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Brezilya’da Eşitsizlik, Sosyal Politika ve Siyaset: Bolsa Família Örneği

Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, 197 - 222, 30.12.2021

Abstract

Brezilya’nın temel eğitime ve sağlık sistemine katılıma bağlı şartlı nakit transferi programı Bolsa Família ilgili alan yazında çokça çalışılmış, örnek kabul edilen bir yoksullukla mücadele programıdır. Köklü ve kalıcı eşitsizliklerin devam ettiği Brezilya’da program, sosyal hareketlilik fırsatları açısından önemli bir değişikliğe yol açmasa da aşırı yoksullukla mücadele ve kızların eğitime katılımı gibi konularda önemli bir etki yaratmıştır. Bu makale, başlangıcından bu yana Bolsa Família’yı eşitsizlik ve sosyal politika siyaseti bağlamında ele almakta ve onu değişen siyasi ve ekonomik koşullara karşı dirençli kılan özellikleri ve kırılgan hale getirebilecek faktörleri ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu çerçevede konuyla ilgili akademik ve akademik olmayan literatür taranmıştır. Program, düşük maliyeti, yoksulluğun azaltılmasına yönelik sürekli ihtiyaç, programın kaldırılması durumunda potansiyel siyasi maliyet ve güçlü tasarımı nedeniyle sağlam kalmıştır. Öte yandan, Brezilya toplumunun yoksullara ve sosyal yardıma yönelik olumsuz algıları ve programın hak temelli doğasına ilişkin şüphecilik, bazı kırılganlıklara işaret etmektedir. Bolsa Família, 2013’teki hükümet karşıtı protestolarda da kayırmacılık ve oy satın alma iddialarıyla hedef alınmış ve bu durum ilgili kırılganlıkları daha da gün yüzüne çıkarmıştır. Bu protestolar, programın yozlaşmayı ve yolsuzluğu teşvik ettiği inancına dayanan ahlaki bir öfkeyi yansıtmıştır; söz konusu öfke sağ popülizmin yükselişiyle seçimlerde de karşılık bulmuş görünmektedir.

References

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  • Ansell, A. (2018). Impeaching Dilma Rousseff: the double life of corruption allegations on Brazil’s political right. Culture, Theory and Critique, 59:4: 312-331. DOI: 10.1080/14735784.2018.1499432
  • Antunes, D. (2017). The Brazilian Economy at the End of the 20th Century. In E. C. Grivoyannis (Ed.), The New Brazilian Economy Dynamic Transitions into the Future. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Barry, B. (2017). Sosyal Adalet Neden Önemlidir (Çev: E. Kılıç). İstanbul: Koç Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Baumann, R. (2002). Brazil in the 1990s An Economy in Transition. Hampshire: Palgrave.
  • BBC. (2021, August 9). Auxílio Brasil: what is known about Bolsonaro's 'new Bolsa Família'. BBC NEWS. https://www.bbc.com/portuguese/brasil-58151389.
  • Brauw, A., G., Daniel, Hoddinott, J. & Roy, S. (2015). The Impact of Bolsa Família on Schooling. World Development, 70: 303-316. 10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.02.001.
  • Born, B. (2020, October 12). Bolsonaro embraces welfarism and draws closer to Lula. Open Democracy. https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/democraciaabierta/bolsonaro-embraces-welfarism-draws-closer-to-lula/.
  • Chitolina, L., Foguel, M., & Menezes-Filho, N. (2016). The impact of the expansion of the bolsa familia program on the time allocation of youths and their parents. Revista Brasileira De Economia, 70(2): 183-202.
  • Çoban, H. M. (2017). Küresel Güney'de Sosyal Politikalar ve Sınırları : Brezilya'da Bolsa Familia Örneği. Basılmamış YL Tezi, Ankara: TOBB Ekonomi ve Teknoloji Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
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  • Dix-Carneiro, R., Soares, R. R. & Ulyssea, G. (2018). Economic Shocks and Crime: Evidence from the Brazilian Trade Liberalization. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 10 (4): 158-95. DOI: 10.1257/app.20170080.
  • Do Bem, A. S. (2016). Continuities and Discontinuities in Brazilian Political and Institutional Life: Past and Present Dilemmas for Democracy. In D. Lafontaine & T. Stehnken (Ed.), The Political System of Brazil. Heidelberg: Springer.
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  • Hunter, W., & Sugiyama, N. (2017). Assessing the Bolsa Família: Successes, Shortcomings, and Unknowns. In Kingstone P. & Power T. (Ed.), Democratic Brazil Divided. Pittsburgh.: University of Pittsburgh Press. DOI:10.2307/j.ctt1x76g7g.11.
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  • Layton, M. L. (2020). Welfare Stereotypes and Conditional Cash Transfer Programmes: Evidence from Brazil’s Bolsa Família. Journal of Politics in Latin America, 12(1): 53–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/1866802X20914429
  • Lindert, K., Linder, A., Hobbs, J. & de Briere, B. (2007). The nuts and bolts of Brazil's bolsa familia program: implementing conditional cash transfers in a decentralized context. SP discussion paper ; no. 709 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/972261468231296002/pdf/398530SP1709.pdf
  • Luis Henrique Paiva, Tereza Cristina Cotta & Armando Barrientos (2019). Brazil’s Bolsa Família Programme. In Mallory E. Compton & Paul ‘T Hart (Ed.), Great Policy Successes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 21-41.
  • Mascarenhas, G. (2021). Bolsonaro prepara mudança de nome e ampla reformulação do Bolsa Família. Veja. https://veja.abril.com.br/politica/bolsonaro-prepara-mudanca-de-nome-e-ampla-reformulacao-do-bolsa-familia/.
  • Neves, J., Vasconcelos, F., Machado, M., Recine, E., Garcia, G., & Medeiros, M. (2020). The Brazilian cash transfer program (Bolsa Família): A tool for reducing inequalities and achieving social rights in Brazil. Global Public Health (Ahead of print), 1-17. DOI: 10.1080/17441692.2020.1850828.
  • OECD (2020). OECD Economic Surveys: Brazil 2020. Paris: OECD. https://doi.org/10.1787/250240ad-en.
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  • Passos, L., Wajnman, S., Waltenberg, F. (2020). The Bolsa Família Program. In Sacchet, T., Mariano, S., & Maria Carloto, C. (Ed.). Women, Gender and Conditional Cash Transfers: Interdisciplinary Perspectives from Studies of Bolsa Família (1st ed.). New York: Routledge, 82-107. DOI: 10.4324/9780429286131
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  • Ribeiro, G. (2020). Families in cash transfer program Bolsa Familia grow in April. The Brazilian Report. https://brazilian.report/liveblog/coronavirus/2020/05/09/brazilian-families-in-cash-transfer-program-bolsa-familia-grow-in-april/ or the tools offered on the page,
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Inequality, Social Policy and Politics in Brazil: The Case of Bolsa Família

Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, 197 - 222, 30.12.2021

Abstract

Bolsa Família, Brazil’s conditional cash transfer program based on public participation in basic education and health care, is an exemplary anti-poverty program that has been studied extensively in the relevant literature. Although the program did not lead to a significant change in terms of social mobility opportunities in Brazil, where deep-rooted and permanent inequalities persist, it has had a significant impact on issues such as the fight against extreme poverty and the participation of girls in education. This paper discusses Bolsa Família in the context of inequality and the politics of social policy since its inception, and intends to reveal the characteristics that make it resistant to changing political and economic conditions and the factors that may make it vulnerable. In this framework, academic and non-academic literature on the subject were reviewed. The program has remained sturdy due to its low cost, the continuous need for poverty reduction, the potential political cost if the program is abolished, and its robust design. On the other hand, negative perceptions of Brazilian society towards the poor and social assistance, and scepticism regarding the rights-based nature of the program indicate some vulnerabilities. Bolsa Família was also targeted in the anti-government protests in 2013 on the grounds of clientelism and vote-buying allegations, further illuminating its vulnerabilities. These protests reflected moral anger based on a belief that the program fosters degeneration and corruption, and this anger found response in electoral politics with the rise of right-wing populism.

References

  • Albuquerque, A. B. G. (2017, December 17). Brazil’s Gender Trouble: Sources of Inequality in Brazilian Institutions and Political Representation. CFFP. https://centreforfeministforeignpolicy.org/journal/2017/12/8/brazils-gender-trouble-sources-of-inequality-in-brazilian-institutions-and-political-representation, indirilme tarihi: 10 Nisan 2021.
  • Andrews, G. (2014). Racial Inequality in Brazil and the United States, 1990-2010. Journal of Social History, 47(4): 829-854. Retrieved August 14, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/43308818
  • Ansell, A. (2018). Impeaching Dilma Rousseff: the double life of corruption allegations on Brazil’s political right. Culture, Theory and Critique, 59:4: 312-331. DOI: 10.1080/14735784.2018.1499432
  • Antunes, D. (2017). The Brazilian Economy at the End of the 20th Century. In E. C. Grivoyannis (Ed.), The New Brazilian Economy Dynamic Transitions into the Future. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Barry, B. (2017). Sosyal Adalet Neden Önemlidir (Çev: E. Kılıç). İstanbul: Koç Üniversitesi Yayınları.
  • Baumann, R. (2002). Brazil in the 1990s An Economy in Transition. Hampshire: Palgrave.
  • BBC. (2021, August 9). Auxílio Brasil: what is known about Bolsonaro's 'new Bolsa Família'. BBC NEWS. https://www.bbc.com/portuguese/brasil-58151389.
  • Brauw, A., G., Daniel, Hoddinott, J. & Roy, S. (2015). The Impact of Bolsa Família on Schooling. World Development, 70: 303-316. 10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.02.001.
  • Born, B. (2020, October 12). Bolsonaro embraces welfarism and draws closer to Lula. Open Democracy. https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/democraciaabierta/bolsonaro-embraces-welfarism-draws-closer-to-lula/.
  • Chitolina, L., Foguel, M., & Menezes-Filho, N. (2016). The impact of the expansion of the bolsa familia program on the time allocation of youths and their parents. Revista Brasileira De Economia, 70(2): 183-202.
  • Çoban, H. M. (2017). Küresel Güney'de Sosyal Politikalar ve Sınırları : Brezilya'da Bolsa Familia Örneği. Basılmamış YL Tezi, Ankara: TOBB Ekonomi ve Teknoloji Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
  • de Lavra Pinto M. (2018). Meanings of Poverty: An Ethnography of Bolsa Familia Beneficiaries in Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. In Ystanes M., Strønen I. (Ed.), The Social Life of Economic Inequalities in Contemporary Latin America. Approaches to Social Inequality and Difference içinde, 129-150. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-61536-3_6.
  • de Souza, Pedro H. G. F. (2012). Poverty, inequality and social policies in Brazil, 1995-2009, Working Paper, No. 87, Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG). http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/IPCWorkingPaper87.pdf.
  • Dix-Carneiro, R., Soares, R. R. & Ulyssea, G. (2018). Economic Shocks and Crime: Evidence from the Brazilian Trade Liberalization. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 10 (4): 158-95. DOI: 10.1257/app.20170080.
  • Do Bem, A. S. (2016). Continuities and Discontinuities in Brazilian Political and Institutional Life: Past and Present Dilemmas for Democracy. In D. Lafontaine & T. Stehnken (Ed.), The Political System of Brazil. Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Eiró, F. (2019). The Vicious Cycle in the Bolsa Família Program’s Implementation: Discretionality and the Challenge of Social Rights Consolidation in Brazil. Qualitative Sociology, 42(3): 385-409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11133-019-09429-9.
  • Garmany, J. & Pereira, A. W. (2018). Understanding Contemporary Brazil, London: Routledge. DOI:10.4324/9781315175959.
  • Ercan, O. E. (2020). Brezilya'nın "temel gelir" programı piyasaları rahatsız etti. Bloomberg HT. https://www.bloomberght.com/brezilya-nin-yeni-sosyal-yardim-programi-piyasalari-rahatsiz-etti-2265441.
  • Góes, C., Karpowicz, I. & Cuevas, A. (2017). Inequality in Brazil: A Regional Perspective, IMF Working Papers, 2017(225), A001. https://www.elibrary.imf.org/view/journals/001/2017/225/article-A001-en.xml.
  • Hall, A. (2006). From Fome Zero to Bolsa Família: Social Policies and Poverty Alleviation under Lula. Journal of Latin American Studies, 38(4): 689-709. DOI:10.1017/S0022216X0600157X.
  • Hunter, W., & Sugiyama, N. (2017). Assessing the Bolsa Família: Successes, Shortcomings, and Unknowns. In Kingstone P. & Power T. (Ed.), Democratic Brazil Divided. Pittsburgh.: University of Pittsburgh Press. DOI:10.2307/j.ctt1x76g7g.11.
  • IWGIA (2021). Indigenous peoples' rights in Brazil. Copenhagen: IWGIA. https://www.iwgia.org/en/brazil.html#:~:text=There%20are%20896%2C917%20indigenous%20persons%20in%20Brazil%2C%20distributed%20among%20305,There%20are%20around%20274%20languages, indirilme tarihi: 6 Mart 2021.
  • Kibuuka, Brian. (2020). Complicity and Synergy Between Bolsonaro and Brazilian Evangelicals in COVID-19 Times: Adherence to Scientific Negationism for Political-Religious Reasons. International Journal of Latin American Religions, 4: 288-317. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41603-020-00124-0
  • Layton, M. L. (2020). Welfare Stereotypes and Conditional Cash Transfer Programmes: Evidence from Brazil’s Bolsa Família. Journal of Politics in Latin America, 12(1): 53–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/1866802X20914429
  • Lindert, K., Linder, A., Hobbs, J. & de Briere, B. (2007). The nuts and bolts of Brazil's bolsa familia program: implementing conditional cash transfers in a decentralized context. SP discussion paper ; no. 709 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/972261468231296002/pdf/398530SP1709.pdf
  • Luis Henrique Paiva, Tereza Cristina Cotta & Armando Barrientos (2019). Brazil’s Bolsa Família Programme. In Mallory E. Compton & Paul ‘T Hart (Ed.), Great Policy Successes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 21-41.
  • Mascarenhas, G. (2021). Bolsonaro prepara mudança de nome e ampla reformulação do Bolsa Família. Veja. https://veja.abril.com.br/politica/bolsonaro-prepara-mudanca-de-nome-e-ampla-reformulacao-do-bolsa-familia/.
  • Neves, J., Vasconcelos, F., Machado, M., Recine, E., Garcia, G., & Medeiros, M. (2020). The Brazilian cash transfer program (Bolsa Família): A tool for reducing inequalities and achieving social rights in Brazil. Global Public Health (Ahead of print), 1-17. DOI: 10.1080/17441692.2020.1850828.
  • OECD (2020). OECD Economic Surveys: Brazil 2020. Paris: OECD. https://doi.org/10.1787/250240ad-en.
  • OXFAM International (2017). Brazil decades behind other countries in fighting inequality. Washington: OXFAM International. https://www.oxfam.org/en/press-releases/brazil-decades-behind-other-countries-fighting-inequality.
  • Pahnke, A., & Milan, M. (2020). The Brazilian Crisis and the New Authoritarianism. Monthly Review, 72(2): 31-43. https://monthlyreview.org/2020/06/01/the-brazilian-crisis-and-the-new-authoritarianism/.
  • Passos, L., Wajnman, S., Waltenberg, F. (2020). The Bolsa Família Program. In Sacchet, T., Mariano, S., & Maria Carloto, C. (Ed.). Women, Gender and Conditional Cash Transfers: Interdisciplinary Perspectives from Studies of Bolsa Família (1st ed.). New York: Routledge, 82-107. DOI: 10.4324/9780429286131
  • Renno, L. (2020). The Bolsonaro Voter: Issue Positions and Vote Choice in the 2018 Brazilian Presidential Elections. Latin American Politics and Society. 62. DOI: 10.1017/lap.2020.13.
  • Reuters. (August 26, 2020). Brazil's Bolsonaro and economy minister split over welfare spending. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-brazil-economy-bolsonaro-idUSKBN25M2JZ, indirilme tarihi: 10 Nisan 2021.
  • Reuters. (September 15, 2020). Brazil's Bolsonaro scraps new welfare plan, economy minister plays down rift. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-brazil-politics-idUSKBN2662M6, indirilme tarihi: 10 Nisan 2021.
  • Ribeiro, C. A. C. (2006). Class, race, and social mobility in Brazil (Çev: A. Villalobos). DADOS, Vol. 49, 4, 833-873. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0011-52582006000400006.
  • Ribeiro, G. (2020). Families in cash transfer program Bolsa Familia grow in April. The Brazilian Report. https://brazilian.report/liveblog/coronavirus/2020/05/09/brazilian-families-in-cash-transfer-program-bolsa-familia-grow-in-april/ or the tools offered on the page,
  • Richmond, M. A. (2018, November 17). Bolsonaro’s Conservative Revolution. Jacobin. https://jacobinmag.com/2018/10/brazil-election-bolsonaro-evangelicals-security
  • Saad-Filho, A. & Morais, L. (2014). Mass Protests: Brazilian Spring or Brazilian Malaise?. Socialist Register, 40: 227-246. https://socialistregister.com/index.php/srv/article/view/20199.
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Burak KESGİN (Primary Author)
Beykent Üniversitesi
0000-0003-4783-8225
Türkiye

Publication Date December 30, 2021
Acceptance Date October 15, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { aurum982907, journal = {Aurum Journal of Social Sciences}, issn = {2458-9896}, eissn = {2822-3683}, address = {Mahmutbey Dilmenler Caddesi, No:26, 34217 Bağcılar - İSTANBUL}, publisher = {Altınbaş University}, year = {2021}, volume = {6}, number = {2}, pages = {197 - 222}, title = {Brezilya’da Eşitsizlik, Sosyal Politika ve Siyaset: Bolsa Família Örneği}, key = {cite}, author = {Kesgin, Burak} }
APA Kesgin, B. (2021). Brezilya’da Eşitsizlik, Sosyal Politika ve Siyaset: Bolsa Família Örneği . Aurum Journal of Social Sciences , 6 (2) , 197-222 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/aurum/issue/67556/982907
MLA Kesgin, B. "Brezilya’da Eşitsizlik, Sosyal Politika ve Siyaset: Bolsa Família Örneği" . Aurum Journal of Social Sciences 6 (2021 ): 197-222 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/aurum/issue/67556/982907>
Chicago Kesgin, B. "Brezilya’da Eşitsizlik, Sosyal Politika ve Siyaset: Bolsa Família Örneği". Aurum Journal of Social Sciences 6 (2021 ): 197-222
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Brezilya’da Eşitsizlik, Sosyal Politika ve Siyaset: Bolsa Família Örneği AU - Burak Kesgin Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - Aurum Journal of Social Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 197 EP - 222 VL - 6 IS - 2 SN - 2458-9896-2822-3683 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Aurum Journal of Social Sciences Brezilya’da Eşitsizlik, Sosyal Politika ve Siyaset: Bolsa Família Örneği %A Burak Kesgin %T Brezilya’da Eşitsizlik, Sosyal Politika ve Siyaset: Bolsa Família Örneği %D 2021 %J Aurum Journal of Social Sciences %P 2458-9896-2822-3683 %V 6 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Kesgin, Burak . "Brezilya’da Eşitsizlik, Sosyal Politika ve Siyaset: Bolsa Família Örneği". Aurum Journal of Social Sciences 6 / 2 (December 2021): 197-222 .
AMA Kesgin B. Brezilya’da Eşitsizlik, Sosyal Politika ve Siyaset: Bolsa Família Örneği. ajss. 2021; 6(2): 197-222.
Vancouver Kesgin B. Brezilya’da Eşitsizlik, Sosyal Politika ve Siyaset: Bolsa Família Örneği. Aurum Journal of Social Sciences. 2021; 6(2): 197-222.
IEEE B. Kesgin , "Brezilya’da Eşitsizlik, Sosyal Politika ve Siyaset: Bolsa Família Örneği", Aurum Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 197-222, Dec. 2021