Push Polar Goals”. ChinaDaily. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011-06/22/content_12748061.htm (erişim tarihi: 08.06.2019).
Primary Language tr
Subjects Humanities, Multidisciplinary
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-4182-5335
Author: Sanem ÖZER

Dates

Application Date : May 31, 2019
Acceptance Date : July 29, 2019
Publication Date : October 25, 2019

Bibtex @research article { auiibfd632970, journal = {Akdeniz İİBF Dergisi}, issn = {1302-9975}, eissn = {2667-7229}, address = {AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ DEKANI DUMLUPINAR CAD. ANTALYA}, publisher = {Akdeniz University}, year = {2019}, volume = {19}, pages = {174 - 206}, doi = {10.25294/auiibfd.632970}, title = {Avustralya’nın Antarktika Politikası}, key = {cite}, author = {Özer, Sanem} }
APA Özer, S . (2019). Avustralya’nın Antarktika Politikası . Akdeniz İİBF Dergisi , 21. Yüzyıl Siyasetinde Kutuplar , 174-206 . DOI: 10.25294/auiibfd.632970
MLA Özer, S . "Avustralya’nın Antarktika Politikası" . Akdeniz İİBF Dergisi 19 (2019 ): 174-206 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/auiibfd/issue/49490/632970>
Chicago Özer, S . "Avustralya’nın Antarktika Politikası". Akdeniz İİBF Dergisi 19 (2019 ): 174-206
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Avustralya’nın Antarktika Politikası AU - Sanem Özer Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.25294/auiibfd.632970 DO - 10.25294/auiibfd.632970 T2 - Akdeniz İİBF Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 174 EP - 206 VL - 19 IS - SN - 1302-9975-2667-7229 M3 - doi: 10.25294/auiibfd.632970 UR - https://doi.org/10.25294/auiibfd.632970 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Akdeniz İİBF Dergisi Avustralya’nın Antarktika Politikası %A Sanem Özer %T Avustralya’nın Antarktika Politikası %D 2019 %J Akdeniz İİBF Dergisi %P 1302-9975-2667-7229 %V 19 %N %R doi: 10.25294/auiibfd.632970 %U 10.25294/auiibfd.632970
ISNAD Özer, Sanem . "Avustralya’nın Antarktika Politikası". Akdeniz İİBF Dergisi 19 / (October 2019): 174-206 . https://doi.org/10.25294/auiibfd.632970
AMA Özer S . Avustralya’nın Antarktika Politikası. Akdeniz İİBF Dergisi. 2019; 19: 174-206.
Vancouver Özer S . Avustralya’nın Antarktika Politikası. Akdeniz İİBF Dergisi. 2019; 19: 174-206.
IEEE S. Özer , "Avustralya’nın Antarktika Politikası", Akdeniz İİBF Dergisi, vol. 19, pp. 174-206, Oct. 2019, doi:10.25294/auiibfd.632970